To know exactly what is a Mudiraja / Muthuraja / Mutharaya community in South India, it is very much necessary to know some of the fundamantals of Tribal political administration since the times of Pre-Ramayana period till the days Vijayanagar Empire.


Mutharacha is one of the names by which the Mudiraj / Muthuraj people are known in South India. Mutha means a cluster of villages forming an administrative unit in Koya Tribal administrative system in South India. Raya means Raja. There are a few more modifications or alternative names which are in use as equivalent to Mutharaya. The other names are Mutharaya and Mutharasa.

Mutha => Cluster of villages forming a larger territorial administrative unit.
Raya => Racha => Rasa => Raja = King / Administrator
Raya => Ray => Rai
Rai => Raiyar
Raya => Rayar
Rasa => Rasar
Raja => Rajar
Mutharaya => Mutharacha => Mutharasa

Meaning of MUTHA in Tribal Koya System:

There are many endogamous sub-divisions among the Koyas of Bhadrachalam agency (Andhara Pradesh), such as Racha Koya, Lingadari Koya, Kammara Koya and Arithi Koya. Each group is vocationally specialized having a separate judiciary system which ensures group endogamy. There are also differences in food habits.

Lingadari Koyas : They do not eat beef and do not interdine with others. They perform purificatory rites to depollute the effects of intergroup marriages. These koyas were most probably the ritual performing full time pujaris who were obsorbed into Brahminic fold when four tire caste system became well established in India. The Aryan Brahmanas accepted these Dravidians into Brahminic fold purely for the purpose of increasing the population of Brahmanas with a view to compete the growing strength of Aryan Kshatriyas through inter racial matrimonial alliances.

The Racha Koyas : They are village administrators. They also perform rituals during festivals. Racha Koyas who were the important political administrators (Muthadars) in any kingdom of the ancient and medieval times formed the Mutharachas community and were the real independent rulers at the Mutha Level. These Racha Koyas were basically warriors with hunting, fishing, cow / goat rearing backgrounds.

They enjoyed the status of kings with all money and power available to them. They also welcomed matrimonial alliances with Aryan Kshatriyas when the Kshatriyas broke away from Aryan Brahmanas after the bitter war that took place between Aryan Brahman Parasurama and Aryan Kshatriya Sahasrarjuna and during which the parasurama annihilated most of the Kshatriya races for 21 times with a mission to wipe out all Kshatriya races from the fsace of the earth. During this critical time, the tribal Mutharachas / warriors saved the Aryan Kshatriyas and developed close matrimonial alliances. The famous kalchury kings of central India were one of those hybrid Indo-Aryan kings who sprang out of these inter racial matrimonial alliances. Even the entire Kaurava & pandavas were resulted from similar matrimonial alliances between Aryan Kshatriya Shantanu and Koli kings daughter Satyavathi.

Kammara Koyas : They make agricultural implements. They are blacksmiths and are generally paid in kind.

Arithi Koyas : They are bards. They narrate the lineages. They are the oral custodians of Koya mythology.

Each of these sub-divisions among the Koyas have exogamous phratries having separate totems which are again split into a number of totemistic sects which form the lineage ( velpu ) pattern. For example, in Chinthur mandal of Bhadrachalam agency, the Paderu Gatta (phratry) of Racha Koyas worship Dhoolraj and their totem is wooden. These phratries have a number of totemistic sects each denoted by a name, totem and worshipped by a group of families having separate names. For instance, 3 Gatta worshippers of Bheemraj are further classified into three groups on the basis of their Ilavelpulu (family deities). Marriages between members of the same totemistic sect is prohibited.

Ilavelpu = kula devatha = family deity
Ilavelpulu = family deities.

The Kinship network among the Koyas assigns every individual a definite place within a system of relationships and defines one s behaviour towards others. Every Koya is born into a phratry and a clan and his position is immutable.

Every koya village is a socio-political unit and also a part of a larger social and territorial unit called Mutha , a cluster of villages linked by economic, political and kinship ties. In the past, a Koya village consisted of members of a single clan only. Now it has transformed into multi-clan composition due to various factors such as growing population pressure on the land, non-tribal migration, alienation of tribals from forests and massive industrial deforestation.

The customary law of the Koyas ensures communal ownership of natural resources administered by the village headman known as Pedda . The pedda is the senior-most person who first settled in the village and established the village Goddess. The position is held by descendents of the same family. Pedda controls the social, political and religious activities in the village. The village panchayat consisting of the other members (Pina pedda, Vepari, Pujari, etc.) deals with minor problems. Sometimes the pedda holds two or three positions in a panchayat. The village panchayat is the final authority over all issues in a village. The overall judicial system of a cluster of villages is maintained by the Samithi Poyee , a judicial head who is assisted by the people known as Veparis . Issues are dealt with in co-operation with the village panchayat and this makes every village a part of a wider cluster known as mutha and is held by tribal norms.

Pedda = Big = Senior most person = mukhya
Pina = china = Small = Assistant = Next to Senior

More Details about MUTHA system of administration :

Malkangiri territory falls under Vizagapatnam. In ancient times it was ruled by Nala Kings. In mediaval times, it was ruled by Silavansi Kings with Nandapur as the capital. Then came the kings of Solar dynasty when the capital shifted to Jeypore. This part was ruled with Koya Traditional leadership pattern since unknown times.

The term MUTHA stands for the maximum traditional political units of koyas of Malkangiri. The origin of Mutha organization is obscure and it existed since long and had been recognized by the rulers of Jeypore estate and later on general tribal administration, revenue, justice, and the like. The whole koya territory had been divided into six Muthas. Each Mutha used to be administered by a Muthadar who happened to be a Koya.

Mutha Level :

Mutha is a group of villages. Muthadar / Mutharacha is Chief of Mutha. Muthadar (Tribal Chief at Regional Level ) is appointed by the King and holds his office at the latter’s pleasure. A newly appointed Muthadar receives a patta and in turn executes C.Kasspas (Agreement ) in his favour. Fresh Patta and Kadpas are normally executed with the king after the death of both signoraties. By tradition the post of Muthadar is a hereditary.

As an agent of the king and leader of his fellow men, he enjoys immense power and authority over the mutha vested on him by the king and the people. He inflicts punishment and imposes fines on a miscreant or culprit, redresses the grievance of an aggrieved in consonnance with the koya traditional rule. As a custodian of koya customary law he is empowere to deal with intervillage, intravillage, tribal disputes like the incest, adultery, witchcraft, etc. He can punish the offender financially and in extreme cases to outcaste him and confiscate his belongingings.

Village Leval :

The secular leadership in the village level compises of the following personnel: (1) Pedda-The headman of the village (2) China Pedda – The Deputy Headman (Next to Peda) (3) Chalan or Katwal – The messanger Peda ( The secular head of the village)

These posts are hereditary by tradition. A new Peda on the day of assuming his office gives a sumptuous feast with liquor to the villagers. The king recognizes him by sending a turban. He looks the various problems of the village, settles various disputes and brings undecided ones to the notice of Muthdar / Mutharacha for necessary action. Peda is regarded as the custodian of their traditional values, beliefs, norms and usages.

Mutha Panchayat :

There is a council at the regional (Mutha) level called Mutha Panchayat. The council is composed of man (PEDA => PEDDA => BIG MAN) of the component villages as ordinary members. The spheres of powers and function are defined not by any law but by tradition. Special sessions are summoned at the times of emergency when peace, security and integrity of mutha is effected. The Muthadar and the village headman always act according to the aid and advices of Mutha Panchayat. Inter Mutha disputes are usually resolved by the joint session of the Mutha Panchayat, involved in it with the mediatorship of the leaders of friendly Mutha. Such disputes, if undecided, are forwarded to the king.

So, Mutha was a larger unit of administration and Mutharacha was the administrator of Mutha in a Koya Tribal System of South India and most parts of Dandakaranya. Mutharachas were under direct contact and control of king, who looks of federal administration of all Muthas which were under his control. It is widely believed that Ravana, the demon king of Lanka had similar such Mutha System of administration over South India and many parts of Dandakaranya in North India. The Muthas were practically independent units of administration with maximum freedom for Mutharachas in carrying out their day to day administrative jobs. The Mutharachas were more like chieftains of their respective Muthas. This status of Mutharachas paved a way for them to become independent kings.

People of Mutharacha:

Mutharacha people who are also known by different names in different regions of South India are predominantly from Indo-Aryan origin. Their origins can be traced through both solar as well as lunar races. That is why Mutharachas normally do not have any interest to know about their racial origins.

Since the Mutharacha is basically an administrative / political post inherited from their ancestors, warriors of many races made their entry into this basic and most important political post. Thus the Mutharachas were the first people in India, who forged matrimonial alliances with people having similar political status ignoring other racial and caste differences.

Thus Mutharacha people are composed of Indian Tribal Dravidians, Aryan Kshtriyas, Indo-Aryans and many other warrior groups. The Bants (bunts) or vanaras of Kishkinda kingdom (Telugunadu & Tulanadu Region) were one of the powerful warrior group who formed the majority of Mutharachas and ruled South India in the name of Raya / Bunt / Nayaka kings till the times of Vijayanagar empire.

There is a strong evidence that vaivartas / Mahisyas/ gangas who migrated from Ganga-Yamuna river basin to South India and Srilanka having liks of solar race also made their entry into Mutharachas even before the starting of Christian Era. These vellalas were the expert cultivators using water resources and also professional fishermen. They were also trade experts and accountants. These people who are also known as vellalas were the warrior people who founded the Chola, Chera and Pandyan dynasties.

Racially the kalabhras who invaded the Chola, Chera and Pandyan dynasties and created an anarchy were not different from the Chola / Chera/ Pandyans. Such invasions among the native kings were always purely a political than any racial / caste considerations.

Those people of those times were very much aware of their racial oneness and had close matrimonial alliances even while they were fighting with each other on the basis of dynasty lines. Research indicates that Mutharayar kings developed matrimonial relations with Chola Pandyan kings. There are people in Mutharayar community with such surnames which are prevalent among Cholas and Pandyans.


It is believed by some historians that Mutharayar kings were a variant warriors of Vellalas. It is also believed that Cholas, Cheras and Pandyans were also vellalas. Though the majority of Mutharaya kings were from vanara / Bunt raya kings, it appears that some vellalas came into the fold of Mutharayars because of matrimonial relations of Mutharayars with Cholas and Pandyans.

The origin of Cholas is identified with gangas of Ganga - Yamuna river basin. The origin of gangas is derived from Iskshvaku and trace back to Ayodhyapura. There is an evidence that gangas belong to solar dynasty. The gangas were the children of Gangeya. The gangas were expert managers of water resources and professional fishermen too.

The gangas belonging to Ganga vamsa and establishesd kingdoms of ganga dynasty on their way from North India to South India . The gangas are also identified with Tumburas; Tumburas with Mahishya (fishermen) race who established Kalchuri kingdom with Mahishmati as their capital in central India.

Matchya => Masya => Fish
Masya Race => Mahisya Race

Dravidians who did cultivation, using water were called Vellalas. Plough was their symbol. In Thelunku nadu (Telugunadu) they were called Velar. In Karnataka they had a kingdom. Those vellalas who migrated from banks of Ganga wwere called "Gangavamsa vellalar". Their kingdom was "Ggangawathi". Those vellalas who lived in Kongunadu were called "Gounders". Ulkala (Orissa) was ruled by vellala kings in 11 century AD. Mudaliars and Reddiars of Thontaimantalam (Chengalpet & North Arcot Dists), Pillai of Chola (Kumbakonam, Thanchavoor, Thrissinappally) Pillai of Pandya (Madura, Ramanathapuram, Thirunelveli) and Gounder of Kongunadu (Coimbatore & Selam) were Vellalas.

Chola, Chera & Pandians were Vellalas:

Although the tamil word Vellala means the cultivator, there is ample evidence to indicate that the original Chera , Chola and Pandia Kings were Vellalas. Many castes merged into vellala.'Kalarum maravarum agamuditarum mella mella koodi vellalar aayinere"- so goes the saying. Which means Kalar, Maravar and Agamudaiyar, the three power castes from South Tamilnadu assumed Vellala ID with the accumilation of wealth.

It is believed that "Parasurama Maharshi" who uplifted Kerala & konkan from the sea by throwing his axe, installed the idol of Ayyappa at Sabarimala to worship Lord Ayyappa. After that he gifted the land to Brahmins. When he returned after some years, it was found that there was total anarchy due to the inefficient administrations of the then rulers. So he brought efficient and experienced Rulers from Tamilnadu (Paradesom).They were called "Perumakkanmar".

During the Perumal rule they brought "Vellalas"- the cultivators and accountants of Tamilnadu-to Keralam .They settled permanently here and many of them became Traders and Accontants.

Vellalas are "Vaisyas" and majority were Saivas ( follwers of Lord Siva).The foster son of King Rajasekhara of Panthalam, Ayyan Ayyappan was "Vellalakulajathan". Most of the Ammankovils in Kerala were created by Vellas. All the 9 Mankombu devi temples( Poonjar ,Kanjar,Kuttanadu ,Kollam etc) were built by Vellalas. They had major role in the renovation work of Sabarimala temple. The "Nayattuvili" at Sabarimala is still conducted by Vellalas from Perunadu Kottaram. The priest who performes "karappoottu" at Achankovil Sastha temple is a vellala .


Historians have asserted that the ganga dynasties have evolved from among the comman men of ganga community. A brief account of ganga dynasty is available from the inscriptions engraved by the royal dynasties of of ganga community. It is known from the inscription of Jaina guru Simhanandi that forefathers of ganga dynasty ccame from Ayodhyapur under the leadership of Vishnugupta and settled at Ahichhatra located in the basin of river Ganga and Yamuna. Later on the proceeded to Southern India in quest of new territory. On the way some of them had settled at Kalinga.

Being advised by jainaguru Simhanandi, Vishnugupta along with others came to Karnataka and established a new kingdom. According to inscriptions, the Ganga dynasties of Karnataka and Kalinga had come from North India. It is believed that both Western and Eastern Ganga Dynasty belonged to one and the same dynasty and they came from North India in 5th Century and established new kingdoms in Kalinga and Karnataka respectively.

The origin of gangas is derived from Ikshvaku and trace back to Ayodhyapura. The ganga community got divided into several divisions and families with the passage of time. According to Andhavaram copperplate inscription of Indravarman III of Ganga dynasy, the Gangas were described as the descendants of the Tumbura dynasty. According to Vayupurana it is mentioned that at the foot hills of Vindhyas, there was a janapada named Tumura, Tumbura. Bachan Dubey, a researcher identified the Tumbura race with Mashyas. There are evidences available in Padma Purana and Brahmavaibarta Purana that the Mahisyas and the Kaivarttas (fishermen) were virtually the same.

Matchya => Masya = Fish
Masya => Mahisya
Mahisyas = Kaivarttas = Fishermen

The gangas of Orissa were remarkable among the powerful independent kings who ruled over different places of India. The first king of Ganga dynasty Anantavarma belonged to the Mahisya or Kaivartta race. The Kaivarttas belong to a great ancient race and they had a great tradition. At one stage the Mahishya race became very powerful and later on were divided into four parts – Aswapati, Gajapati, Narapati and Chhatrapati. The Gajapatis had established their empire in Orissa.

According to Vizagpattanam Korni copperplate inscriptions of Chodaganga Deva that there were eighty kings of Ganga dynasty had ruled over Gangabadi of Kolhapur. If one king had ruled on an average of 20 years, then the eighty kings would have ruled for about 1600 years. If it is seen from this angle that the Ganga dynasty had appeared 1600 years before 5th Century AD., which means their origin dates back to 11th Century BC. It may be mentioned here that the historians have agreed that the Mahabharata war was fought in 9th Century B.C.

The people of Ganga vamsha were also identified as Kaivarttas, Keutas and Dhivaras who were living at different places in India. These people were identified as Jalaries of Telugu fishermen by E. Thurston. Jalaries were palanquin bearers and cultivators. Jalaris is derived from jala, a net. They bear the name Ganga vamshamu (people of ganga). In the same way that a division of kabbera (kabbaliga) a fishing caste is called Gangimakkalu (Gangaputra). The kabberas are a caste of canarese fishermen and cultivators.

The Keutas originate from Kaivarttas. The Kaivarttas were divided into two parts. Those who retorted to cultivation were called Halias (cultivators). Those who earned their livelihood with nets were called Jalias or Jaluas (fishermen). The Keutas worship especially Dasaraja and Gangadevi. The other branches of Kaivarttas were Kandara, Kahara, Bagta, Gokha, Jamatalia, Bharatalia, Gingaraj, Keuta, Semili, Behera, Dhibara, and Jhada etc. They have surnames such as Bag, Setha, Pande, Tana, Dhanshana, and Mahalik etc. Mother Ganda, the water Goddess, is their chief diety and they claim that they are the descendants of Ganga. Kaivarttas belonging to Ganga dynasty and living in coastal areas call themselves Jalari. These Jalaries can be seen in the entire coast region starting from Midnapur to Rameswaram in the South. The Jalari fishermen living in Ganjam and Andhra Pradesh have different names like Jalai, Nolia, Barakotia, Satakoshia, Panerundu Kotala, Edukotala, Jona, Buguri, Bauri, Behera, etc. The Jalaries of Ganga dynasty claim that they built the famous ports of Peddapatna, Vishakhapatna, Revalpatna, and Vimilipatna. They have other names like Dhimara, Dhibara, Karmakar, Mahara, Mahali and Mahala, etc.

Since the Keutas worship Samalai or Chaudeswari, they are called Chudia-Oda or Sutia-Oda. The Gola caste is an important branch of Go-Oda or Gauda caste. The Golas have been divided into branches such as; Kadu Gola, Puja Gola, Komi, Jami and Musti etc. They are the important inhabitants of Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka and Tamilnadu. The branches like Uduta, Idiga and Kuduga etc., reside in Southern India and they call themselves Gauda. The Golas claim the present dat Madaguia or Odabadi as their original abode. They think that Nrusinghanath or Simhadriraju worshipped on Simhanhchal is their father (God). These Golas claim that they belong to Ganga dynasty and that mother Gangamma is their mother (Goddess). The icon of Gangamma is carved on the walls of their houses. One of their branhes is called Gangaudu or Gangidu.

The kings of ancient Bhojaka dynasty had marital relationship with a Kaivartta royal dynsty near the port of Varuna in Orissa. Theregore, it is reasonable to say that that the Kaivartta race belongs to a higher race like that of Kshatriyas. The Jalari sect of Kaivarttas belonged to the Ganga dynasty and had established the famous ports of Kalinga namely Peddapatna, Visakhapatna, Revalpatna and Vimilipatna, etc. The chief occupation of these Kaivarttas were cultivation, fishing, maritime trade and expedition. All the maritime expeditions undertaken from the South-Eastern coast beginning from the mouth of river ganges were directed and controlled by the Kaivarttas kings.

When Aryans entered India, they came across two types people namely Dasas and Nishadas. The Dasas belonged to the class of Dhibaras or Keutas (fishermen). Ratnakar alias valmiki, the saint Parasara, the queen Satyavati and Krushna Dwaipayan Vyasa belonged to Dasyu class. The Dasas and Nishadas belonged to Dhivara or Kaivartta (fishermen) caste. Their occupation was building boats, rowing boats and catching fish. Apat from Kaivarttas, there were also some other castes such as Naga, Kirata, Savara, Pulinda, Pani, Kikata, Pundra, Villa, Santala, Gonda, Andhra, Mitibasa, Banara, Aja, Sigru, Yakhya, Parnka, Simyush and Chandala, etc. They were all primary castes. They were local inhabitants and lived in forests. The Kaivarttas used to live in the river basins and opposed the Aryan progress into India. The Kaivarttas possessed immense wealth and lived in a well developed urban civilization.

Ganga dynasty was part of a great ancient Kaivartta or Dasa dynasty. The original abode was located in the basins of rivers such as Sindhu, Sarswati, Saraju, Yamuna and the sacred Ganga flowing in the North Western frontiers of India. The mouth of Ganga identified as Gangaridai was included in the above regions. Now it is believed that the Dasa Kaivarttas were the creators and inhabitants of Indus Valley Civilization and they used Dravidian language.

The Dasas or Kaivarttas were very much skilled in undertaking voyages on water ways by rowing boats. Their young girls were very efficient in rowing boats alone on water ways. We know from puranic incidents that Satyavati, the second queen of emperor Santanu alias Matsya Gandha used to row boats in the river Ganga, when she was an unmarried girl. During that time she had conjugated with saint Parasara in the same boat and gave birth to Krushna Dwaipayan Vyasa. Satyavati was the daughter of a Dasa (koli) king. Dr. Rajaguru has mentioned that the Kaivarttas or Keutas of North India, Bihar, Bengal and Orisa use the surname Dasa (Das ?)

The Kaivarttas migrated to South India mainly for two reasons – (i) When there was a confrontation between Aryans and Kaivarttas, the Kaivarttas were defeated in the fight. The Kaivarttas who were experts in moving on water channels were unable to fight with the Aryans who were experts in moving on horse driven chariots. During these wars the Aryans destroyed the urban civilization of Kaivarttas and taken them as slaves. The Aryan Indra was known to be an expert in destroying the cities (Puras) and hence he got the names Purandara.

Purandara => One who destroys cities.

Possibly during this period most of the Dasas or Kaivarttas were oppressed and expelled by the Aryans and escaped into South India by leaving the cities on river banks and the fertile lands in the river basins of North India. The second possible reason as per vedic literature, Mahabharata and other puranas for Dasas or Kaivarttas to escape into South India was due to terrible floods between Himalayas and Vindhya mountains. These floods were described as Pralaya in Vedas.

Satapatha Brahman has mentioned the following incidents – once, while, Manu an Aryan was washing his hands at dawn, a small fish along with water came to his hand and sought protection. The small fish apprehended danger for its life from some bigger animal. Taking pity on it, Manu had given protection to this small fish. The fish grew up and warned Manu about an imminent terrible flood. It also had advised him to keep a boat ready for saving himself from the floods. Accordingly, Manu built a boat. As predicted by the fish, a terrible flood inundated the entire land mass. As a result all the animals and human beings were drowned to death. But Manu sat on the boat he made and the fish dragged the boat into the North and tried the boat to a tree on a mountain. When the flood receeded Manu descended from the mountain and ruled over the entire land. It appears that here the fish was used as a symbol for the son of a Kaivartta, who was an expert in rowing over water channels. From the factual evidence obtained from archeological excavation of Mahenjodaro and Harappa, it appears that terrible floods (Pralayas) have destroyed the North India many a time. The danger posed by repeated floods to human life, property and habitation possibly forced the Dasas and Kaivarttas living on the fertile basins of rivers of North India to comparatively safer regions of Deccan plateau

From the evidence found in Madala Panji and Korni copperplate inscription of Anatavarma Chodaganga Dev the gangas beloned to Solar dynasty. The elaborate genealogy, contained in the copperplates of the later gangas, traces the dynasty of Turvasu, one of the sons of Yayati. It is stated that Turvasu had no sons and on worshipping mother Ganga, he had a son named Gangeya whose children were gangas. This Gangeya could be Bhisma, the son of Ganga and the solar king Santanu. Ganga was perhaps a symbol used for the daughter of Kaivartta (fisherman). Though Bhisma was the son of a Kaivartta mother and a Aryan Kshatrya father, but because of the nature of Bhisma, he was treated as a great Kshatria. The kings belonging to later periods of Mahabharata were quite eager to claim their belongingness to either solar dynasty or lunar dynsty. Some of the names of kings of different lineages were so confusing that some names were found both the dynasties and it is really difficult to say to what dynsty they belonged.

From this it is obvious that the origin of Ganga royal dynasty and that of the common people of Ganga dynsty were one and the same and all of them belonged to the Kaivartta or Mahishya community. Hence we can sya that the Ganga dynasty has originated from the tradition rich, glorious and ancient Dasa-kaivaratta race or community.

Cholas from Soorya Vamsha :

Cholas believed that they were the descendants of MANU whose son was Ikshvaku, the founder of solar dynasty (Surya Vamsha). The Leyden plates, the Tiruvalangadu grant, the Anbil plates of Sundara-Chola and the Kanyakumari inscription of Virarajendra-Chola are the epigraphical records which give genealogical lists of Chola kings

The Suryavamsha as well as the Somavamsha originated from the common ancestor, the great Brahma. The genealogy would be as follows - BRAHMA, the creator had two sons :
  • 1 MARICHI and
  • 2 ATRI
Marichi's son was sage Kashyap and his son was Vivaswan ( Surya=> Sun God), and the descendants of Surya were Suryavamshis.

Manu was the law giver of Hindus. According to tradition Ikshvaku was the eldest son of Vaivasvata Manu, who established himself at Ayodhya at the beginning of the Treta or Second Yuga...and has a hundred sons. It is said that Manu’s son Ikshvaku was the first king of Ayodhya and is often referred to as the founder of the Sun Dynasty (Suryavamsa) into which Rama was born.

Soorya (Vivaswan) --- > Vaivaswata Manu --- > Ikshavaku

After Ikshvaku came Vikuk˙i, Kakuthsa, Indravaahu, Anenasa, Viţvarandhi, Chandra, Yuvanaashwa, Saabastha, Brahadaashwa, Kuvalayaashwa, Dridhaashwa, Haryaashwa, Nikumbha, Barhanaashwa, Kritaashwa, Syenajit, Yuvanaashwa, Maandhaataa, Purukuthsa, Trasaddsya, Anranya, Hryaashwa, Aruőa, Tribandhan and Trishanku. Trishanku wanted to take his mortal body to heaven and suffered a very unusual fate.

Ikshvaku (Itchuvagu) --- > ---> Maanthadha --- > --- > Sibi
Sibi --- > --- > Vena --- > --- > Nimi

Vikukshi's son fought with the demons for the sake of the demigods, and because of his valuable service he became famous as Puranjaya, Indravaha and Kakutstha. The son of Puranjaya was Anena (Vena), the son of Anena was Prithu, and the son of Prithu was Visvagandhi. The son of Visvagandhi was Candra, the son of Candra was Yuvanasva, and his son was Sravasta, who constructed Sravasti Puri. The son of Sravasta was Brihadasva. Brihadasva's son Kuvalayasva killed a demon named Dhundhu, and thus he became celebrated as Dhundhumara, "the killer of Dhundhu." The sons of the killer of Dhundhu were Dridhasva, Kapilasva and Bhadrasva. He also had thousands of other sons, but they burned to ashes in the fire emanating from Dhundhu. The son of Dridhasva was Haryasva, the son of Haryasva was Nikumbha, the son of Nikumbha was Bahulasva, and the son of Bahulasva was Krisasva. The son of Krisasva was Senajit, and his son was Yuvanasva.

Yuvanasva married one hundred wives, but he had no sons, and therefore he entered the forest. In the forest, the sages performed a sacrifice known as Indra-yajna on his behalf. Once, however, the King became so thirsty in the forest that he drank the water kept for performing yajna. Consequently, after some time, a son came forth from the right side of his abdomen. The son, who was very beautiful, was crying to drink breast milk, and Indra gave the child his index finger to suck. Thus the son became known as Mandhata. In due course of time, Yuvanasva achieved perfection by performing austerities.

Thereafter, Mandhata became the emperor and ruled the earth, which consists of seven islands. Thieves and rogues were very much afraid of this powerful king, and therefore the king was known as Trasaddasyu, meaning "one who is very fearful to rogues and thieves." Mandhata begot sons in the womb of his wife, Bindumati. These sons were Purukutsa, Ambarisha and Mucukunda. These three sons had fifty sisters, all of whom became wives of the great sage known as Saubhari.

Mandhata (Maandhaatha was an eminent king in the dynasty of Ikshvaku. He was son of Yuvanaswa and father of Susandhi.

The earth is said to have derived its name 'Prithvi' from Prithu, the 6th king of the line. A few generations later came Mandhatri, in whose line the 31st king was Harischandra, known widely for his love of truth.

Harishchandra, who was renowned for telling the truth, followed Trishanku. Later Rohit, Harit, Champaa, Sudev, Vijay, Bharook, Vrik and Baahuk were the succeeding rulers. The next few generations – Sagara, Asmanja, Anshuman, Dilip and Bhagirath - played a crucial role in getting the River Ganga to earth. The next kings were Shrut, Naabh, Sindhudwaash, Ayutaayu, Rutuparőa, Sudaasu, Ashmaka, Maalak, Aareekavacha, Dasharath, Idvidaa, Vishwasaha, Khatvaang and Dileep.

Raja Sagar of the same clan performed the Asvamedha Yajna & his great grandson Bhagiratha is reputed to have brought Ganga on earth by virtue of his penances.

Later in the time came the Dileep’s son great Raghu, after whom the family came to be called as 'Raghuvamsa'. His grandson was Raja Dasaratha, the illustrious father of Rama, with whom the glory of the Kosala dynasty reached its highest point.

The Vishnu-Purana enumerates the members of the Ayodhya dynasty, which amounts to about a hundred rulers. Several Rajput tribes still claim to belong to this race. The story of this epic has been immortalised by Valmiki anbd immensely popularised by the great masses through centuries. The importance of Raghu can be ascertained from a very popular verse from the Ramayana by Tulsidas.

According to puranic tradition, in the 93rd generation from Ikshvaku, the 30th from Rama was Brihadbala the last famous king of the Ikshvaku dynasty of Ayodhya, who was killed during the Mahabharata war. The kingdom of Kosala again rose to prominence in the time of the Buddha, i.e. 6th cent B.C.

Maandhata --- > --- > Sibi --- > --- > Vena --- > --- > Nimi

In the Ramayana we have been following, when Rama accepts Vibhishana into his fold and refers to an ancestor who had given shelter to a dove. He was referring to King Sibi. A pious king who was tested by the demigods Indra and Agni, disguised as a hawk and a pigeon. To save the life of the pigeon, Maharaja Sibi allowed his own flesh to be eaten by the hawk. The two demigods then revealed their identities and blessed Sibi.

The story is in ‘The Indian Epics Retold’. This lineage illustrates two important facts. The first is that the mythology is based in history. Not all of it may be true but there is a great deal of truth. To trace a dynasty through so many generations cannot be pure imagination. The second and more important issue is that it shows the continuity of a society.

Ikshvaku had one hundred sons, of whom Vikukshi, Nimi and Dandaka were the eldest. The sons of Maharaja Ikshvaku became kings of different parts of the world. Because of violating sacrificial rules and regulations, one of these sons, Vikukshi, was banished from the kingdom.

Nimi, founded the Mithila dynasty in Videha. A great sage himself, Nimi abandons his bodily form. The body of Nimi is preserved from decay as if it were immortal. Nimi now resides, to quote the Vishnu Purana, in the eyes of all living creatures, in consequence of which their eyelids are ever opening and shutting. This blinking and winking of the eyes is called nimisha.

Ikshvaku gave Danda the country between the Himalaya and Vindhya mountains.

By the mercy of Vasishtha and the power of mystic yoga, Maharaja Ikshvaku attained liberation after giving up his material body. When Maharaja Ikshvaku expired, his son Vikukshi returned and took charge of the kingdom. He performed various types of sacrifices, and thus he pleased the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This Vikukshi later became celebrated as Sasada.

The chronoly prepared by Muthraya-Cholar Research Center, Thanjavur shows quite diffent names in line of kings which are given below for the information of readers: Line of kings from Generation- I to X :

Sooryan alias Sugreevan (I) ---> Manu Cholan (II) ---> Itchuvagu (III) ---> Maanthadha (IV) ---> Sibi Cholan (V) ---> Venan (VI) ---> ??? (VII) ---> ??? (VIII) ---> Nimiyon (IX) ---> Bru Ravan (X)

Bru Ravan had three sons –(i) Musukundan the great, (ii) Elaran and (iii) Ambareedan.

Line of kings of generation-X to XI:

Bruravan (X) --- > Musukundhan (XI-A) + Elaran (XI-B) + Ambareedan (XI-C)

Bru Ravan (X)
| | |
| | |---------> Musukundhan (XI-1)
| |-----------> Elaran (XI-2)
|------------ > Ambareedan (XI-3)

There after, the family branch of Musukundhan continued to grow while the growth of family branches of Elaran and Ambareedan are not known.

Line of kings from Generation-XI to Generation-XVII :

Musukundan (XI-1) --- > Vallavan alias Maveeran (XII) --- > Valavan Cholan (XIII) --- > Raja Kesar ( XIV) --- > Para Kesary (XV) Suraguru alias Thoongeyil Erinthon (XVI) --- > Thithan alias Purana Nooru (XVII)

It is said that Thithan was the king from 25 B.C to 25 A.D and the sangam period started during his rule. Thithan had three sons – (i) Porvaiko Penarkilli, (ii) Thitha Senni alias Uruvapahrer Ilanchet Senni, and (iii) Thitha Velian.

Line of kings from Generation-XVII to Generation-XVIII :

Thithan alias Purana Nooru (XVII) --- > Porvaiko Penarkilli (XVIII-A) + Thitha Senni alias Uruvapahrer Ilanchet Senni (XVIII-B) + Thitha Velian (XVIII-C)

Thithan alias Purana Nooru (XVII)
| | |
| | | ------- > Porvaiko Penarkilli (XVIII-A)
| |---------- >Thitha Senni alias Uruvapahrer Ilanchet Senni (XVIII-B)
|------------ > Thitha Velian (XVIII-C)

Brach – A kings from Generation-XVIII to Generation-XX :

Porvaiko Penarkilli (XVIII-A) --- > Mudithalai Koperu Narkilli alias Manakkili (XIXA) --- > Rajasooya Yagam Vetta Perunar Killi (XX-A1) + Narasurovanai, w/o Peruncheralathan (XX-A2)

Rajasooya Yagam Vetta Perunar Killi (XX-A1) --- > Nedunkilli (XXI-A1) --- > ???
Narasurovanai, w/o Peruncheralathan (XX-A2) --- > ???

While Nedunkilli takes over the ruling power after Rajasooya Yagam Vetta Perunar Killi, the growth of family branch of Narasurovanai, w/o Peruncheralathan is not known. The family growth of Nedunkilli is also not known.

Brach – C kings from Generation-XVIII to Generation-XIX :

Thitha Velian (XVIII-C) --- > Nallini, W/o Uthiyan Cherol (XIX–C1) + Iyyai, W/o ???(XIX-C2)

Thitha Velian had two female successors and further growth of their families is knot known.

Brach – B kings from Generation-XVIII to Generation-XX :

Thitha Senni alias Uruvapahrer Ilanchet Senni (XVIII-B) --- > Karikala Cholan (XIX-B)
The Karikala Cholan gave birth to many branches of warrior families and they are as given below :

Karikala Chola (XIX-B)
| | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | |----- > V.P.P Killi (XX-1)
| | | | | | | |-------- > Ilam Killi ( XX-3)
| | | | | | |---------- > Rayalu Seema Ruler-1 (XX-4)
| | | | | |------------ > Rayalu Seema Ruler-2 (XX-5)
| | | | |-------------- > Rayalu Seema Ruler-3 (XX-6)
| | | |---------------- > Founder of Kalchuri Kingdom (XX-7)
| | |------------------ > Adi Manthi, W/o Seran Chenkuttuvan (XX-8)
| |-------------------- > Suksurovanai, W/o Japanese King (XX-9)
|---------------------- > Killi Valavan (XX-2)

Killi Valavan (XX-2) --- > Nalan Killi (XXI) --- > Ilanthigai Thunjiya (XXII) --- > ??? (250 AD to 275 AD) Kalabhra Dark Age starts