MUDIRAJA & RELATED KINGS


This page deals with some important Mudiraja, Muthuraja & Related Raya Kings of India. For more details on Kodagu and Western Ganga dynasties relating to Mudiraj people, please go through webpage on "kingdoms" in this website. For more details on Queens relating to Mudiraj people, please go through webpage on "Queens" in this website.

HOME


01. Erikal Mutthuraju + 02. Kuvavan Mutharayar + 03. Perumbidugu Mutharaiyar + 04. Kamban Arriyan + 05. Elugu Rayudu + 06. Saluva Narasimha Raya + 07. Venkatappa Nayaka + 08. Naga Nayaka + 09. CholaMuttarayan + 10. Vira Narasimha + 11. Srikrishna Devaraya + 12. Pam Nayak + 13. Umaji Naik + 14. Shivamara Muttarasa + 15. Kampila Raya + 16. Sangama Raya + 17. Hakka & Bukka Raya + 18. Pratapa Rudra Deva + 19. Maran Kuvavan (Perumbidugu -I) + 20. Suvaran Maran (Perumbidugu -II) + 21. Vali & Sugreeva + 22. Veera Pandya Katta Bommana + 23. Kodagu Mudduraja + 24. Hadinadu Mudduraja + 25. Mandhata + 26. Anjadaperumal Muttarasar + 27. Killivalavan + 28. Karikala Cholan + 29. Rajendra Cholan + 30. Baddiga Amoghavarsha + 31. Sattan Maran + 32. Kuvavan Sattan + 33. Sripurusha Muttarasa + 34. Vaidumba Mutturaja + 35. Tondemana Muttarasa + 36. Tanaji Malusare + 37. Maharana Pratap Singh + 38. Ekalavya + 39. Muttaniraja of Sri kalahasthi + 40. Puli Devar + 41. Kharavela + 42. Alugu Bhupathi + 43. Rayamurari Sovideva + 44. Kamineni Muttarazu + 45. Mutharasu Chennappa Nayakar + 46. Rachamalla + 47. Kokalla + 48. Ponnar Shankar + 49. Muktaraja + 50. Achyuta Kalappalar + 51. Achyuta Vikranta + 52. Kootruva Nayanar + 53. Dhatusena + 54. Durvinita Mahadhiraja + 55. Mutharayar Chiefs of Sendalai + 56. Pandi Mutherayan Arattavathy Arayan + 57. PaluvettiRayar + 58. Adicha Mutarayan + 59. Illango Adi +
01. Erikal Mutthuraju <-- Click
02. Kuvavan Mutharayar <-- Click
03. Perum Pidugu Mutharaiyar <-- Click
04. Kamban Arriyan <-- Click
05. Elugu Rayudu <-- Click
06. Saluva Narasimha Raya <-- Click
07. Raja Venkatappa Nayaka of Shorapur <-- Click
08. Naga Nayaka of Kondanna near Pune <-- Click
09. CholaMuttarayan - Army General of Rajendra Cholan <-- Click
10. Vira Narasimha <-- Click
11. Srikrishna Devaraya <-- Click
12. Pam Nayak of Sagar Kingdom, Shimoga, Karnataka <-- Click
13. Umaji Naik - A Bedar freedom fighter from Purandhar <-- Click
14. Shivamara Muttarasa- Western Ganga king <-- Click
15. Kampila Raya <-- Click
16. Sangama Raya <-- Click
17. Hakka Raya & Bukka Raya <-- Click
18. Pratapa Rudra Deva <-- Click
19. Maran Kuvavan (Perumbidugu -I) <-- Click
20. Suvaran Maran (Perumbidugu -II) <-- Click
21. Vali & Sugreeva <-- Click
22. Veera Pandya Katta Bommana <-- Click
23. Mudduraja of Kodagu -A Valmiki Nayaka <-- Click
24. Mudduraja of Hadinadu - A Greatgrandson of Singadepa Chola <-- Click
25. Emperor Mandhata of Mohenjo-Daro period <-- Click
26. Anjadaperumal Muttarasar - A Madura Pandya King <-- Click
27. Killivalavan -A Chola Mutharaya King <-- Click
28. Karikala Cholan - Chola King <-- Click
29. Rajendra Cholan - A chola King <-- Click
30. Baddiga Amoghavarsha - A Rastrakuta King <-- Click
31. Sattan Maran -A Mutharaiyar King <-- Click
32. Kuvavan Sattan - A Bana Muttarasar King <-- Click
33. Sripurusha - A Ganga Muttarasa King, Karnataka <-- Click
34. Vaidumba Mutturaja & Gandara Mutraja <-- Click
35. Tondemana Muttarasa <-- Click
36. Tanaji Malusare -A General of Chatrapathi Shivaji <-- Click
37. Maharana Pratap Singh A King of Udaipur <-- Click
38. Ekalavya - A King of Bhil - Erukula tribe <-- Click
39. Muttaniraja of Sri kalahasthi - A Muttu Raja king <-- Click
40. Puli Devar - One of the first freedom fighters <-- Click
41. Kharavela - The Greatest Kalchuri Emperor,Orissa <-- Click
42. Alugu Bhupathi Raju -The Kalchuri king of Palnadu. <-- Click
43. Rayamurari Sovideva -The Kalchuri king of Kalyana. <-- Click
44. Kamineni Muttaraju -A Valmiki Nayaka, Kandukuru. <-- Click
45. Mutharasu Chennappa Nayakar- Chieftain of Madras. <-- Click
46. Rachamalla - A descendant of Sripurusha Muttarasa <-- Click
47. Kokalla -A King of Kalchuri Dynasty, Central India <-- Click
48. Ponnar Shankar - Chera Chieftains of Kongumandalam <-- Click
49. Suryavamsi Mutharasa King Muktaraja, Karnataka <-- Click
50. Achyuta Kalappalar, A Chola King of Kalabhrakula <-- Click
51. Achyuta Vikranta, A King of Kalabhra Kula <-- Click
52. Kootruva Nayanar, A Kalabhra Chieftain of Kalandai <-- Click
53. Dhatusena, a Mauryan ruler of Kalabhra descent <-- Click
54. Durvinita Mahadhiraja - A successful Western Ganga King <-- Click
55. Mutharayar Chiefs of Sendalai-Niyamam <-- Click
56. The Pandi Mutherayan Arattavathy Arayan, Karur <-- Click
57. PaluvettiRayar - A Mutharayar King of Chera Origin <-- Click
58. Adicha Mutarayan , Kerala <-- Click
59. Illango Adi , Kerala <-- Click


go TOP


1. ERIKAL MUTTHURAJU:

There is an evidence that a Mudiraja king by name ERIKAL MUTTHURAJU ruled his kingdom which was perhaps spread over parts of Rayalaseema and surrounding areas of Tamilnadu and Karnataka. Historians has recovered a rock edict written in Telugu language from Chennakeshava temple complex located at Erragudi Palem of Kamalapuram Taluk in Cuddapah district of Andhra Pradesh. This was the first rock edict available to historians which was written in Telugu language and according to this rock edict, Erikal Mutthuraju ruled his kingdom in 575 AD.

It is noteworthy that even the second rock edict written in telugu language, which was discovered by the historians, was installed by Mutthuraju kings. This fact is clearly recorded at page no.106 in a book titled " Mana Lipi- Puttupoorvottharaalu (Our Script-origins & history)".

Cuddapah district is an integral part of Rayalaseema / Vengadam hill range which was the native place of original kings of Kalabhra race and who moved towards down South of South India under external political pressure.

Erikal Mutturaju could be Renati Telugu Chola
The First Telugu Inscription of Cola Erikal Mutturaju, known as Erragudipadu Sasanam was engraved in the 6th century A.D. in the present Kadapa District. According to K.A Nilakanta sastri and M. Venkataramayya's citations about Telugu inscriptions, Erikal Mutturaju was referred as a cola king.

The early Telugu inscriptions are those belonging to the Telugu Chodas of Renadu, which have been discovered in the Ananthapur and Cuddapah districts and assigned to the period between 6th and 8th Centuries A.D. Some of the earliest among them, written completely in Telugu, are the Kalamalla and Erragudipadu inscriptions of Erikal Muturaju Dhananjaya who flurished about the close of the 6th and the beginning of the 7th Century A.D. The Pottadurtu - Malepadu inscription ( 8th century A.D ) is another early epigraph in Telugu belonging to the Telugu Choda family. This gives rise to a doubt - whether Erikal Mutturaju was a Telugu Choda ?

The first complete Telugu inscription belongs to the Renati Cholas, found in Erragudipadu, Kamalapuram taluk of Cuddapah district and assigned to about A.D. 575. I.e between 550 A.D and 600 A.D. Telugu was exposed to the influence of Sanskrit about this period.

Note : The webmaster has hinted several times in this website that kapus or balijas were once part of Telugu Mudiraju Bantlu during medieval times and there are sevaral common surnames among Tuluva bunts, Telugu Mudiraj and Balijas ( a section of Mudiraju bants ?)

Telugu language is used in inscriptions belonging to the 6th or 7th century A.D. while some Telugu place-names are mentioned in earlier records. The kalamalla inscription 38 of Erikal-Muthuraju Dhana�jaya assigned to the last quarter of the 6th century A.D. is considered to be the earliest record completely written in Telugu. This and other records 39 of the Renadu Chola rulers from the Anantapur and Cuddapah districts of Andhra Pradesh furnish the earlier stone inscriptions written in Telugu language, the Madras Museum plates 40 of Ballayachoda of the Telugu Choda family belonging to the middle of the 9th century A.D. furnishes the earliest copper-plate inscription written in Telugu language.

Kalamalla ( Cuddappah dist., A.P ) Telugu inscriptions of Cola king Erical Muturaju Dhananjaya (Dhanamjayulu). This king belonged to Renati Chola dynasty of 6th century.

This clearly indicates that the kings of Muthuraju and Chola were one and the same in the early chola period and they ruled Tamil country and South Andhra regions including entire Rayalaseema. They were predominantly Telugu speaking kings and they established their capital towns such as Tanjavur in Tamil lands. Tanjavur city stands as a testimony for Telugu culture even today. We can say that the Telugu country in those days extended upto Madhurai and Thanjore. The kings had matrimonial relations with Eastern Chalukyas from their native Telugu country. Further we have seen that there several surnames common between Cholas and Muthurajas. The Early Chola kings used the title of Mutturaja as in the case of Erikal Mutturaja Dhananjaya and Erikal Muturaju Punyakumara.

Muthurajas = Early Cholas

The Renati Chola kings are often referred as Telugu chodas. The Telugu Kapus claim that they were the descendants of Telugu Chodas. It is quite interesting that Kapus ( Balijas ) are still having several common surnames which are also found among Tuluva bunts and Telugu Bants (Mudiraju). This evidently points to an ancient truth that Balijas were part of Mudiraju bantlu. They became a separate community as cultivators as the political and ruling power shifted to zamindars having ownership over large tracts of lands spreading over hundreds and thousands of villages.

Muthurajas = Tamil Cholas = Telugu Chodas = Balijas = Bunts / Bants

Tippaluru Inscription of Erikal-Muturaju Punyakumara in Pre Literary Telugu period :
Punyakumara was a Telugu Cola king in the region of Rayalaseema ( Renadu ). From 600 to 1000 A.D. purely basing on in scriptional evidence. The following inscriptions are to be studied. Kalamalla Inscription of Dhananjaya. Erragudipadu inscription, Tippaluri inscription of punyakumara, Malepadu inscription of Satyadity, Koravi inscription of chalukya Bhima, Addanki inscription of Punyakumara, Malepadu inscription of Satyaditya, Koravi inscription of chalukya Bhima, Addanki inscripation of Pandaranga, Bezwada inscription, Dharmavaram inscription, Guduru inscription and Dongalasani inscription.

EARLY CHOLAS OF RENANDU - No. 599 -(A. R. Nos. 384, 384-A and 384-B of 1904.) - On two faces of a pillar set up in the courtyard of the temple of Ramalingesvara at Ramesvaram, Proddutur Taluk, same District. 5th year of Punyakumara's reign. -Records the grant by Queen Vasantipori-Cholamahadevi to Vasantisvara (?) of three hundred marutus of land and two gardens in Viripariti for the merit of Punyakumara-Prithivi-Vallabha-Cholamaharaja. It also says that twelve marutus of land were given to a certain Vanapotula Muchchiya, who was to render service to the devotees (tapasulu) attached to the temple (?)

Raising the banks of Kaveri
The raising of the banks of the river Kaveri by Karikala seems to be first mentioned by the Melapadu plates of Punyakumara, a Telugu Choda king of the seventh or the eighth century C.E. Nothing can be more typical of the way the legends grow than the way in which this story mingles with another stream of legend centring around Trinetra Pallava, and culminates in the celebrated jingle of the late Telugu Choda inscriptions:

There is a clear evidence that, by the eigth century at least,Karikala has become very much like the protatgonist of our myths. Epigraphic sources in Telugu and Tamil,, beginning from the eith century, refer to Karikala, and it is treated by many South Indian historians as a historical occurrence. The earliest clear referrence to this event is in the Malepadu plates of Punyakumara., where a Telugu Choda family tries to establish its ancestry with Karkala. Marpidugu was also the surname of the Telugu-Chola king Punyakumara .

Pallva Inscriptions -No. 40- (A. R. No. 541 of 1905) -Tiruvellarai, Lalgudi Taluk, Trichinopoly District- On the margin of a well called 'Nalumulaikkeni' -This inscription records the construction of a well called Marppidugu-Perunkinaru at Tennur in Tiruvellarai by Kamban Araiyan, the younger brother of Visayanallulan of Alambakkam, in the 4th year of Dantivarman. The well is designed in the for of a svastika and it is reached by a flight of steps from each of the four directions. Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XI, p. 157. Kamban Araiyan and Visayanallulan were muttarasa kings of Tamil country.


Erragudipadu is around 20 km north-west of Cuddapah. It is also spelled as Yerragudipad and Yerragudipadu. The place has immense historical importance. The first complete Telugu inscription ascribed to Renati Cholas was excavated from here. Erikal Mutturaju could be a member of Tenati Telugu Cholas.

The fact that the people of Mudiraj community in Telangana region are also known as people of TENUGU caste. This indicates that the Mudiraj caste people are one of the original people of Andhra Pradesh with Telugu / Tenugu as mother tongue and spread all over India to be identified with different names. They were mostly warriors, fighters, soldiers, chieftains, independent dynasty rulers of feudal times. TELANGAANA region of Andhra Pradesh most probably got its name from these very native people of Mudiraj and Mudiraja kings, whose spoken, political and administrative language was TENUGU (TELUGU) during medieval / feudal times.

tenugu+naadu => tenugunaadu
tenugunaadu => telungunaadu => telanganaadu => telangaana

TELUGU INSCRIPTIONS ON TEMPLE ROCKS :

(i) Channarayanapalli, SII 10:no. 639. In many places similar viragals are seen, but without inscriptions.

Illustrations of some viragals in Sampath 1982; ARIE 1953-54, plate opposite p. 23, illustrates one from Kumool district.

Some personal names of local chieftains like Erikal Muturaju, appearing in the early inscriptions of the region are non-Sanskritic and perhaps indicate their tribal background. Their linguistic equivalents like Erukula and Mutrasi are noticeable still in the region.

(ii) From sixth century onwards, there is inscriptional evidence as to the independent existence of telugu. The famous kalamalla Sasana of Erikal muturAj dhanaMjaya belongs to the last quarter of sixth century AD. This age is called the pre-Nannaya period. If one examines the various Sasanas during this period, one can perceive the development of not only the Telugu language, but also its grammar and vocabulary.

It is of interest to note that many of the dynasties that began to rise to power during this period, like the Kakatiyas, Kondapadumatis, and Velanati Colas, openly claim their descent from one Durjaya of the caturtha kula (the fourth caste, i.e. ^udra, the lowest in the varna social hierarchy). Incidentally, this Durjaya is identified with Durjaya-Raju figuring in a sixth century inscription from Cuddapah District.

It could be possible that this Durjaya Raju of Cuddapah of 6th century in some way or other related to Erikal Mutturaju of Cuddapah of 6th century.

go TOP


2. KUVAVAN MUTHARAYAR:

Thirumaiyam temple is located in Pudhukottai district of Tamil Nadu . This cave temple was established by Kuvavan Mutharayar during his rule at Thanjavur from 610 AD to 649 AD. There stands a statue of Kuvavan Mutharayar in the form of Twara Balaga ( Dwara Palaka = Gate keeper = Security guard) on the right side of temple door. It is believed that Kuvavan was brought from Renadu (Rayalu Seema) as a step son by his ancestor Nalladi alias Bhimasolan . Mahendra Pallavan took over Kanchi from Bhimasolan by defeating him in war. The name of Bhimasolan throws ample light on the common racial and professional origins of Mutharayars and Cholas.

Bhimasolan = Bhila + Solan

Here SOLAN most probably indicates the title of the king dynasty and it stands for Chola. Renadu stands for Rayalaseema. This reveals the following facts:

i. The connectivity between Mutharayars and the Cholas of South India.
ii. The connectivity between Tamil Muthuraj and Telugu Mudiraj.
iii. The connectivity between Telugu Cholas and Tamil Cholas.

Solan => Colan => Cholan

Raya + Seema => Rayalaseema
Raya + Nadu => Rayanadu
Seema = Nadu = Desh = Region / country
Rayalaseema = Rayanadu
Rayanadu => Raya + Nadu => Ray + Nadu
Ray + Nadu => Re + Nadu = Renadu

On the left side of temple entrance, there stands an other Twara Balaga, which is said to be the statue of Kuvavan's younger brother Punniakumaran. At the time of kuvavan's rule Punnia Kumaran was the Yuvaraja. That is why the Dwara Palaka on left entrace is seen without crown. At that time his father was on the seat of power in Renadu. The elder brother Kuvavan was only crowned as king at Thanjavur in Tamilnadu. The younger brother was serving his elder brother faithfully by staying with him. The elder brother Kuvavan honoured his younger brother for his love and faithful services by installing his statue along with him as Dwara Palaka in Thirumaiyam temple in Pudukottai Temple. The other temple details are as given below:

Moolavar : Sathyagiri nathan, Sathyamurthy Ninna Thirukolam - Facing east
Uthsavar : Maiyappan
Thayar : Vuyaiavantha Nachchiar
Theertham : Kathamba pushkarni, Sathya theertham
Vimanam : Sathyagiri Vimanam
Prathyaksham : Sathya devathaigal
Mangalasasanam : Thirumangai alwar ( 9 pasurams)
Archagars :
Location : Pudhukotai to Karaikudi rly line

This article on Twara Balagas (Dwara Palakas) of Thirumaiyam contributed by Mr. C. Sundararajan, Researcher, Mutharaya Cholar Research Center, Thanjavur.

This information has great importance to assert the fact that Muthurajas of Tamilnadu were Telugu speaking Mutharaya (Mutharacha) warrior kings who migrated from integrated Rayalaseema (Renadu) which includes Bellary districts of Karnataka also. This information strongly supports the caste and community oneness of RAYA KINGS of Rayalaseema and the Mutha Rayars who ruled Tamilnadu and parts of Kerala.

Webmaster
DT:22/12/2005

go TOP


3. PERUMPIDUGU MUTHARAIYAR :

Perumpidugu Mutharaiyar was a great king of Tanjore and belonged to Muthuraja / Mudiraja community. One of the titles of the Perumpidugu Muttaraiyar was Lord of Tanjore. There is a reference to king Perumbidugu - Muttaraiyan II, who attended the coronation of Nandi Varman Pallavamlla. Perumpidugu Mutharaiyar became the king of Tanjavur by overthrowing Chola Kingdom. The Muttaraiyars ruled over Tanjore and Pudukkotai as the feudatories of the Pallavas from the 8th to 11th Century AD. The Mutharaiyar chieftains fought with Pandyas and their supporters on behalf Pallavas.

Historians believe that Thanjavur was captured by Vijayalaya Cholan (AD 846-880) from the king Perumpidugu Muttaraiyan. Vijayalaya Chola, who conquered Tanjore from Perumbidugu Muttarayan in the 9th Century AD, was also a Pallava feudatory. Velirs and Muttarayars used to shift their loyalties from Pallavas to and Pandyas to Pallavas depending on the political power & situation from time to time. It is believed that the pallava strategy and support to cholas made it possible for Vijayala Chola to dislodge the Muttarayars from the seat of Tanjavore. Along with Muttharayars, the Pandyan influenced declined in the areas of Tanjore. The defeat of Mutharaiyars at Tanjore made Cholas so powerful that the Pallavas were also wiped out from Tanjore at later times. A vindication of the law of nemesis is discernible in the victory of a Chola Chief over Muttarayar, who had overthrown the earlier Chola kingdom.

It was believed that the Mutharaiyars and Cholas fought with each other for establishing their political domination over some lands of present day Tamilnadu. They fought with the Pandyas and invaded the Southern Peninsula and later also fought with Pandyas in support of Pallavas as subordinates of Pallavas. The Muthraiyars (mudiraj) were understood to have fought even the Pallavas for centuries before they became feudatories to Pallavas.

The Muttaraiyan chieftains were Hindus and staunch devotees of Shiva and great patrons of temple building art.

The ancient Subramanyar temple which is located 40 Km South of Nagapattinam stands as a beautiful symbol to their and devotion towards Hindu form of worship and Hindu Religion. This temple is linked Sikkal and Ennkann through the legend that the images of Skanda in all the three of these shrines were made by the same sculptor. The image of Skanda in the sanctum is an exquisite one. The entire image is supported by 2 legs of the peacock mount. This image is said to have been installed during the rule of Muttaraiyar chieftains of Tamilnadu.

Narthamalai, which is located 17 Km from Pudukottai is also a historically important place in Tamilnadu. It was the headquarters of the Mutharaiyar Chieftains. The earliest structural stone temple, circular in shape, built by the Mutharaiyar Chieftains are also worth seeing tourist spots in Tamilnadu today.

An ancient geometrical diagram (master key) was also found by the author, T.L.Subash Chandira Bose on the floor of a cave temple in Tamil Nadu, India. According to Srirangam Sridaran-The Registration officer, the department of Archeology-Government of Tamil Nadu, the construction of this Cave temple is of Mutharaiyar style temple architecture and it was built during (600-700 A.D.) the period of Pallava Kings. It was already seen that the Muthariyar chieftains were the feudatories to Pallava Kings.


The following special article is received from our Mutharaiyar brother T.L.Subash Chandira Bose on 01/01/2006 for publication in this website.

Swaran Maran alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan

by Ariviayal Anmiga Vangyani , T.L.Subash Chandira Bose

Among all the kings in Chera, Chola and Pandiya dynasty, there are three prominent kings whose ruling periods are said to be the Golden era. Those kings are Suvaran Maran alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan, Sri Raja Chola and Sri Sundara Pandiya.

The first and foremost king who had so many surnames is Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan. He ruled a part of Chola and Pandiya kingdom during the period of 8th. Century. He is the independent king and had close association with 3rd. Nandhivarma Verma Pallavan. Other way to say, he was supporting the Pallavas in all respects and by ruling a particular region independently.

There are many inscription found in Sri. Meenakchi Sundereshwarer Temple at Senthalai, which is situated in Tanjuvr District. Most of the inscriptions are found on the surface of the stone pillars of a hall in front of the womb chamber. The stone pillars are said to be belong to a temple at Nemmam. The scholars believe that the temple at Nammam might have got damaged and all the pillars are shifted from Nemmam and used at Senthalai in later period.

All the inscriptions are beautifully engraved with ancient Tamil letters, on a hand made smooth surface of the stone pillars. In this article, we shall discuss related to Suvaran Maran alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan's parental note and then about his meikeerthi. Meikeerthi means the titles (names) awarded to him based on his nature, adventures, courage and others etc.

(..dutha Perum Piddugu Mutharai); yanaina Kuvavan Maranavan; Magan Elango vadhiaraiya; naina Maran Parameshwaranavan; Magan Perum Piddugu Mutha raiyanaina; Suvaran Maranavan; edupitha Paddari Koeil (Kovil); Ava nerintha oorkalum, Avan Peyarka lum; Avanai Padinor Peyakalumi thoon mel eludhina; evai.

At first, the inscription describes the parental details of Suvaran Maran Alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan. His grand father name was Kuvavan Maran alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan. Then comes his father name was Elangovathiaraiyan alias Maran Parameshwaran.

Then come the details of the Paddari temple for mother Gooddess, which he constructed. The particulars of the location of war in which he acquired victory, the name of his maikeerthi, the name of the poets who song the poem are all engraved on the stone pillars.

Meikeerthi

In each and every pillar there is a Meikeerthi of him, then following the details of the war, and about him etc. Among all the meikeerthi, there is only one in which four names are engraved, which are as follows.

First, Sri. Tamaralayan means the peace resides with in himself.

Second, Sri. Abimanadeeran means, he is enemy to the kings those who had Ahankar.

Third, Sri. Kalvar Kalvan means the person who eradicated the thieves.

And the fourth, Sri. Sathuru Kesari means he is just like a lion to the enemies. <

It is not stated in any of the records, who the enemy was from whom Tanjore was wrested by Vijayalaya. About the middle of the 8th century A.D. Tanjore and the surrounding country was under the rule of Muttaraiyan chiefs. In the Sendalai Pillar inscription of Perumbidugu Muttaraiya, the latter is styled “the king Maran, the Lord of Tanjai (Ko-Maran-ranjai-kkon) and Kalvar-Kalvan[2], Tanjai-nar-pugal-alan, a Kalva of Kalvas, the distinguished Lord of tanjai.” In another place the following phrase occurs “nirkinra tanpanai-torum Tanjai-ttiram padi ninrar”.[3] There extracts show that in the 8th century Tanjore was ruled by a family of chiefs known as the Muttaraiyans. From the title Maran which Perumbidugu Muttaraiyan held, it may be gathered that he was either of Pandya descent or was a chief, subordinate to that family. At this time there was a great struggle going on between the Pallavas and the Pandyas for the political supremacy of South India. In this disturbed state of affairs, Vijayalaya seems to have found a good opportunity to defeat the Muttaraiyan chiefs, and make himself the ruler of Tanjore and the surrounding Chola country.

In addition to the above, there are many of such maikeerthi are found in other inscriptions related to his victory of wars and others. The other meikeerthi are Sri. Sathuru Mallan, Sri. Adi Sagason, Sri.Maran, Sri. Seru Maran, Sathan Maran, Vel Maran, Tanjai Kon, Valla Kon, Van Maran, etc.

Inscription No. 402 - (A. R. No. 402 of 1906) - Tiruchiraplli District, Pudukkottai State, Tirumayyam. -Satyagirinatha-Perumal Temple On A Stone Set Up Inside The Premises. -This is in characters of about the 9th century A.D. It is incomplete. It seems to record a gift of land for the renovation of some structure (temple?) and worship therein by Perumpidugu Perundevi, the mother of (a chief by name) Videlvidugu Vilupperadi-Araisan alias Sattan Maran. It is possible that this chief was related to the Muttaraiyars of Sendalai.

Trichy, Trichirappalli, Tiru Siran Palli, Trichnopoly was part of the famed "Perum Pidugu Mutharaiyar Maavattam"

The people of Muthuraja community in Tamilnadu gather on 23rd MAY of every year in Trichi (Thiruchurapalli) in lakhs to paricipate in birthday celebrations of of Perumbidugu Matharaiyar.


go TOP


4 KAMBAN ARRIYAN:

Kamban Arriyan was a Mutharaiyar Chieftain. He is said to be the younger brother of Visayanallulan of Alambakkam or Alambakkathu Visaya Nallulan. Kamban Arriyan built a swastika shaped during eighth century A.D. This construction is known to be of architectural importanceand located at Tiruchirapally in Tamilnadu, India. In this construction all the four directions are not blocked and also the steps in all the four directions are projecting outside the wall.

Pallava Inscription No. 32 - (A. R. No. 537 of 1905) - Tiruvellarai, Lalgudi Taluk, Trichinopoly District - On the third pillar in the rock-cut cave in the Pundarikaksha -Perumal Temple - This inscription which is highly damaged, is dated in the 10th year of Nandivarman. It mentions a certain Visayanallula[n], who may be identified with the person of the same name noticed as the elder brother of Kamban Araiyan, the builder of the well at Tiruvellarai in the 4th year of Dantivarman. He also figures as the ajnapti of the Pattattalamangalam grant of Nandivarman II. (No.37 below). Hence Nandivarman of the present record may be identified with Nandivarman II Pallavamalla.

Pallava Inscription No. 37 - (C. P. No. 5 of 1922-23) - Pattattalmangalam grant of Nandivarman: 61st year - Like the previous record, this is also engraved in Grantha and Tamil characters. It is dated in the 61st year of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman and registers a grant of 16 veli of land, which, together with the 24 veli granted previously, was constituted into a village under the name Pattattalmangalam and given to a number of Brahmanas at the instance of Mangala-Nadalvan, an officer of the king. The ajnapti of the grant viz., Vijayanallulan of Alappakkam is identical with the person of the same name figuring in an inscription of Nandivarman at Tiruvellarai (Inscription no.32) in the Trichinopoly district. The engraver of the grant was Sri-Dandi, son of Videlvidugu Pallavap-peruntachchan of Aimpanaichcheri in Kachchippedu. Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XVIII, pp. 120 ff.

Visayanallulan = Vijayanallulan
Alambakkam = Alappakkam ?

Meaning of Ajnapati : The primary constitutive ritual of the early south Indian kingdoms had been the sacrifice. In the later period, the ritual of the royal dana became primary. It represented the arena in which authority and authoritative relations were constituted in reference to the newely developed theory of divine origin.

First, royal danas provided public occasions for the composition of hymns of praise which inscribed the genealogical legacy of the kings--their inherited divine nature--and described their particular exploits, particularly their conquests. Secondly, unlike earlier grants where the supporters of the king had been classified but not named, in the late seventh century, certain persons were praised for their own qualities and identified by their personal constituencies as local big men or chiefs.The first examples of this had to do with the category of ajnapti (executor), which had previously been one of a number of intermediary titles. In grants of the late seventh century, the ajnapti was singled out as the major category or title for officials who were vitally concerned with the execution of the grant at the level of mediation between the court and the village. In a grant of Paramesvarman I, of about 680 AD the ajnapti was identified as the ruler of a particular group of villages. And a grant of Pallava Narasimhavarman of about 700 AD, the ajnapti was called Isvara (lord) of Nandakurra and was said to equal Rajaditya in valour.

Ajnapti = An Executor of Royal Order
Ajnapti (Sanskrit) = Aanatti (Tamil)
Vijnapti = Petitioner

Meaning og Vijnapati : Perhaps more importantly an altogether new category appeared that of vijnapti (petitioner). In plates of Paramesvaravarman I (about 669-690 AD) a gift of land to support Brahmins (brahmandeya) was made by the king at the request of someone who is identified, after his name, as "the lord of the Pallavas." There is also mention of the ajnapti who executed the terms of the grant. What is important about this grant is that a lord of the kingdom, apparently not of the Pallava lineage, participated in the making of the grant in more than an executive capacity: in this and later grants, the vijnapti provided the impetus for gift giving.

Pallava Inscription No. 40 - (A. R. No. 541 of 1905) - Tiruvellarai, Lalgudi Taluk, Trichinopoly District - On the margin of a well called 'Nalumulaikkeni' - This inscription records the construction of a well called Marppidugu -Perunkinaru at Tennur in Tiruvellarai by Kamban Araiyan, the younger brother of Visayanallulan of Alambakkam, in the 4th year of Dantivarman. The well is designed in the for of a svastika and it is reached by a flight of steps from each of the four directions. Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XI, p. 157.

Pidugu in Telugu means "Thunderbolt"
Marpidugu in Tamil means "Big Thunder" .

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date-4th August 2007
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


5. ELUGU RAYUDU:

Elugu Raidu was the last ruler of SALUVA dynasty who ruled his kingdom making PODILI TOWN in Rayalaseema districts of present Andhra Pradesh State as his capital. The Saluvas ruled over the Podili area in the 15th century AD with their capital at Podili. A few inscriptions and the kaifayat of Podili form the sources of their history. The rule of the Saluvas of Podili ended with Elugu Rayudu. Their territory was appropriated among the Gajapatis and the Rajas of Vijayanagara.

The people having surname ELUGU belong to Mudiraja community. There is a small village known as ELUGU VARI PALEM in the nearby region of Podili Town, where quite a considerable number of Mudiraj families are living even today. The people having surname ELUGU are the blood relatives of the author (Kokolu Anka Rao) of this website, who hails from Addanki, which was an historical town in Prakasham district of Andhra Pradesh. The author's mother hailed from a small remote village named Elugu Vari Palem and her mother was a girl with ELUGU surname by birth. The author's mother used to tell that the Mudirajas were kings in the good olden days and kammas were the couriers who used to work for Mudiraja and other kings.

kamma => courier ?



Is Surname ELUGU => ALAGAN ???

Elugu => Elugo = Elugon =>Elugan => Elagan => Alagan ??

(For more details, reader may kindly refere to UREMAILS page in this website and read correspondance between Parameswaran Alagan from Malaysia and Webmaster - Mr. Kokolu Anka Rao from India on this subject- email no.11.0 to email no.12.x )

go TOP


6. SALUVA NARASIMHA RAYA :

The Saluvas of Vijayanagara are said to be originally the Kalachuris of Northern Karnataka. The Saluva Dynasty was created by the Saluvas who by historical tradition were natives of the Kalyani region of northern Karnataka. The Gorantla inscription traces their origins to this region from the time of the Western Chalukyas and Kalachuris of Karnataka. he term "Saluva" is known to lexicographers as "hawk" used in hunting. They later spread into the east coast of modern Andhra Pradesh, perhaps by migration or during the Vijayanagara conquests during the 14th century.

The earliest known Saluva from inscriptional evidence in the Vijayanagara era was Mangaldeva, the great grandfather of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya. Mangaldeva played an important role in the victories of King Bukka Raya I against the Sultanate of Madurai. His descendents founded the Saluva Dynasty and were one of the ruling lines of the Vijayanagara Empire of Southern India. Three kings ruled from 1485 to 1505 after which the Tuluva Dynasty claimed the throne. They ruled almost the entire South India with Vijaynagar as their capital.

Inscriptions
SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XVII - INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 � 1904 � INTRODUCTION - No. 220 of Saluva Narasingadeva-maharaja from Tiruvakkarai begins with the typical Saluva titles Medini misuraganda Kattari-Saluva and the usual title Mahamandalesvara attributed to Narasingadeva (Narasimha) without mentioning any overlord. It registers an order by Saluva Narasimha�s agent Narasa-Nayaka in Sobhakrit corresponding to 1483 A.D., exempting the devadiyar of the temple of god Aludaiya-nayanar at Tiruvakkarai from the payment of a certain levy called kalattutti.

No. 221 engraved on the west base of the gopura of the same temple seems to record a final fixation of 1 panam per loom on the inhabitants of Narasapanditar-nadu. The mention of Narasa-panditar-nadu, the date and the cess on looms seem to suggest that this record also belonged to Saluva Narasimha and was re-engraved on a subsequent occasion. These records appear to confirm the independent position of the Saluva chief inasmuch as it omits to mention the overlord, for we know that very soon after the date of this record, if not on this date itself, Saluva Narasimha commenced to rule in his own right from Vijayanagara. It may be added that Narasa-Nayaka of the former record is evidently identical with the Tuluva general of the same name who succeeded the Saluvas.

Kalachuri connection
The Saluvas of Vijayanagara are said to be originally the Kalachuris of Northern Karnataka. Kalchuris are known to be a branch or variants of Kalabhras from whom it is believed that the Kodumbalur Mutharayars descended. It is believed that the Maravar people, the Agamudayars, Thanjai Cholarkula Kalla Nattars, Pandiya Vellalars, Chola Vellalars, Chera Vellalar, Vellala Mudaliyars, Agamudaya Mudaliars,Conjeevaram Mudaliars and Udayars have all descended from Kallars. Ambalakarars of Muthuraja community constitute the bulk of Marvars and kallars. Agamudayar, Agamudaya Mudaliar or Udayars all originated from the ancient Tamil race called kalabhrar of the ancient.

Udayar connection
Saluvas used the title " Udayar" , according to an inscritional information - " Mahamandalesvara Medinisvara Gandan Kattari Saluva Dharanivaraha Narasimha Raya Udaiyar. These are not the titles of a sovereign. (Hultzsch, "South Indian Inscriptions," i. 131, No. 116).".

Saluva Narasimharaya Udaiyar had constructed the Nirali mantapam in the middle of the Swamipushkarini sometime before 1468 and instituted the Floating festival with which everyone is now familiar.

Agamudayar => Mudayar => Udayar

Agamudayars or simply Udayars of Tamilnadu fall under Mukkulathor group of royal clans who are closely related to Ambalakarars of Muthuraja community. These Mukkulator clans believe that they are the descendants of Kalabras who once uprooted the Chola, chera and Pandya kingdoms assumed their titles after replacing them.

Saluva Narasimha Raya is also associated with title Yadava indicating his association with bunt community. Telugu speaking bunts are known as Mudiraj who shate a lot of common surnames with the present day Yadavas.

Saluvar is one of the surnames of Mukkulathor clans relating to Muthuraja in Tamilnadu
The Kallar community in India are living in Tanjore, Thiruvarur, Thiruchy, Nagapattinam, Pudukkottai, Ramnat, Madurai, Thirunelveli, Thindukal, and most of the South Tamil Nadu. Kallars living around Tanjore and Thiruvarur, Thiruvaiyaru,Pudukkottai, Trichy are known as Esan Nattu kallars. Saluvar is one of the surname of Kallar clans.

Saluva => Saluvar => Salvar

Esan was supposedly the name of the first Kallar chief who founded the lineage or it could mean some kind of ancient Nadu that cannot be traced today. The Thanjavur Kallars have 1500 clans, some of them are Cholahar, Jayamkondapriyar, Elamkondar, Mannaiyar, Thondaiman, Kandiyar, Vanniar, Vandaiyar, Vanathirayar, Kadu vettiyar, Vijayathevar, Pallavarayar, Kalinkarayar, Mandradiyar, Malavarayar, Sethurayar, Saluvar, Uranthairayar, Kobalar, Panipoondar, Mudipoondar, Senathiyar, Rajaliyar, Gangaikondar, Veeramundar, Nattar, Arumai Nattar, Thinnapriyar, Muneiyathirayar, Vaduvurayar.

These clan names were derived due to many reasons. All are derived from a group of founders or founder who was given a specific task by the Chola kings. Some of them are for example, Sethurayar whose founders administrated the region of Sethu Nadu, Thondaiman administrated Thondai Nadu, Pallavarayar administrated the Pallavanadu, Jayamkondapriyar is named after a lineage founder(s) who won a war with enemies by order the Chola king. Elamkondar captured the Eelam (Sri Lanka) as part of the Chola Army. Mannaiyaradministrated the Mannargudi. Vaduvurayar administrated a place called Vaduvur, Kalinkarayar administrated places in Kalinga Nadu as part of Chola conquest of that kingdom. Malavarayar administrated a place called Malai Nadu (Kerala?). Chaluvar ( Saluvar ?) administrated the regionof Chalukiya kingdom. Vanniar administrated the place of Vanni in Sri Lanka. It is said that Saluvars had their origins in Chalukyas.

Chalukya => Chaluka => Chaluva => Chaluvar
Chaluvar => Saluvar

Agamudayars of Mukkulathor clans come originally from Seevaleperi.the commonly used titles & surnames of this community,are Thevar, Nattaar, Thalaivar Ambalakarar, vandiyars, salvars, kaduvettiar..this title differ according to the region they live .etc..Women use the title Nachiyaar,& its a general practice in Southern Tamil Nadu to address a Thevar woman as "Nachchiyaar.

For more details on Udayars � Mukkulators � Mutharayars relations, please see web pagers on �kingdoms� and �Various-Names� in this website.

Saluva Narasimha Raya was son of Saluva Gunda & Grandson of Saluva Mangu :
Inscription No. 332 (Page No. 335) -(A. R. No. 206 of 1951-52 ) = II Prakara, Proper left Jamb at the Western Entrance into the Chandana-Mandapa No date- The record is in Sanskrit in Grantha. It is damaged and mentions the ruling king Devaraya, the son of Vijayesvara. Mentions Saluva, son of Gunda and Madambika and the grandson of Mamgu.

The Ramabhyudaya of Saluva Narasimha, a later emperor of Vijayanagar, before telling the story of Rama, speaks about the ancestors of the author. There Kampana's campaign against the Moslem rulers in the south is mentioned and the roles of Gopanna and Saluva Mangu, two generals who assisted the Prince are stressed. Of these Saluva Mangu was an ancestor of Saluva Narasimha. After the restoration of the Hindu rule in Srirangam, it is stated that 8 agraharas and 1000 Salagramas were presented. The Prapannamritam also narrates the story of Gopanna's crushing victory over the Moslems at Samayapuram. The Koyil Olugu, which records the history of Srirangam temple, describes how Krishnaraya of the famous Uttama Nambi family persuaded Gopannaraya to emancipate Srirangam from Moslem rule and how he obtained from Bukka of Vijayanagar 17,000 gold mohurs with which he purchased 101 villages for the maintenance of the temple.

While the idol of Ranganatha was at Thirumala the Vijayanagara chieftains, Veerakampanna Udayar, Saluva Mangu, Koppanarya etc., took all the efforts and installed Lord Ranganatha's idol at Srirangam on 6th June 1371 AD.

Mangudeva and his descendants extended the Chandragiri rajya northward. Saluvas were great devotees of Balaji. Mangideva Maharaja gold gilt the central vimanam in Tirumala in 1359. Earlier to Sri Krishna- devaraya (16th century) there is only one Telugu inscription of Saluva Mangideva Maharaya dated saka 1281 and one of Saluva Narasimha dated saka 1389.

Some historians are of the opinion that the Saluva and Tuluva dynasties hailed from Coastal Karnataka. But the fact is that they were purely Telugu speaning kings and many Muttarsa kings who supported Jainism were from Karnataka.

Saluva dynasty started by Narasimharaya
Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya (1485�1491 CE) was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Saluva Dynasty. A patron of the Madhwa saint Sripadaraya, he authored the Sanskrit work Ramabhyudayam. In 1452, he was given the title Mahamandaleshwara of Chandragiri during the reign of Mallikarjuna Raya. His father Saluva Gunda was the governor of Chandragiri in Chittoor district. He was the eldest son of Saluva Gunda, the administrator of Chandragiri..

He was the first king of Saluva dynasty who ruled vijaynager empire after the decline of Sangama dynasty. The last kings of sangama dynasty, who succeeded Vira Deva Raya (Devaraya II) were quite incompetent and allowed the empire to disintegrate. To add to this, there was great pressure from Bahmani Sultans. The Portuguese were also rapidly trying to establish themselves on the west coast and in the ports along it. The Vijaynagar empire was really under great threat under the rule of last sangama kings. It became a great concern for some patriotic governers / generals, who were working under sangama kings.

Virupaksha Raya II succeeded his uncle, Mallikarjuna Raya, a corrupt and weak ruler who continually lost against the empire's enemies. Virupaksha became increasingly unpopular and ignited many of the empire's provinces to rebel, eventually leading up to Virupaksha's death in the hands of his own son, Praudharaya in 1485. Praudharaya himself was not able to salvage the kingdom but fortunately, an able general Saluva Narasimha took control of the empire in 1485 and helped to prevent it's demise, though this change of power would mark the end of the Sangama Dynasty and the beginning of the Saluva Dynasty. Thus in AD 1485, the last Vijayanagara ruler of the Sangama Dynasty was driven out and commander Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya became the emperor. The sangama dynasty ruled for about 150 years till 1486, when Narasimha Saluva deposed the last ruler of Sangama dynasty and seized the throne for himself.

After the death of Virupaksha Raya II and arrival of Prauda Deva Raya as the new monarch of Vijayanagar, the empire plunged into neglect and anarchy. Seeing that a military coup was the only hope to save the kingdom, he despatched the son of Tuluva Isvara, Tuluva Narasa Nayaka to the imperial capital of Vijayanagara. The incumbent king Prauda Raya feld thus starting the rule of Saluva Narasimha.

Chandragiri was the capital of Vijayanagar empire under Saluva dynasty :
Chandragiri gained importance with the rise of kings of the Saluva lineage of the Vijayanagara Empire. The well-secured fortification having cyclopean walls buttressed with the typical bastions at regular intervals and pierced with gateways and zig-zag entrances, appears to have been erected originally by Immadi Narasinga Yadava Raya, while ruling from Narayanavanam. The fort along with the structures inside owes much of its construction to the Vijayanagara rule.

Military campaigns of Saluva Narasimha Raya :
Narasimha Saluva of Chandragiri seized the throne of Vijayanagara, fought to consolidate his power, and pushed back encroachments by Orissa.

As king, Saluva Narashima tried to expand the empire, though he continually faced difficulties caused from rebelling chieftains. By 1491, he lost Udayagiri to Gajapati Kapilendra while the Chiefs of Ummattur in the Mysore region, Saluvas of Hadavalli and Santharas of Karkala from coastal Karnataka region, Srirangapatna and Sambetas of Peranipadu in Cuddapah still remained threats to the empire.

Saluva Narashima's war with the Gajapatis over Udayagiri in 1489 proved disastrous when he was taken prisoner and released later after giving up the fort and surrounding areas. However he was successful at conquering the western ports of Kannada country of Mangalore, Bhatkal, Honnavar and Bakanur. This success enabled him to trade for swift horses with the Arabs. He took more efforts in the upkeep of his cavalry and army in general.

At the time when Saluva Narasimharaya waged war upon the Qutb Shah and the Gajapati, Bukkaraja accompanied him as far as Delhi with 4,000 Kshatriyas of Murikinau, 2,500 Velmas and Kammas together with all his kinsmen. The army of the Raya, which was defeated, retreated to the banks of the Narmada (pursued by the victorious enemy); but Bukka with the help of his followers arrested the enemy's progress and acquired great glory by putting them to flight. The Raya who was struck with the courage of Bukka conferred upon him as jaglr Aravidu and Celamanur yielding a revenue of 2 lakhs of varahas in addition to the estate fetching one lakh which he was already enjoying.

During the brief Suluva rule (1485-1505 A.D) Narasimha Raya the first Suluva emperor, during a tour of his dominions passed through Pudukkottai country on his way to Madurai. Vira Narasimha Nayak, the Tuluva usurper and the general of Saluva Narasimha-I, led a campaign against the Pandya chiefs and marched through Pudukkottai.

When he died in 1490, Narasimha appointed his prime minister Narasa Nayaka regent for his two young sons, and he invaded the declining Bahmani sultanate.

The stone poles in the Fort area of Barkur were regarded as the horse sheds, but the evidence found now suggests the place as the warehouse belonged to the palace. Lot of artifacts has been unearthed during the excavation and a 1442 A.D. inscription related to Raja Salva Narasimha is also found.

End of Saluva Dynasty :
The rule of Saluva dynasty did not last long. Narasimha Saluva was succeeded by his two sons. Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya had two sons - Thimma Bhupala 1491 and Narasimha Raya II 1491-1505, who ruled vijayanagar empire after his death. Saluva Narashima eventually died in 1491. However, at the time, his sons were too young to ascend to the throne. Because of this, the sons were left to the care of Narasa Nayaka, a loyal general and minister from the Tuluva family.

Narasimha Raya II was the second son of King Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya. He came to power following the assassination of his elder brother Thimma Bhupala

go TOP


1. ERIKAL MUTTHURAJU:

There is an evidence that a Mudiraja king by name ERIKAL MUTTHURAJU ruled his kingdom which was perhaps spread over parts of Rayalaseema and surrounding areas of Tamilnadu and Karnataka. Historians has recovered a rock edict written in Telugu language from Chennakeshava temple complex located at Erragudi Palem of Kamalapuram Taluk in Cuddapah district of Andhra Pradesh. This was the first rock edict available to historians which was written in Telugu language and according to this rock edict, Erikal Mutthuraju ruled his kingdom in 575 AD.

It is noteworthy that even the second rock edict written in telugu language, which was discovered by the historians, was installed by Mutthuraju kings. This fact is clearly recorded at page no.106 in a book titled " Mana Lipi- Puttupoorvottharaalu (Our Script-origins & history)".

Cuddapah district is an integral part of Rayalaseema / Vengadam hill range which was the native place of original kings of Kalabhra race and who moved towards down South of South India under external political pressure.

Erikal Mutturaju could be Renati Telugu Chola
The First Telugu Inscription of Cola Erikal Mutturaju, known as Erragudipadu Sasanam was engraved in the 6th century A.D. in the present Kadapa District. According to K.A Nilakanta sastri and M. Venkataramayya's citations about Telugu inscriptions, Erikal Mutturaju was referred as a cola king.

The early Telugu inscriptions are those belonging to the Telugu Chodas of Renadu, which have been discovered in the Ananthapur and Cuddapah districts and assigned to the period between 6th and 8th Centuries A.D. Some of the earliest among them, written completely in Telugu, are the Kalamalla and Erragudipadu inscriptions of Erikal Muturaju Dhananjaya who flurished about the close of the 6th and the beginning of the 7th Century A.D. The Pottadurtu - Malepadu inscription ( 8th century A.D ) is another early epigraph in Telugu belonging to the Telugu Choda family. This gives rise to a doubt - whether Erikal Mutturaju was a Telugu Choda ?

The first complete Telugu inscription belongs to the Renati Cholas, found in Erragudipadu, Kamalapuram taluk of Cuddapah district and assigned to about A.D. 575. I.e between 550 A.D and 600 A.D. Telugu was exposed to the influence of Sanskrit about this period.

Note : The webmaster has hinted several times in this website that kapus or balijas were once part of Telugu Mudiraju Bantlu during medieval times and there are sevaral common surnames among Tuluva bunts, Telugu Mudiraj and Balijas ( a section of Mudiraju bants ?)

Telugu language is used in inscriptions belonging to the 6th or 7th century A.D. while some Telugu place-names are mentioned in earlier records. The kalamalla inscription 38 of Erikal-Muthuraju Dhana�jaya assigned to the last quarter of the 6th century A.D. is considered to be the earliest record completely written in Telugu. This and other records 39 of the Renadu Chola rulers from the Anantapur and Cuddapah districts of Andhra Pradesh furnish the earlier stone inscriptions written in Telugu language, the Madras Museum plates 40 of Ballayachoda of the Telugu Choda family belonging to the middle of the 9th century A.D. furnishes the earliest copper-plate inscription written in Telugu language.

Kalamalla ( Cuddappah dist., A.P ) Telugu inscriptions of Cola king Erical Muturaju Dhananjaya (Dhanamjayulu). This king belonged to Renati Chola dynasty of 6th century.

This clearly indicates that the kings of Muthuraju and Chola were one and the same in the early chola period and they ruled Tamil country and South Andhra regions including entire Rayalaseema. They were predominantly Telugu speaking kings and they established their capital towns such as Tanjavur in Tamil lands. Tanjavur city stands as a testimony for Telugu culture even today. We can say that the Telugu country in those days extended upto Madhurai and Thanjore. The kings had matrimonial relations with Eastern Chalukyas from their native Telugu country. Further we have seen that there several surnames common between Cholas and Muthurajas. The Early Chola kings used the title of Mutturaja as in the case of Erikal Mutturaja Dhananjaya and Erikal Muturaju Punyakumara.

Muthurajas = Early Cholas

The Renati Chola kings are often referred as Telugu chodas. The Telugu Kapus claim that they were the descendants of Telugu Chodas. It is quite interesting that Kapus ( Balijas ) are still having several common surnames which are also found among Tuluva bunts and Telugu Bants (Mudiraju). This evidently points to an ancient truth that Balijas were part of Mudiraju bantlu. They became a separate community as cultivators as the political and ruling power shifted to zamindars having ownership over large tracts of lands spreading over hundreds and thousands of villages.

Muthurajas = Tamil Cholas = Telugu Chodas = Balijas = Bunts / Bants

Tippaluru Inscription of Erikal-Muturaju Punyakumara in Pre Literary Telugu period :
Punyakumara was a Telugu Cola king in the region of Rayalaseema ( Renadu ). From 600 to 1000 A.D. purely basing on in scriptional evidence. The following inscriptions are to be studied. Kalamalla Inscription of Dhananjaya. Erragudipadu inscription, Tippaluri inscription of punyakumara, Malepadu inscription of Satyadity, Koravi inscription of chalukya Bhima, Addanki inscription of Punyakumara, Malepadu inscription of Satyaditya, Koravi inscription of chalukya Bhima, Addanki inscripation of Pandaranga, Bezwada inscription, Dharmavaram inscription, Guduru inscription and Dongalasani inscription.

EARLY CHOLAS OF RENANDU - No. 599 -(A. R. Nos. 384, 384-A and 384-B of 1904.) - On two faces of a pillar set up in the courtyard of the temple of Ramalingesvara at Ramesvaram, Proddutur Taluk, same District. 5th year of Punyakumara's reign. -Records the grant by Queen Vasantipori-Cholamahadevi to Vasantisvara (?) of three hundred marutus of land and two gardens in Viripariti for the merit of Punyakumara-Prithivi-Vallabha-Cholamaharaja. It also says that twelve marutus of land were given to a certain Vanapotula Muchchiya, who was to render service to the devotees (tapasulu) attached to the temple (?)

Raising the banks of Kaveri
The raising of the banks of the river Kaveri by Karikala seems to be first mentioned by the Melapadu plates of Punyakumara, a Telugu Choda king of the seventh or the eighth century C.E. Nothing can be more typical of the way the legends grow than the way in which this story mingles with another stream of legend centring around Trinetra Pallava, and culminates in the celebrated jingle of the late Telugu Choda inscriptions:

There is a clear evidence that, by the eigth century at least,Karikala has become very much like the protatgonist of our myths. Epigraphic sources in Telugu and Tamil,, beginning from the eith century, refer to Karikala, and it is treated by many South Indian historians as a historical occurrence. The earliest clear referrence to this event is in the Malepadu plates of Punyakumara., where a Telugu Choda family tries to establish its ancestry with Karkala. Marpidugu was also the surname of the Telugu-Chola king Punyakumara .

Pallva Inscriptions -No. 40- (A. R. No. 541 of 1905) -Tiruvellarai, Lalgudi Taluk, Trichinopoly District- On the margin of a well called 'Nalumulaikkeni' -This inscription records the construction of a well called Marppidugu-Perunkinaru at Tennur in Tiruvellarai by Kamban Araiyan, the younger brother of Visayanallulan of Alambakkam, in the 4th year of Dantivarman. The well is designed in the for of a svastika and it is reached by a flight of steps from each of the four directions. Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XI, p. 157. Kamban Araiyan and Visayanallulan were muttarasa kings of Tamil country.


Erragudipadu is around 20 km north-west of Cuddapah. It is also spelled as Yerragudipad and Yerragudipadu. The place has immense historical importance. The first complete Telugu inscription ascribed to Renati Cholas was excavated from here. Erikal Mutturaju could be a member of Tenati Telugu Cholas.

The fact that the people of Mudiraj community in Telangana region are also known as people of TENUGU caste. This indicates that the Mudiraj caste people are one of the original people of Andhra Pradesh with Telugu / Tenugu as mother tongue and spread all over India to be identified with different names. They were mostly warriors, fighters, soldiers, chieftains, independent dynasty rulers of feudal times. TELANGAANA region of Andhra Pradesh most probably got its name from these very native people of Mudiraj and Mudiraja kings, whose spoken, political and administrative language was TENUGU (TELUGU) during medieval / feudal times.

tenugu+naadu => tenugunaadu
tenugunaadu => telungunaadu => telanganaadu => telangaana

TELUGU INSCRIPTIONS ON TEMPLE ROCKS :

(i) Channarayanapalli, SII 10:no. 639. In many places similar viragals are seen, but without inscriptions.

Illustrations of some viragals in Sampath 1982; ARIE 1953-54, plate opposite p. 23, illustrates one from Kumool district.

Some personal names of local chieftains like Erikal Muturaju, appearing in the early inscriptions of the region are non-Sanskritic and perhaps indicate their tribal background. Their linguistic equivalents like Erukula and Mutrasi are noticeable still in the region.

(ii) From sixth century onwards, there is inscriptional evidence as to the independent existence of telugu. The famous kalamalla Sasana of Erikal muturAj dhanaMjaya belongs to the last quarter of sixth century AD. This age is called the pre-Nannaya period. If one examines the various Sasanas during this period, one can perceive the development of not only the Telugu language, but also its grammar and vocabulary.

It is of interest to note that many of the dynasties that began to rise to power during this period, like the Kakatiyas, Kondapadumatis, and Velanati Colas, openly claim their descent from one Durjaya of the caturtha kula (the fourth caste, i.e. ^udra, the lowest in the varna social hierarchy). Incidentally, this Durjaya is identified with Durjaya-Raju figuring in a sixth century inscription from Cuddapah District.

It could be possible that this Durjaya Raju of Cuddapah of 6th century in some way or other related to Erikal Mutturaju of Cuddapah of 6th century.

go TOP


2. KUVAVAN MUTHARAYAR:

Thirumaiyam temple is located in Pudhukottai district of Tamil Nadu . This cave temple was established by Kuvavan Mutharayar during his rule at Thanjavur from 610 AD to 649 AD. There stands a statue of Kuvavan Mutharayar in the form of Twara Balaga ( Dwara Palaka = Gate keeper = Security guard) on the right side of temple door. It is believed that Kuvavan was brought from Renadu (Rayalu Seema) as a step son by his ancestor Nalladi alias Bhimasolan . Mahendra Pallavan took over Kanchi from Bhimasolan by defeating him in war. The name of Bhimasolan throws ample light on the common racial and professional origins of Mutharayars and Cholas.

Bhimasolan = Bhila + Solan

Here SOLAN most probably indicates the title of the king dynasty and it stands for Chola. Renadu stands for Rayalaseema. This reveals the following facts:

i. The connectivity between Mutharayars and the Cholas of South India.
ii. The connectivity between Tamil Muthuraj and Telugu Mudiraj.
iii. The connectivity between Telugu Cholas and Tamil Cholas.

Solan => Colan => Cholan

Raya + Seema => Rayalaseema
Raya + Nadu => Rayanadu
Seema = Nadu = Desh = Region / country
Rayalaseema = Rayanadu
Rayanadu => Raya + Nadu => Ray + Nadu
Ray + Nadu => Re + Nadu = Renadu

On the left side of temple entrance, there stands an other Twara Balaga, which is said to be the statue of Kuvavan's younger brother Punniakumaran. At the time of kuvavan's rule Punnia Kumaran was the Yuvaraja. That is why the Dwara Palaka on left entrace is seen without crown. At that time his father was on the seat of power in Renadu. The elder brother Kuvavan was only crowned as king at Thanjavur in Tamilnadu. The younger brother was serving his elder brother faithfully by staying with him. The elder brother Kuvavan honoured his younger brother for his love and faithful services by installing his statue along with him as Dwara Palaka in Thirumaiyam temple in Pudukottai Temple. The other temple details are as given below:

Moolavar : Sathyagiri nathan, Sathyamurthy Ninna Thirukolam - Facing east
Uthsavar : Maiyappan
Thayar : Vuyaiavantha Nachchiar
Theertham : Kathamba pushkarni, Sathya theertham
Vimanam : Sathyagiri Vimanam
Prathyaksham : Sathya devathaigal
Mangalasasanam : Thirumangai alwar ( 9 pasurams)
Archagars :
Location : Pudhukotai to Karaikudi rly line

This article on Twara Balagas (Dwara Palakas) of Thirumaiyam contributed by Mr. C. Sundararajan, Researcher, Mutharaya Cholar Research Center, Thanjavur.

This information has great importance to assert the fact that Muthurajas of Tamilnadu were Telugu speaking Mutharaya (Mutharacha) warrior kings who migrated from integrated Rayalaseema (Renadu) which includes Bellary districts of Karnataka also. This information strongly supports the caste and community oneness of RAYA KINGS of Rayalaseema and the Mutha Rayars who ruled Tamilnadu and parts of Kerala.

Webmaster
DT:22/12/2005

go TOP


3. PERUMPIDUGU MUTHARAIYAR :

Perumpidugu Mutharaiyar was a great king of Tanjore and belonged to Muthuraja / Mudiraja community. One of the titles of the Perumpidugu Muttaraiyar was Lord of Tanjore. There is a reference to king Perumbidugu - Muttaraiyan II, who attended the coronation of Nandi Varman Pallavamlla. Perumpidugu Mutharaiyar became the king of Tanjavur by overthrowing Chola Kingdom. The Muttaraiyars ruled over Tanjore and Pudukkotai as the feudatories of the Pallavas from the 8th to 11th Century AD. The Mutharaiyar chieftains fought with Pandyas and their supporters on behalf Pallavas.

Historians believe that Thanjavur was captured by Vijayalaya Cholan (AD 846-880) from the king Perumpidugu Muttaraiyan. Vijayalaya Chola, who conquered Tanjore from Perumbidugu Muttarayan in the 9th Century AD, was also a Pallava feudatory. Velirs and Muttarayars used to shift their loyalties from Pallavas to and Pandyas to Pallavas depending on the political power & situation from time to time. It is believed that the pallava strategy and support to cholas made it possible for Vijayala Chola to dislodge the Muttarayars from the seat of Tanjavore. Along with Muttharayars, the Pandyan influenced declined in the areas of Tanjore. The defeat of Mutharaiyars at Tanjore made Cholas so powerful that the Pallavas were also wiped out from Tanjore at later times. A vindication of the law of nemesis is discernible in the victory of a Chola Chief over Muttarayar, who had overthrown the earlier Chola kingdom.

It was believed that the Mutharaiyars and Cholas fought with each other for establishing their political domination over some lands of present day Tamilnadu. They fought with the Pandyas and invaded the Southern Peninsula and later also fought with Pandyas in support of Pallavas as subordinates of Pallavas. The Muthraiyars (mudiraj) were understood to have fought even the Pallavas for centuries before they became feudatories to Pallavas.

The Muttaraiyan chieftains were Hindus and staunch devotees of Shiva and great patrons of temple building art.

The ancient Subramanyar temple which is located 40 Km South of Nagapattinam stands as a beautiful symbol to their and devotion towards Hindu form of worship and Hindu Religion. This temple is linked Sikkal and Ennkann through the legend that the images of Skanda in all the three of these shrines were made by the same sculptor. The image of Skanda in the sanctum is an exquisite one. The entire image is supported by 2 legs of the peacock mount. This image is said to have been installed during the rule of Muttaraiyar chieftains of Tamilnadu.

Narthamalai, which is located 17 Km from Pudukottai is also a historically important place in Tamilnadu. It was the headquarters of the Mutharaiyar Chieftains. The earliest structural stone temple, circular in shape, built by the Mutharaiyar Chieftains are also worth seeing tourist spots in Tamilnadu today.

An ancient geometrical diagram (master key) was also found by the author, T.L.Subash Chandira Bose on the floor of a cave temple in Tamil Nadu, India. According to Srirangam Sridaran-The Registration officer, the department of Archeology-Government of Tamil Nadu, the construction of this Cave temple is of Mutharaiyar style temple architecture and it was built during (600-700 A.D.) the period of Pallava Kings. It was already seen that the Muthariyar chieftains were the feudatories to Pallava Kings.


The following special article is received from our Mutharaiyar brother T.L.Subash Chandira Bose on 01/01/2006 for publication in this website.

Swaran Maran alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan

by Ariviayal Anmiga Vangyani , T.L.Subash Chandira Bose

Among all the kings in Chera, Chola and Pandiya dynasty, there are three prominent kings whose ruling periods are said to be the Golden era. Those kings are Suvaran Maran alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan, Sri Raja Chola and Sri Sundara Pandiya.

The first and foremost king who had so many surnames is Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan. He ruled a part of Chola and Pandiya kingdom during the period of 8th. Century. He is the independent king and had close association with 3rd. Nandhivarma Verma Pallavan. Other way to say, he was supporting the Pallavas in all respects and by ruling a particular region independently.

There are many inscription found in Sri. Meenakchi Sundereshwarer Temple at Senthalai, which is situated in Tanjuvr District. Most of the inscriptions are found on the surface of the stone pillars of a hall in front of the womb chamber. The stone pillars are said to be belong to a temple at Nemmam. The scholars believe that the temple at Nammam might have got damaged and all the pillars are shifted from Nemmam and used at Senthalai in later period.

All the inscriptions are beautifully engraved with ancient Tamil letters, on a hand made smooth surface of the stone pillars. In this article, we shall discuss related to Suvaran Maran alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan's parental note and then about his meikeerthi. Meikeerthi means the titles (names) awarded to him based on his nature, adventures, courage and others etc.

(..dutha Perum Piddugu Mutharai); yanaina Kuvavan Maranavan; Magan Elango vadhiaraiya; naina Maran Parameshwaranavan; Magan Perum Piddugu Mutha raiyanaina; Suvaran Maranavan; edupitha Paddari Koeil (Kovil); Ava nerintha oorkalum, Avan Peyarka lum; Avanai Padinor Peyakalumi thoon mel eludhina; evai.

At first, the inscription describes the parental details of Suvaran Maran Alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan. His grand father name was Kuvavan Maran alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan. Then comes his father name was Elangovathiaraiyan alias Maran Parameshwaran.

Then come the details of the Paddari temple for mother Gooddess, which he constructed. The particulars of the location of war in which he acquired victory, the name of his maikeerthi, the name of the poets who song the poem are all engraved on the stone pillars.

Meikeerthi

In each and every pillar there is a Meikeerthi of him, then following the details of the war, and about him etc. Among all the meikeerthi, there is only one in which four names are engraved, which are as follows.

First, Sri. Tamaralayan means the peace resides with in himself.

Second, Sri. Abimanadeeran means, he is enemy to the kings those who had Ahankar.

Third, Sri. Kalvar Kalvan means the person who eradicated the thieves.

And the fourth, Sri. Sathuru Kesari means he is just like a lion to the enemies. <

It is not stated in any of the records, who the enemy was from whom Tanjore was wrested by Vijayalaya. About the middle of the 8th century A.D. Tanjore and the surrounding country was under the rule of Muttaraiyan chiefs. In the Sendalai Pillar inscription of Perumbidugu Muttaraiya, the latter is styled “the king Maran, the Lord of Tanjai (Ko-Maran-ranjai-kkon) and Kalvar-Kalvan[2], Tanjai-nar-pugal-alan, a Kalva of Kalvas, the distinguished Lord of tanjai.” In another place the following phrase occurs “nirkinra tanpanai-torum Tanjai-ttiram padi ninrar”.[3] There extracts show that in the 8th century Tanjore was ruled by a family of chiefs known as the Muttaraiyans. From the title Maran which Perumbidugu Muttaraiyan held, it may be gathered that he was either of Pandya descent or was a chief, subordinate to that family. At this time there was a great struggle going on between the Pallavas and the Pandyas for the political supremacy of South India. In this disturbed state of affairs, Vijayalaya seems to have found a good opportunity to defeat the Muttaraiyan chiefs, and make himself the ruler of Tanjore and the surrounding Chola country.

In addition to the above, there are many of such maikeerthi are found in other inscriptions related to his victory of wars and others. The other meikeerthi are Sri. Sathuru Mallan, Sri. Adi Sagason, Sri.Maran, Sri. Seru Maran, Sathan Maran, Vel Maran, Tanjai Kon, Valla Kon, Van Maran, etc.

Inscription No. 402 - (A. R. No. 402 of 1906) - Tiruchiraplli District, Pudukkottai State, Tirumayyam. -Satyagirinatha-Perumal Temple On A Stone Set Up Inside The Premises. -This is in characters of about the 9th century A.D. It is incomplete. It seems to record a gift of land for the renovation of some structure (temple?) and worship therein by Perumpidugu Perundevi, the mother of (a chief by name) Videlvidugu Vilupperadi-Araisan alias Sattan Maran. It is possible that this chief was related to the Muttaraiyars of Sendalai.

Trichy, Trichirappalli, Tiru Siran Palli, Trichnopoly was part of the famed "Perum Pidugu Mutharaiyar Maavattam"

The people of Muthuraja community in Tamilnadu gather on 23rd MAY of every year in Trichi (Thiruchurapalli) in lakhs to paricipate in birthday celebrations of of Perumbidugu Matharaiyar.


go TOP


4 KAMBAN ARRIYAN:

Kamban Arriyan was a Mutharaiyar Chieftain. He is said to be the younger brother of Visayanallulan of Alambakkam or Alambakkathu Visaya Nallulan. Kamban Arriyan built a swastika shaped during eighth century A.D. This construction is known to be of architectural importanceand located at Tiruchirapally in Tamilnadu, India. In this construction all the four directions are not blocked and also the steps in all the four directions are projecting outside the wall.

Pallava Inscription No. 32 - (A. R. No. 537 of 1905) - Tiruvellarai, Lalgudi Taluk, Trichinopoly District - On the third pillar in the rock-cut cave in the Pundarikaksha -Perumal Temple - This inscription which is highly damaged, is dated in the 10th year of Nandivarman. It mentions a certain Visayanallula[n], who may be identified with the person of the same name noticed as the elder brother of Kamban Araiyan, the builder of the well at Tiruvellarai in the 4th year of Dantivarman. He also figures as the ajnapti of the Pattattalamangalam grant of Nandivarman II. (No.37 below). Hence Nandivarman of the present record may be identified with Nandivarman II Pallavamalla.

Pallava Inscription No. 37 - (C. P. No. 5 of 1922-23) - Pattattalmangalam grant of Nandivarman: 61st year - Like the previous record, this is also engraved in Grantha and Tamil characters. It is dated in the 61st year of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman and registers a grant of 16 veli of land, which, together with the 24 veli granted previously, was constituted into a village under the name Pattattalmangalam and given to a number of Brahmanas at the instance of Mangala-Nadalvan, an officer of the king. The ajnapti of the grant viz., Vijayanallulan of Alappakkam is identical with the person of the same name figuring in an inscription of Nandivarman at Tiruvellarai (Inscription no.32) in the Trichinopoly district. The engraver of the grant was Sri-Dandi, son of Videlvidugu Pallavap-peruntachchan of Aimpanaichcheri in Kachchippedu. Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XVIII, pp. 120 ff.

Visayanallulan = Vijayanallulan
Alambakkam = Alappakkam ?

Meaning of Ajnapati : The primary constitutive ritual of the early south Indian kingdoms had been the sacrifice. In the later period, the ritual of the royal dana became primary. It represented the arena in which authority and authoritative relations were constituted in reference to the newely developed theory of divine origin.

First, royal danas provided public occasions for the composition of hymns of praise which inscribed the genealogical legacy of the kings--their inherited divine nature--and described their particular exploits, particularly their conquests. Secondly, unlike earlier grants where the supporters of the king had been classified but not named, in the late seventh century, certain persons were praised for their own qualities and identified by their personal constituencies as local big men or chiefs.The first examples of this had to do with the category of ajnapti (executor), which had previously been one of a number of intermediary titles. In grants of the late seventh century, the ajnapti was singled out as the major category or title for officials who were vitally concerned with the execution of the grant at the level of mediation between the court and the village. In a grant of Paramesvarman I, of about 680 AD the ajnapti was identified as the ruler of a particular group of villages. And a grant of Pallava Narasimhavarman of about 700 AD, the ajnapti was called Isvara (lord) of Nandakurra and was said to equal Rajaditya in valour.

Ajnapti = An Executor of Royal Order
Ajnapti (Sanskrit) = Aanatti (Tamil)
Vijnapti = Petitioner

Meaning og Vijnapati : Perhaps more importantly an altogether new category appeared that of vijnapti (petitioner). In plates of Paramesvaravarman I (about 669-690 AD) a gift of land to support Brahmins (brahmandeya) was made by the king at the request of someone who is identified, after his name, as "the lord of the Pallavas." There is also mention of the ajnapti who executed the terms of the grant. What is important about this grant is that a lord of the kingdom, apparently not of the Pallava lineage, participated in the making of the grant in more than an executive capacity: in this and later grants, the vijnapti provided the impetus for gift giving.

Pallava Inscription No. 40 - (A. R. No. 541 of 1905) - Tiruvellarai, Lalgudi Taluk, Trichinopoly District - On the margin of a well called 'Nalumulaikkeni' - This inscription records the construction of a well called Marppidugu -Perunkinaru at Tennur in Tiruvellarai by Kamban Araiyan, the younger brother of Visayanallulan of Alambakkam, in the 4th year of Dantivarman. The well is designed in the for of a svastika and it is reached by a flight of steps from each of the four directions. Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XI, p. 157.

Pidugu in Telugu means "Thunderbolt"
Marpidugu in Tamil means "Big Thunder" .

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date-4th August 2007
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


5. ELUGU RAYUDU:

Elugu Raidu was the last ruler of SALUVA dynasty who ruled his kingdom making PODILI TOWN in Rayalaseema districts of present Andhra Pradesh State as his capital. The Saluvas ruled over the Podili area in the 15th century AD with their capital at Podili. A few inscriptions and the kaifayat of Podili form the sources of their history. The rule of the Saluvas of Podili ended with Elugu Rayudu. Their territory was appropriated among the Gajapatis and the Rajas of Vijayanagara.

The people having surname ELUGU belong to Mudiraja community. There is a small village known as ELUGU VARI PALEM in the nearby region of Podili Town, where quite a considerable number of Mudiraj families are living even today. The people having surname ELUGU are the blood relatives of the author (Kokolu Anka Rao) of this website, who hails from Addanki, which was an historical town in Prakasham district of Andhra Pradesh. The author's mother hailed from a small remote village named Elugu Vari Palem and her mother was a girl with ELUGU surname by birth. The author's mother used to tell that the Mudirajas were kings in the good olden days and kammas were the couriers who used to work for Mudiraja and other kings.

kamma => courier ?



Is Surname ELUGU => ALAGAN ???

Elugu => Elugo = Elugon =>Elugan => Elagan => Alagan ??

(For more details, reader may kindly refere to UREMAILS page in this website and read correspondance between Parameswaran Alagan from Malaysia and Webmaster - Mr. Kokolu Anka Rao from India on this subject- email no.11.0 to email no.12.x )

go TOP


6. SALUVA NARASIMHA RAYA :

The Saluvas of Vijayanagara are said to be originally the Kalachuris of Northern Karnataka. The Saluva Dynasty was created by the Saluvas who by historical tradition were natives of the Kalyani region of northern Karnataka. The Gorantla inscription traces their origins to this region from the time of the Western Chalukyas and Kalachuris of Karnataka. he term "Saluva" is known to lexicographers as "hawk" used in hunting. They later spread into the east coast of modern Andhra Pradesh, perhaps by migration or during the Vijayanagara conquests during the 14th century.

The earliest known Saluva from inscriptional evidence in the Vijayanagara era was Mangaldeva, the great grandfather of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya. Mangaldeva played an important role in the victories of King Bukka Raya I against the Sultanate of Madurai. His descendents founded the Saluva Dynasty and were one of the ruling lines of the Vijayanagara Empire of Southern India. Three kings ruled from 1485 to 1505 after which the Tuluva Dynasty claimed the throne. They ruled almost the entire South India with Vijaynagar as their capital.

Inscriptions
SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XVII - INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 � 1904 � INTRODUCTION - No. 220 of Saluva Narasingadeva-maharaja from Tiruvakkarai begins with the typical Saluva titles Medini misuraganda Kattari-Saluva and the usual title Mahamandalesvara attributed to Narasingadeva (Narasimha) without mentioning any overlord. It registers an order by Saluva Narasimha�s agent Narasa-Nayaka in Sobhakrit corresponding to 1483 A.D., exempting the devadiyar of the temple of god Aludaiya-nayanar at Tiruvakkarai from the payment of a certain levy called kalattutti.

No. 221 engraved on the west base of the gopura of the same temple seems to record a final fixation of 1 panam per loom on the inhabitants of Narasapanditar-nadu. The mention of Narasa-panditar-nadu, the date and the cess on looms seem to suggest that this record also belonged to Saluva Narasimha and was re-engraved on a subsequent occasion. These records appear to confirm the independent position of the Saluva chief inasmuch as it omits to mention the overlord, for we know that very soon after the date of this record, if not on this date itself, Saluva Narasimha commenced to rule in his own right from Vijayanagara. It may be added that Narasa-Nayaka of the former record is evidently identical with the Tuluva general of the same name who succeeded the Saluvas.

Kalachuri connection
The Saluvas of Vijayanagara are said to be originally the Kalachuris of Northern Karnataka. Kalchuris are known to be a branch or variants of Kalabhras from whom it is believed that the Kodumbalur Mutharayars descended. It is believed that the Maravar people, the Agamudayars, Thanjai Cholarkula Kalla Nattars, Pandiya Vellalars, Chola Vellalars, Chera Vellalar, Vellala Mudaliyars, Agamudaya Mudaliars,Conjeevaram Mudaliars and Udayars have all descended from Kallars. Ambalakarars of Muthuraja community constitute the bulk of Marvars and kallars. Agamudayar, Agamudaya Mudaliar or Udayars all originated from the ancient Tamil race called kalabhrar of the ancient.

Udayar connection
Saluvas used the title " Udayar" , according to an inscritional information - " Mahamandalesvara Medinisvara Gandan Kattari Saluva Dharanivaraha Narasimha Raya Udaiyar. These are not the titles of a sovereign. (Hultzsch, "South Indian Inscriptions," i. 131, No. 116).".

Saluva Narasimharaya Udaiyar had constructed the Nirali mantapam in the middle of the Swamipushkarini sometime before 1468 and instituted the Floating festival with which everyone is now familiar.

Agamudayar => Mudayar => Udayar

Agamudayars or simply Udayars of Tamilnadu fall under Mukkulathor group of royal clans who are closely related to Ambalakarars of Muthuraja community. These Mukkulator clans believe that they are the descendants of Kalabras who once uprooted the Chola, chera and Pandya kingdoms assumed their titles after replacing them.

Saluva Narasimha Raya is also associated with title Yadava indicating his association with bunt community. Telugu speaking bunts are known as Mudiraj who shate a lot of common surnames with the present day Yadavas.

Saluvar is one of the surnames of Mukkulathor clans relating to Muthuraja in Tamilnadu
The Kallar community in India are living in Tanjore, Thiruvarur, Thiruchy, Nagapattinam, Pudukkottai, Ramnat, Madurai, Thirunelveli, Thindukal, and most of the South Tamil Nadu. Kallars living around Tanjore and Thiruvarur, Thiruvaiyaru,Pudukkottai, Trichy are known as Esan Nattu kallars. Saluvar is one of the surname of Kallar clans.

Saluva => Saluvar => Salvar

Esan was supposedly the name of the first Kallar chief who founded the lineage or it could mean some kind of ancient Nadu that cannot be traced today. The Thanjavur Kallars have 1500 clans, some of them are Cholahar, Jayamkondapriyar, Elamkondar, Mannaiyar, Thondaiman, Kandiyar, Vanniar, Vandaiyar, Vanathirayar, Kadu vettiyar, Vijayathevar, Pallavarayar, Kalinkarayar, Mandradiyar, Malavarayar, Sethurayar, Saluvar, Uranthairayar, Kobalar, Panipoondar, Mudipoondar, Senathiyar, Rajaliyar, Gangaikondar, Veeramundar, Nattar, Arumai Nattar, Thinnapriyar, Muneiyathirayar, Vaduvurayar.

These clan names were derived due to many reasons. All are derived from a group of founders or founder who was given a specific task by the Chola kings. Some of them are for example, Sethurayar whose founders administrated the region of Sethu Nadu, Thondaiman administrated Thondai Nadu, Pallavarayar administrated the Pallavanadu, Jayamkondapriyar is named after a lineage founder(s) who won a war with enemies by order the Chola king. Elamkondar captured the Eelam (Sri Lanka) as part of the Chola Army. Mannaiyaradministrated the Mannargudi. Vaduvurayar administrated a place called Vaduvur, Kalinkarayar administrated places in Kalinga Nadu as part of Chola conquest of that kingdom. Malavarayar administrated a place called Malai Nadu (Kerala?). Chaluvar ( Saluvar ?) administrated the regionof Chalukiya kingdom. Vanniar administrated the place of Vanni in Sri Lanka. It is said that Saluvars had their origins in Chalukyas.

Chalukya => Chaluka => Chaluva => Chaluvar
Chaluvar => Saluvar

Agamudayars of Mukkulathor clans come originally from Seevaleperi.the commonly used titles & surnames of this community,are Thevar, Nattaar, Thalaivar Ambalakarar, vandiyars, salvars, kaduvettiar..this title differ according to the region they live .etc..Women use the title Nachiyaar,& its a general practice in Southern Tamil Nadu to address a Thevar woman as "Nachchiyaar.

For more details on Udayars � Mukkulators � Mutharayars relations, please see web pagers on �kingdoms� and �Various-Names� in this website.

Saluva Narasimha Raya was son of Saluva Gunda & Grandson of Saluva Mangu :
Inscription No. 332 (Page No. 335) -(A. R. No. 206 of 1951-52 ) = II Prakara, Proper left Jamb at the Western Entrance into the Chandana-Mandapa No date- The record is in Sanskrit in Grantha. It is damaged and mentions the ruling king Devaraya, the son of Vijayesvara. Mentions Saluva, son of Gunda and Madambika and the grandson of Mamgu.

The Ramabhyudaya of Saluva Narasimha, a later emperor of Vijayanagar, before telling the story of Rama, speaks about the ancestors of the author. There Kampana's campaign against the Moslem rulers in the south is mentioned and the roles of Gopanna and Saluva Mangu, two generals who assisted the Prince are stressed. Of these Saluva Mangu was an ancestor of Saluva Narasimha. After the restoration of the Hindu rule in Srirangam, it is stated that 8 agraharas and 1000 Salagramas were presented. The Prapannamritam also narrates the story of Gopanna's crushing victory over the Moslems at Samayapuram. The Koyil Olugu, which records the history of Srirangam temple, describes how Krishnaraya of the famous Uttama Nambi family persuaded Gopannaraya to emancipate Srirangam from Moslem rule and how he obtained from Bukka of Vijayanagar 17,000 gold mohurs with which he purchased 101 villages for the maintenance of the temple.

While the idol of Ranganatha was at Thirumala the Vijayanagara chieftains, Veerakampanna Udayar, Saluva Mangu, Koppanarya etc., took all the efforts and installed Lord Ranganatha's idol at Srirangam on 6th June 1371 AD.

Mangudeva and his descendants extended the Chandragiri rajya northward. Saluvas were great devotees of Balaji. Mangideva Maharaja gold gilt the central vimanam in Tirumala in 1359. Earlier to Sri Krishna- devaraya (16th century) there is only one Telugu inscription of Saluva Mangideva Maharaya dated saka 1281 and one of Saluva Narasimha dated saka 1389.

Some historians are of the opinion that the Saluva and Tuluva dynasties hailed from Coastal Karnataka. But the fact is that they were purely Telugu speaning kings and many Muttarsa kings who supported Jainism were from Karnataka.

Saluva dynasty started by Narasimharaya
Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya (1485�1491 CE) was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Saluva Dynasty. A patron of the Madhwa saint Sripadaraya, he authored the Sanskrit work Ramabhyudayam. In 1452, he was given the title Mahamandaleshwara of Chandragiri during the reign of Mallikarjuna Raya. His father Saluva Gunda was the governor of Chandragiri in Chittoor district. He was the eldest son of Saluva Gunda, the administrator of Chandragiri..

He was the first king of Saluva dynasty who ruled vijaynager empire after the decline of Sangama dynasty. The last kings of sangama dynasty, who succeeded Vira Deva Raya (Devaraya II) were quite incompetent and allowed the empire to disintegrate. To add to this, there was great pressure from Bahmani Sultans. The Portuguese were also rapidly trying to establish themselves on the west coast and in the ports along it. The Vijaynagar empire was really under great threat under the rule of last sangama kings. It became a great concern for some patriotic governers / generals, who were working under sangama kings.

Virupaksha Raya II succeeded his uncle, Mallikarjuna Raya, a corrupt and weak ruler who continually lost against the empire's enemies. Virupaksha became increasingly unpopular and ignited many of the empire's provinces to rebel, eventually leading up to Virupaksha's death in the hands of his own son, Praudharaya in 1485. Praudharaya himself was not able to salvage the kingdom but fortunately, an able general Saluva Narasimha took control of the empire in 1485 and helped to prevent it's demise, though this change of power would mark the end of the Sangama Dynasty and the beginning of the Saluva Dynasty. Thus in AD 1485, the last Vijayanagara ruler of the Sangama Dynasty was driven out and commander Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya became the emperor. The sangama dynasty ruled for about 150 years till 1486, when Narasimha Saluva deposed the last ruler of Sangama dynasty and seized the throne for himself.

After the death of Virupaksha Raya II and arrival of Prauda Deva Raya as the new monarch of Vijayanagar, the empire plunged into neglect and anarchy. Seeing that a military coup was the only hope to save the kingdom, he despatched the son of Tuluva Isvara, Tuluva Narasa Nayaka to the imperial capital of Vijayanagara. The incumbent king Prauda Raya feld thus starting the rule of Saluva Narasimha.

Chandragiri was the capital of Vijayanagar empire under Saluva dynasty :
Chandragiri gained importance with the rise of kings of the Saluva lineage of the Vijayanagara Empire. The well-secured fortification having cyclopean walls buttressed with the typical bastions at regular intervals and pierced with gateways and zig-zag entrances, appears to have been erected originally by Immadi Narasinga Yadava Raya, while ruling from Narayanavanam. The fort along with the structures inside owes much of its construction to the Vijayanagara rule.

Military campaigns of Saluva Narasimha Raya :
Narasimha Saluva of Chandragiri seized the throne of Vijayanagara, fought to consolidate his power, and pushed back encroachments by Orissa.

As king, Saluva Narashima tried to expand the empire, though he continually faced difficulties caused from rebelling chieftains. By 1491, he lost Udayagiri to Gajapati Kapilendra while the Chiefs of Ummattur in the Mysore region, Saluvas of Hadavalli and Santharas of Karkala from coastal Karnataka region, Srirangapatna and Sambetas of Peranipadu in Cuddapah still remained threats to the empire.

Saluva Narashima's war with the Gajapatis over Udayagiri in 1489 proved disastrous when he was taken prisoner and released later after giving up the fort and surrounding areas. However he was successful at conquering the western ports of Kannada country of Mangalore, Bhatkal, Honnavar and Bakanur. This success enabled him to trade for swift horses with the Arabs. He took more efforts in the upkeep of his cavalry and army in general.

At the time when Saluva Narasimharaya waged war upon the Qutb Shah and the Gajapati, Bukkaraja accompanied him as far as Delhi with 4,000 Kshatriyas of Murikinau, 2,500 Velmas and Kammas together with all his kinsmen. The army of the Raya, which was defeated, retreated to the banks of the Narmada (pursued by the victorious enemy); but Bukka with the help of his followers arrested the enemy's progress and acquired great glory by putting them to flight. The Raya who was struck with the courage of Bukka conferred upon him as jaglr Aravidu and Celamanur yielding a revenue of 2 lakhs of varahas in addition to the estate fetching one lakh which he was already enjoying.

During the brief Suluva rule (1485-1505 A.D) Narasimha Raya the first Suluva emperor, during a tour of his dominions passed through Pudukkottai country on his way to Madurai. Vira Narasimha Nayak, the Tuluva usurper and the general of Saluva Narasimha-I, led a campaign against the Pandya chiefs and marched through Pudukkottai.

When he died in 1490, Narasimha appointed his prime minister Narasa Nayaka regent for his two young sons, and he invaded the declining Bahmani sultanate.

The stone poles in the Fort area of Barkur were regarded as the horse sheds, but the evidence found now suggests the place as the warehouse belonged to the palace. Lot of artifacts has been unearthed during the excavation and a 1442 A.D. inscription related to Raja Salva Narasimha is also found.

End of Saluva Dynasty :
The rule of Saluva dynasty did not last long. Narasimha Saluva was succeeded by his two sons. Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya had two sons - Thimma Bhupala 1491 and Narasimha Raya II 1491-1505, who ruled vijayanagar empire after his death. Saluva Narashima eventually died in 1491. However, at the time, his sons were too young to ascend to the throne. Because of this, the sons were left to the care of Narasa Nayaka, a loyal general and minister from the Tuluva family.

Narasimha Raya II was the second son of King Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya. He came to power following the assassination of his elder brother Thimma Bhupala. Though he was a crowned king of Vijayanagara Empire, the real power lay in the hands of the empire's able commander Tuluva Narasa Nayaka. In 1505, Narasimha Raya II was murdered in Penukonda where he had been kept in confinement by Tuluva Narasa Nayaka.

In AD 1491, after the death of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya, Tuluva Narasa Nayaka becomes regent of Vijayanagara. During the reign of the second son Immadi Narasimha in 1505, the Taluva chief Vira Narasimha usurped the throne and thus laid the foundation of the Taluva dynasty. Narasa Nayaka, an army commander under Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya took control of the reign of the empire to prevent it from disintigration.

Padmavati was the daughter of Saluva Narasimharaya :
After the death of Kapilendradeva his son Purushottam born of a Brahmin lady called Parvatidevi succeeded to the throne. After becoming king, Purushottam tried to occupy the territory snatched away by Saluva Narasimha during the civil war. He sent his army to occupy Udayagiri which had been taken away by Saluva Narasimha. Udayagiri was occupied and Saluva Narasimha was taken captive. Thus Purushottam could restore his power and glory during his last days.

Orissan temples depict some of them. Kanchi-Modern Kanjeevaram in Madras.Tradition reveals that king Purusottamadeva invaded Kanchi, the capital of Vijayanagar ruler Salva Narasimha and captured princess Padmavati of Kanchi - later on he married her.

Once upon a nedieval time, King Purushottama Dev was all set to marry Princess Padmavati, daughter of Maharaja Salva Narasimha of Kanchi. When the Ratha Yatra festival was to take place, the maharaja was invited, but sent his minister Chinnubhatta Godaranga instead. When the minister saw the King of Puri sweeping the road, he made a most unfavourable report to his king and the marriage was called off.

Purushottama Dev was furious that he, the servant of Lord Jagannatha, should be so insulted. So he gathered his troops and tore down to Kanchi to teach its maharaja a lesson. But Purushottama was thrashinglythrashingly defeated.

Purushottam Deva wanted to marry the daughter of king Salva Narashimha, who was famous for her beauty and intelligence. But the later refused to hand over his daughter as the king of Orissa performed Chera-Pahamra, the duty of sweeper before Lord Jagganath in the time of annual car festival. Purushottam felt insulted and invaded Kanchi for taking revenge. But he was defeated by the king of Kanchi. After the defeat in the first expedition to Kanchi, Purushottam Deva took the recluse with Lord Jagganath. The Lord instructed him to arrange for a second expedition to Kanchi. He assured the king that this time he along with his brother Balabhadra would join the expedition. He also instructed the king to assign the role of commander-in-chief to the man, in front of whose house the garland of the Lord will be found in the next morning. The garland of the Lord Jagganath was noticed in front of the house where the young prince Govind Bhanja was living. According to the wish of the Lord, he was appointed as the commander-in-chief in the second Kanchi expedition.

The second battle of Kanchi took place in the year 1475 AD. Govind Bhanja put up a gallant fight leading the army of Purushottam Deva. The valiant display of this young prince and in his able leadership combined with the participation of Lord Jagganath and Balabhadra and blessing from Ma Tarini, at the end of the fifth day of the battle Kanchi king Salva Narasimham was overpowered. This restored the reputation of Purushottam, the great devotee of Lord Jagganath. After the success in this expedition, Purushottam prepared to return back to Puri carrying princess Padmavati with him. Purushottam Deva marched back to Puri with his army and Padmavati.

In fact a direct clash between Purushottam and Salva Narashimha took place only in 1489-90 AD, and it do resulted in the disastrous defeat of the later.

Tarini Vrata is celebrated every year on the Tuesday that falls in between the Ratha Yatra and Bahuda Yatra. The specific day is chosen to venerate the devotion of Padamavati, the daughter of Kanchi king Salva Narashimha, towards Tarini that had rewarded her Purushottam Deva as her husband in a dramatic situation.

Padmavati- Heroine of the Kanchi-Kaveri tradition. Daughter of king Salva Narasimha of Vijaya nagara whose capital was Chandragiri. Gajapati Purusottama married her.Her other name was Rupambika, the mother of Prataprudradeva.

KRI of brother of Saluva Narasimharaya :
K.Srinivasan referred to Kantadai Ramunuja Iyengar (KRI). Srirangam records indicate that KRI was a brother of Saluva Narasimhan, the king of Vijayanagar and suggest that KRI's special respect for Kulasekara could have come from latter's heritage as a King of the Royal family of Cheranadu. He was a " Sattatha Parama Ekaanki"(superior ascetic Srivaishnava of Nonbrahmin class) according to the A.D 1489 temple inscription of Srirangam.

He built Ramanuja Kutams at Srirangam, Kanchipuram and Thirumalai to feed the pilgrims and to provide shelter during their pilgrimage. He was a trusted freind of the Vijayanagar King of his time known as Saluva Narasimha, who played an equally important part in the transformation of Thirumalai temple from its state as a difficult to access, remote Divya Desam to a temple receiving 60M$ revenue today (Sreekrishna's Numbers). The seed for that growth was sown by KRI and two of his contemproaries.

He lived during the time of another great devotee of the Lord of Thirumalai, viz., Talapakkam Annamacharya, whose Sankirtanas . Hence the Vijayanagara King(Saluva Narasimha), Annamachar and KRI must have combined their energies to raise the flag of Thiruvenkatam as the most popular pilgrim center for people of all faithsin general and Srivaishnavas in particular.

Later during the reign of Saluva Narasimha, the village of Gundippundi was granted in 1484 A.D. (11.81) in favour of Kandada Ramanuja Ayyangar's Ramanujakutam to enable to the Sattada Srivaishnavas attached to it to supply every day the parimalam articles or perfumery etc., required for the Tirumanjanam (bathing) of the idols in Tirumalai and 'in Tirupati.

By the time the Pandyan authority and the Yadavaraya Rule came to an end and the new Vijayanagar authority had asserted itself, it was found that during the reign of Devaraya Maharaya II, the Tirumalai temple had acquired a large number of villages as its exclusive landed property. A list of these-it may not have been complete list-has already been shown in the earlier part of this chapter. For the development of agriculture in these villages the excavation of spring channels and the construction of new tanks were undertaken during the rule of Saluva Narasimharaya who was the Viceroy of the Vijayanagar King for this part of the Kingdom. He and his five cousins who were all ruling chiefs with the title of Mahamandalesvara and Maharaja made large contributions not only by grant of villages but also by the excavation of irrigation channels at their own cost. An ardent Sri Vaishnava by name Kandadai Ramanuja Ayyangar was Narasimha's able assistant in this work. During the period from about 1460 to 1490 improvement of irrigation resources was the main task for the Sthanattar and the Tiruppani Bhandarattar Endowments in the shape of cash were made by numerous private individuals as well. From the increased yield of paddy consequent on the improvements made by these cash endowments, certain food offerings and festivals were added to the existing ones.

Saluva Narasimha Raya was a staunch devotee of Thirupathi Balaji :
It was not until 300 years later, however, when Venkateswara was adopted as the household god of the Saluva dynasty of Vijayanagara, that Tirupati achieved a position of pre-eminence.

In spite of their saivite origins the Saluva rulers became great patrons of Vaishnism and accepted LORD VENKATA OF THIRUPATHI as their family Deity. During 15th Century AD, the Vijayanagar Kingdom was ruled by a pious king Saluva Narasimha Raya, one of the popular royal dynasties of ancient India. This king was an ardent devotee of Lord Venkateswara of Tirupati and used to visit the temple by walking up the hill for worship. When the king became old and physically incapable to walk, he prayed the Lord to see him daily.

Saluva Narasimha was known to be a pious ruler and also the first king, who laid the real foundation through immense contribution to the growth of Thirupathi into a great Hindu piligrim center. Balaji was the family diety of Saluva kings. The later kings of Vijayanagar Empire including Sri Krishna Deva Raya followed in the foot steps of Saluva Narasimharaya in promoting the growth of Thirupathi through their devotion and contributions.

The king built a temple for the idol. After the demise of the king, a great fire broke out in the kingdom and the idol was thrown into a dilapidated well. As the legend has it, Swami Vijayindra Tirtha of Sree Kumbhakonam Mutt who happened to traverse that region during one of his tours, is said to have been led by a serpent to the well wherein the idol of the Lord was deposited. The Swamiji recovered the idol from the well and started worshipping the idol along with his other idols. The Idol of Lord Venkatesvara being worshipped at Cochin Tirumala Devaswom temple was obtained from Swami Vijayindra Tirtha of Sree Kumbhakonam Mutt in exchange of a heap of gold coins which would immerse the idol.

The main temple has three prakarams. Between the outermost and middle prakarams is the second pathway for circumambulation known as the Sampangi Pradakshinam. The Sampangi Pradakshinam contains several interesting mandapams like the Pratima Mandapam, Ranga Mandapam, Tirumala Raya Mandapam, Saluva Narasimha Mandapam, Aina Mahal and Dhvajasthambha Mandapam.

At each of the four corners of the open space in the Sampangi pradakshinam, there are small mandapams on four pillars constructed by Saluva Narasimha in about 1470 AD. Tirumala Raya Mandapam or Anna Unjal Mandapam consists of two different levels, the front at a lower level and the rear at a higher. The southern or inner portion of this Mandapam was constructed by Saluva Narasimha in 1473 AD to celebrate a festival for Sri Venkateswara called Anna Unjal Tirunal.

The Vasanta Tirunal which Saluva Narasimharaya instituted in 1468 A.D. was improved into a grander festival by Tirumalaraya. Inscription V. (168) states that Tirumalarajayya constructed the Anna Unjal mantapam and V. 171 specifically mentions that the food offering was during Narasimharayan's Anna Unjal Tirunal which shows that the festival was being celebrated uninterruptedly from the days of Saluva Narasimharaya. In Tirupati an Anna Unjal Tirunal for Sri Govindarajaswami was instituted in 1506 (III. 12, 18-7-1506) by one Appa Pillai, son of Karvattippuli alvar who was a general under Saluva Narasimha as well as Sri Krishnadevaraya. This was also a seven day festival. Tiruppalli Odai Tirunal or Floating Festival is mentioned for the first time in an inscription of the year 1468 A.D. (II. 31, 16-3-1468). It shows that it fell during the Kodai Tirunal. Saluva Narasimharaya Udaiyar had constructed the Nirali mantapam in the middle of the Swamipushkarini sometime before 1468 and instituted the Floating festival with which everyone is now familiar. There is no doubt that during the hot weather, it was considered expedient by all the temple goers to take the Processional Murti and the Nachchimars to a cool and airy spot like this mantapam, and to perform Tirumanjanam and make food offerings there.

Annual Brahmotsavam is being conducted at Tirumala only in the month of Kanya as per soura mana or Asvayuja as per chandra mana as initiated, by Brahmadeva. And an additional festival once in three years is celebrated when there is an adhika masa or intercalary month in the year as per lunar calendar. The latter practice commenced with the advent of Saluva Narasimha and the Vijayanagara kings to give satisfaction to those who observe the Saura-chandra mana Panchangam.

Earlier to Sri Krishna- devaraya (16th century) there is only one Telugu inscription of Saluva Mangideva Maharaya dated saka 1281 and one of Saluva Narasimha dated saka 1389. In making an endowment of the village of Durgasamudram in 1482 A.D. for the exclusive purpose of construction and repairs of temple structures, the donor Saluva Narasimharaya made the Tiruppani Bhandarattar trustess for the same. Mangideva Maharaja gold gilt the central vimanam in Tirumala in 1359.

Saluva Narasimha maintained two Satrams in Tirumalai where food was distributed free to pilgrims.

Association of Saluvas with Srisailam :
This temple tank is at a distance of 5 km from the temple. The tanks were built by the Saluva Kings of Vijayanagar. Hindu devotees are allowed to perform abhishekam and poojas to the god. They are allowed to enter the garbagriha and perform abhishekam with water from the Patalaganga. This form of worship is unique to Srisailam, as devotees are not allowed to enter the garbagriha anywhere else.

According to inscriptions preserved in the temple, the Vijayanagara kings made extensive improvements to the temple in 1405 A.D. Srisailam�s importance can be traced back to the Buddhist period, when the Mahayana school of Buddhism was known to have flourished here during the 1 Century A.D.

Association of Vyasa Tirtha with Saluva dynasty and Tirupati :
The Sripadarajashtakam talks about the considerable influence Shri Sripadaraja wielded over the King Saluva Narasimha at Chandragiri. The King, after his return from the Kalinga campaign (in 1476) honored Shri Sripadaraja. Shri VyAsa Tirtha also visited the court of Saluva Narasimha at Shri Sripadaraja's behest.

He was sent to the court of Saluva Narasimha of Chandragiri. He performed pooja for lord Srinivasa at Tirumala hills,for 12 years. Later he went to the court of Vijayanagar. Sri Krishnadevaraya was the king who looked upon him as his kulaguru and was always ready to carry out his wishes.

After Kanchi, he continued his studies at Mulbagal which was the seat of Sripadaraja and a hub for learning like Kanchi. There he studied Vedanta for about five to six years. Around this time, he distinguished himself at the court of Saluva Narasimha at Chandragiri by winning several debates against renowned opponents.

Under the direction of Sri Sripadaraja Tirtha, the Saluva king Narasimha honored Sri Vyasa Tirtha and made him Rajaguru. Thereafter he came to be known as Sri Vyasaraja Tirtha.

He went to Tirupathi in 1486, after being requested by the king Sri Saluva Narasimha to become the custodian of the Temple. He had performed puja to Lord Venkateshwara for about twelve years. There was change of guard in the Vijanagara Samrajya, but he remained the Rajaguru. Sri Krishnadevaja ascent the throne in 1509, who worshipped Sri Vyasaraja Tirtha.

Salva Narasimha (who was the ruler of Mulbagal and greatly devoted to Sripadaraja Tirtha) became the emperor of the fledgling Vijayanagar kingdom. During this period, the priests of the Tirupati Venkateshwara temple had degraded themselves to grossly corrupt practices much to the harassment of the visiting pilgrims. After receiving numerous complaints, Salva Narasimha sent his soldiers to bring the corrupt priests to his court at Chandragiri. When the puffed up priests refused to obey the command of the king, the outraged soldiers killed all the priests of the temple. Due to this incident, the worship at the temple was almost stopped and Salva Narasimha was severely afflicted with the sinful reactions of killing the Brahmanas. Salva Narasimha became extremely sick and bed-ridden. In this precarious situation, the distressed queen called for Sripadaraja Tirtha from Mulbagal. Sripadaraja Tirtha came to Chandragiri and miraculously delivered the king from all his sinful reactions restoring him to normalcy.

Later, Salva Narasimha begged Sripadaraja Tirtha to become his rajaguru and also take up the worship of Lord Venkateshwara at Tirupati. Sripadaraja Tirtha then called for Vyasa Tirtha to take up this task. Vyasa Tirtha came to Chandragiri and was gorgeously received by Salva Narasimha. His grand reception is very nicely described by Somanatha kavi in his book Vyasa yogi carita. Salva Narasimha accepted Vyasa Tirtha as his spiritual master and requested him take up the worship and administration of the Venkateshwara temple. Thus Vyasa Tirtha went to Tirupati and engaged in immaculate worship and management at the temple for a period of twelve years.

After making appropriate arrangements for the worship of Lord Venkateshwara, Vyasa Tirtha went back to Vijayanagar where he was eagerly received by Salva Narasimha. After sometime, Salva Narasimha passed away and his eldest son Timmaraja became the emperor of the Vijayanagar kingdom.

During this time he was entrusted the worship of Lord Srinivasa at Tirupati, a task that he performed for twelve years, from 1486-1498. Sri Vy�sa T�rtha left for Vijayanagara after persistent invitations by its royalty and ministers, and stayed there for the major part of the rest of his life.

The biography of Vyasa Tirtha gives a brilliant account of the arrival of Vyasa Tirtha, at the court of Saluva Narasimha at Candragiri, and the grand reception that they had there for him. Being worshipped by the king bathed in presious jewells, pure gold and silver powders, and presented with all kinds of oppulences befitting such a worthy 'acarya'. Vyasa Tirtha spent a couple of years there in this way being honoured by the king.

The king entrusted Vyasa Tirtha with the worship of Srinivasan, Lord Visnu, at Tirupati (Tirumala). Sripad Vyasa Tirtha's Mutt is still at Tirupati on the hill of Tirumala. Before leaving that place, after about twelve years of being there (1486-98.), he gave the worship over to his disciples. His South Indian tour must have come at this time. According to the commentator Somanatha, Vyasa Tirtha returned to Candragiri for a while after 1498. He evidently did so at the request of Saluva Immadi Narasimha, the son and successor of Saluva Narasimha, untill Narasa Nayaque became defacto ruler of Vijayanagar soon after the settlement which he concluded with King Tamma Raya, in 1498.

Annamayya was a Guru and Childhood friend of Saluva Narasimharaya :
Annamaya was not only a guru of Emperor Saluva Narasimha Raya of Vijayanagar but also his childhood friend.

Saluva Narasimha, the local ruler and childhood friend of Annamayya, invited him to his place and treated him as his guru. When Narasimha became the governor of Penugonda, Annamayya was honoured with `Sapta Lanchanas'.

Annamayya was famous for his musical compositions. According to some historians, it is only at this time that he came into contact with Saluva Narasinga who was a Chieftain at Tangutur. Saluva Narasinga came to know of Annamayya's talents. He invited him to Tangutur. They were moving so closely as the people of the village compared them with Arjuna and Sri Krishna. Annamayya used to compose songs on Lord Venkateswara and sing them in the presence of his friend, Narasinga. Narasinga had all appreciation for the poetic talents of Annamayya.

One day, Saluva Narasimha Raya, the ruler of Penugonda, came to Tirumala to worship Lord Venkateswara. Enchanted by Annamayya's devotional keertanas (poems), the king invited him to his court. Saluva Narasimha, who became a fan of his songs and made him the court poet. Though he wass unwilling to go to Penugonda, his wives persuaded him saying that his songs could become more popular under the king's patronage.

After a year of uneventful stay in the king's court, matters took a bad turn with Annamayya refusing the king's bidding to sing in praise of his queen. One day Saluva Narasinga sent word to Annamayya and asked him to compose songs on him similar to those on Lord Venkateswara. Annamayya was shocked to have such a request from his friend. He refused very boldly, saying that my tongue which is accustomed to sing in praise of God will not sing in praise of a human being. Angered by his refusal, the king got him chained and lashed. Suddenly fire broke out and the chains melt away, when Annamayya sang a deeply devotional song on Narasimhaswamy, the fiery lion-god (yet another incarnation of Vishnu).

Quite in keeping with Prahalada's code Annamacharya told the chieftain that his compositions were of and for the Lord alone. Stung by the honest reply of the poet, the Saluva imprisoned Annamacharya. On release, Annamacharya left for his spiritual home, Tirumala.

Annamayya realizing the divine order took to writing poems and sankirtans and reached old age. Priests and Brahmins unhappy with his social inclusion of lower caste people in the temple tried to destroy his writings. When Annamayya decided to sacrifice his life because all his works were lost, a significant portion of his work was saved by Lord's grace from the fire. Saluva Narasimha and Annamayya's sons converted his work from palm to copper encriptions thus preserving his works for eternity. The saint-poet had composed over 32,000 songs in praise of Lord Venkateswara and His consorts on palm leaves, which were replicated on copper plates during the reign of Saluva Narasimharaya of Vijayanagara dynasty. However, copper plates containing only 12,000 songs could be salvaged.

Annamacharya, a Telugu composer who lived in the 15th century during the reign of Saluva Narasimharaya of the Vijayanagara dynasty, composed 32,000 songs, but only 12,000 are available. After being preserved for over four centuries in Sankeerthana Bhandara, they were transferred to the TTD.

king Saluva Narasimha wrote Ramabhyudayam. Rajanatha Dindima II wrote Saluvabhyudayam (poems on the wars of Saluva Narasimha).

Immadi Narasimha Saluva
Narasimha Saluva placed his son Immadi Narasimha Saluva (1491AD - 1505 AD) on the throne as he was badly wounded in a battle. The affairs of the state were still managed by him as its de facto ruler. When he died in 1490, Narasimha appointed his prime minister and trusted General Narasa Nayaka of tuluva family as regent for his two young sons, and he invaded the declining Bahmani sultanate.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date :31/12/2007
Nagpur

go TOP


7. RAJA VENKATAPPA NAYAKA OF SHORAPUR

Shorapur kingdom was founded in 1636 by Gaddipida Nayak. The British annexed it in 1858, after king Venkatappa Nayak was found dead in mysterious circumstances. The British said that it was a suicide, but Bedars believe that he was shot dead by British.

Bedar or Vedar is a subsect of Tamil Muthuraja community today. Bhakta Kannappa or Bedara Kannappa, the famous devotee of Srikalahasteeswar belong to this community. In Karnataka the people of Valmiki community are also called as NAYAKA, BEDA, TALAVARA. All these are belonging to VALMIKI community only. These are non other than Bhil / Boya / Valmikis of India. Valmiki is a subsect of Telugu Mudiraja in some parts if Andhra Pradesh. Many Nayakas who ruled parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Maharastra are known as Nayaka rulers. Kamineni Muttaraju who ruled parts of Nellore was a Valmiki Nayaka. Today the Kamineni people are part of Kamma community.

The chiefs of VALMIKI community are called as NAYAKA. There are two sub-castes : (1) The VALMIKI peoples living in cities are called as URA NAYAKA in CHITRADURGA dist. And (2) The VALMIKI peoples living in villages, in forest are called as MYASA NAYAKA.

Venkatappa Nayak from Shurpur, Karnataka is said to arraign the Southern kings against the British in 1857. History did not record their brave deeds; instead it made them history sheeters: the British declared the Berad-Ramoshis a criminal tribe. Theirs is a journey from first-class warriors to criminals, courtesy the Criminal Tribes Act, 1871.

According to Rajguru of Shorapur princely state, Berads come from Tamilnadu migrating to Karnatake during Vijaynagar rule. Names of 14 ancestors are known to him but not whereabouts. The last was 'goshti pid nayaka', a contemporary of Shivaji Maharaj. This means the history dates back to 800 years from Shivaji's known date of 1630. Epigraphs of 8th to 11th century mention 'Bed-Beda', are they for the community?

Shorapur is at a distance of 108 km from Gulbarga. Surapur was ruled by Bedara Nayakas (Valmikis - a subsect of Mudiraj ). Formerly known as Surapur, Shorapur is a hilli locked town. This is the place where prince Venkatappa Nayaka fought against British in 1857.. The prince Venkatappa Nayaka revolted against the British. There is a Gopalaswamy temple in this town. The Venugopla Swami Temple dedicated to Lord Krishna is found here. A fair is organized at this place, every year on the event of Sri Krishna Janmashtami.Venkatappa Nayaka rendered his services in helping the mutt to carry on its noble task of perpetuation of spiritual creed.

Also known as Surpur, is the picturesque town on a ridge, surrounded by hills. It is dotted with temples, palaces, mosques and 'ashur-khanas'. An imposing fort is nearby. Taylor's Manzil, the residence of Col. Meadows Taylor, an Englishman appointed by the British, as a political agent to the state is a beautiful building.

As the "doctrine of lapse" gave way to dissent and resistance from princely states across the country, Kittur Chennamma, Sangolli Rayanna and others spearheaded rebellions in Karnataka in 1830, nearly three decades before the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Other uprisings followed, such as the ones at Supa, Bagalkot, Shorapur, Nargund and Dandeli. These rebellions which coincided with the 1857 war of independence were led by Mundargi Bhimarao, Bhaskar Rao Bhave, the Halagali Bedas, Venkatappa Nayaka and others. 1857 -- Raja Venkappa Nayak of Shurpur Dist Gulbarga rebelled. He died in struggle.

Raja Venkatappa Naik refused Governor General Dalhousie
As part of the British policy of controlling and eventually eliminating old princely states, the British Governor-General Dalhousie had asked Raja Venkatappa Naik to appoint a British officer at his court.

The Raja refused, and in preparation for a revolt began strengthening his army. Anticipating an insurrection by the formidable Bedars under the leadership of Venkatappa Naik, the British sent a force under Captain Newberry to capture the principality.

The Bedar army retreated to the Wagingera Fort (that still stands tall on the outskirts of the city surrounded by rocky hills) and waged a fierce battle against the British force, repulsing the first attack and killing Captain Newberry. The British army returned with fresh reinforcements and in the subsequent attack took the fort.

British soldiers looted Surpur residents
The John Company was involved in a war with Surpur (or Shorapur), a small kingdom near Gulburga city. The ruler of Surpur revolted against the John Company in 1857. Surpur was defeated and annexed by the British. The soldiers of the Company were allowed to loot the homes of residence in Surpur. All inhabitants of the fort were asked to vacate their houses. The soldiers entered their homes and took valuables like jewels, coins, gold etc. and all this loot was gathered and collected in one place. The officers then divided the loot among the soldiers and themselves according to their rank.

The Berad Naiks were distinguished themselves in the siege of Wakinkheda, a fort where the family entourage and the gold of the Marathas was kept. Wagingera was captured byMughals, but its chief and his army escaped and lived to give great trouble to the Mughals. Wagingera was the last battle for Aurangzeb, who died two years later�but not for the Berads. They captured the fort of Penukonda the very next year and later built a new fort of Shorapur, barely two kilometers east of Wagingera.

Gurugunta, in Lingsugur taluk, was the chief town of a small principality (samsthana) of Naiks related to the chiefs of Kankgiri and Shorapur. In the old days, these chiefs owed allegiance to Viajayanagara kings or Adil Shahs of Bijapur. The Gurugunta samsthana had survived under the Nizams and was merged in the district in 1949. In the old days, these chiefs owed allegiance to Viajayanagara kings or Adil Shahs of Bijapur. The Gurugunta samsthana had survived under the Nizams and was merged in the district in 1949.

Historic agreement discovered
Historic settlement have been discovered in Rayan Kollur in Shorapur taluk and Vibuthi halli in Shahapur taluk and on the bank of Bhima river in Jewargi taluk. Sri Veerabhadrappa Nisty, Prime Minister of the erstwhile Surpur kingdom.

Venkatappa Nayak built tanks & bunds
Shahapura, which is famous for its limestone has wells that are only five meters deep but water is always available here. The neighbouring village Surpura also has many wells. History states that the King, Venkatappa Nayak, was instrumental in constructing tanks and bunds, wells and water stations. He encouraged afforestation as well as initiated many measures for soil and land conservation. Even today the greenery of Surpura makes it appear that it is a part of Malnad, the land of green forests in the Western.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 05/08/2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India.

go TOP


8. NAGA NAYAK OF KONDANA, NEAR PUNE :


Naga Nayak was a koli ruler who ruled his provience near pune in Maharastra around 1327 A.D. It is said that Nag Naik stoutly defended the Sinhagad fort (AD 1328) against the might of the Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq for about nine months.

Kolis are primerily a fishermen community of Maharastra, the neighbouring state of Andhra Pradesh. The Telugu Mudiraj fishermen communities are said to be the migrated kolis of Maharastra, Gujarat & other North Indian states.

There is no doubt that Naik was a title extensively used by Koli kings in the good olden days and by some community people even today in Maharastra. Several Koli uprisings against the tyrannical Moslem rule were recorded around 1327 AD all over Maharashtra. Naga Nayak, the ruler of the Kolis, puts up a heroic resistance against the moslem hordes from the great hill fastness of Kondanna (Sinhagad of later times, conquered by the great Tanaji). Not much is known about this great valiant and heroic king & fighter. Nayak title was extensively used by kolis, bunts, and valmikis (Bedars).

The earliest mention of the Sinhagad fort, which was known as Kondhana until in 1647 Shivaji changed its name to Sinhgad or the Lion's Fort, is in 1340 when the Delhi emperor Muhammad Tughlik (1325-1351) marched against it.

Nag Naik, its Koli chieftain, opposed Muhammad with great bravery, but was forced to take refuge within the walls of the fort. As the only way to the hill top was by a narrow rock-cut passage, Muhammad, after fruitless attempts on the works, blockaded the fort. At the end of eight months, as their stores failed them, the garrison left the fort and Muhammad returned to Daulatabad.

Nag Nayak, 'chief of the Kolls', yielded after a lengthy siege of his stronghold, but we do not know for how long he remained submissive and the history of this tract is obscure. Kolis under their brave leader Nag Nayak refused to submit to Delhi sultan and upheld their independence. The nobles who ruled the southern districts would not recognise the authority of the Delhi Sultan or his deputy.

Ever since 1328, when a Koli tribal chieftain, Nag Naik, stubbornly staved off a nine-month siege by Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq, Sinhagad has witnessed the passage of warring dynasties. Three centuries later, Shivaji wrested away Sinhagad from the Mughals by bribing a commander. Much to his distress, he had to cede it to them again by the Treaty of Purandhar.

Sinhagad is 25 km from Pune. The 700-metre high mountain is historically one of the most important sites in the city. Initially it was called Kondhana and held by a Koli chieftain. Nag Naik defended this fort (1328 AD) against the might of Muhammad bin Tughlaq. Later, it went to Adil Shah of Bijapur and subsequently to Chhatrapati Shivaji. Later Jaswant Singh, Aurangzeb's commander was rebuffed by Shivaji. So, this fort has a history infused by tales of bravery. The fort was finally captured by the Mughals who wanted to avenge the defeat of Aurangzeb's commander Shaiste Khan by Shivaji.

Koli Sarpa could mean Koli Naga.
Sarpa = Naga = Serpent

Monarchs including Muhammad bin Tuglaq and Chhatrapati Shivaji down to present-day tourists, have been attracted to the Sinhagad Fort, located atop a hill. Its record is marked by tales of bravery and derring-do. How Shivaji's general, Tanaji Malusare, captured the fort, and how the Koli chieftain, Nag Naik, defended it for nine months, are part of the lore.

1327 : Koli uprising (?)- Several revolts against the tyrannical Moslem rule break out all over Maharashtra. Naga Nayak, ruler of the Kolis, puts up a heroic resistance against the moslem hordes from the great hill fastness of Kondanna (Sinhagad of later times, conquered by the great Tanaji) for about nine months.

Sinhagad fort, Previously called Kondana the fort's location has been strategically important since at least the 14th century and has been the site of many important battles. By 1647, he had captured Kondana and Rajgad forts and had complete control of the Pune region. Visit the Sinhagarh or Lion's Fort lies about 19 kilometres Southwest of Pune which is spread over a wide area on one of the highest points of the Bhuleshwar range. The fort was called as Kondana until 1647, when Shivaji-the great Maratha leader changed its name to Sinhagarh.

Sinhagad - where valour is etched on every stone and the soil has turned red seeped by the blood of martyrs! From the time when a Koli chieftain, Nag Naik stoutly defended this fort (AD 1328) against the might of the Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq for nine months to Jaswant Singh, Aurangzeb's commander, who dragged his guns up the fort's steep shoulders to avenge the insult to Shaista Khan, who was rebuffed by Shivaji, this fort has been infused by tales of bravery.

Sinhagad or Sinhgad meaning Lion Fort, is located near the city of Pune, India, situated on a hill rising 800 metres above the surrounding countryside. The base of the fort is approximately 550 meter (1800 ft) above sea level, and its top is 1,350 m (4,430 ft) above sea level. Previously called Kondana ), the fort's location has been strategically important since at least the 14th century and has been the site of many important battles.

Naganayaka seems to be a name of South Indian origin : A good part of Navaranga of Channigaraya Temple was rebuilt during Vijayanagar period while a number of minor erections were done here and there in the compound of the temple like the Deepasthambha and the Yagashala where the Sacred fire in the temple is lit. During the 15th Century the materials of Shiva and Jain Temples were used for the construction of Naganayaka Mantap right in the front of the main temple.

Inscriptions of Imperial Cholas - No. 130. (A. R. No. 639 of 1920.) - On a Nandi stone set up in front of the temple of Ramalingasvami, Chilumuru, Tenali Taluk, same District. S. [1]075 - States that Muppa Naganayaka made a gift of land as emoluments to the Sanis and the Manis as also for a perpetual lamp in the temple of Ramisvara of Chunumuru and for feeding ten Brahmins in a Choultry in the said village. Mentions Gonkaraja of velanandu.

Koli - Bedar similarities
The Kolis weave cloth, keep pigs and fowls, and are agricultural labourers. They seems to be the same people as bedars in many ways and could belong to a separate branch of naga dravidian race. While kolis became expert fishermen and agriculturists, the bedars became expert hunters and chieftains. Both Kolis and bedar valmikis are one and the same people. The Mudiraj and Muthuraj was mostly derived from their royal title indicating a ruling class among kolis & Bedars. It is a well known fact that Mudiraj people are a branch of the kolis who migrated from Sindhu river basin to South India via Gujarat, Rajastan, and Maharastra. Both these communities have similarities in their traditions of worship and profession. In fact kolis claim that Valmiki was from their community and it is also a fact that Bedar Valmiki nayakas claim that they are the direct descendants of Saint Valmiki.

Nayakawadi is mudiraj surname
The Nayakavalas may have got their designation from officiating for Koli Nayaks. They are found near Dvarika. Nayakvalas were designated so after officiating for Koli Nayaks. According to Wilson (1877) they are found near dwarika.

Nayakvala => Nayakwada => Nayakwadi

Use of Nayak Title
Again "Nayak" is a Bunts surname, mainly from Nakre village in Karkala Taluk. Majority of Nadavas of North Canara have got surname Nayaka. Father of famous queen Keladi Chennamma was Siddappa Shetty and her husband was (Siva) Nayaka. Shiva Nayaka was a Bedar / Valmiki Nayak. Valmikis are a subsect of Mudiraj community.

Bunts & Kolis are Naga vamsis
The Nagas were dravidians. Dravidians were once spread across the entire India from Sindhu river to Srilanka. River Sarswati was one of their original home lands. Baigas, the Gonds, the Kolis of Madhya Prades claim a kinship with the Nagas which lends support to the thesis of Aryan-Naga conflict in the region.

The Kolis of Maharashtra call themselves Nag- bansi. It is said that the Nagas always formed the van of the army of Jaipur. The caste known as kolis, who are found not merely as a fisher people all along the Western seaboad of India, but also as agriculturists inland, claim in their own folk history to have been the servants of the Naga race. The kolis preserve a tradition that they and the gagas "brought the art of writing to India" under a leader called Prithu Wainya. Some of the Koli gods are shown seated on ceremonial couches of a peculiar character, the eesign of whose feet, again, is only found at MohenJo-Daro .

Kolis were also known Mushikas (also spelt as Mushakas, Mooshikas and Mooshakas) and were found mention of in the Mahabharata epic. Mushikada was mentioned as a king or chief in the race of Nagas (Nagas could be serpent-worshippers or serpent-gods or simply a serpent). He was mentioned in three places in Mahabharata. the Koli-Sarpas, the Mahishakas and other Kshatriyas, have, in consequence of the absence of Brahmanas from among their midst, become degraded into Sudras.Kolis were also known as Kulyas, Kolis and as Kolwas as also the Velirs, Ezhimalai and Nannans. They were identified to be the Kolathiris of northern Kerala.

There is also a hypothesis on the basis of mythology that the Nairs are Nagas and were Kshatriyas belonging to the Serpent dynasty (Nagavansham) who removed their sacred thread and migrated south to escape the wrath of a vengeful Parashurama. A Naga origin from Rohilkhand has been suggested.. The affinity of the Nair community towards serpent worship, their martial past, and the absence of the sacred thread lends support to this theory. In addition, the Travancore State Manual states that there were indeed serpent-worshiping Nagas in Kerala who fought with the Namboothiris till they reached a consensus. The Nairs have also been classified as of Indo-Scythian (Saka) origin as well as being linked to the Naga.

As per the story Arjuna set fire to a Naga palace and the Nagas escaped south of the Vindhyas till they reached a place where the soil was free and was not hot with the atrocities of Arjuna. That is they reached a cool place of peace. This place became Mannarshala (Mannu (Soil) Ariye (cooled down) Shala(refuge)), the biggest serpent temple in the world. The Nagas settled here and were called Nakas by the local people and later Nairs and Bunts. They are of the Pannaga race.

According to Chattampi Swamikal, who interpreted old Tamil texts, the Nairs were Naka (Naga or Snake) Lords who ruled as feudal lords in the Chera kingdom. Therefore this theory proposes Nairs to be descendants of the rulers and martial nobility of pre-Brahmin Kerala who, after the arrival of the Namboothiris.

The links of naga with sankha and riches (Kubera's sankha nidhi) points to the people who were sankha workers. Sankhadvi_pa is not far from the mouth of Rivers Narmada and Tapati which emanate from the region where naga are venerated surrounding the nearby irrigation tanks of Vidisha. The link with maritime people who created Sarasvati civilization is clearly indicated out by these metaphors. Gangavataranam and Naga-Nagini. Mamallapuram. Pallava. 650 to 675 CE. Grey granite. This is a breath- taking metaphor linking Naga people with sacred waters of the Ganga while describing the descent of Ganga from the Himalayas. This detail is part of the total scene of Gangavataranam including Bhagiratha in severe tapasya or penance. PADMAVATI ( Also known as Nagas of Narwar ) The Naga kings ruled from Padmavati, Kantipuri, Mathura and Vidisha and history has a record of twelve Naga rulers.

The inscription records a gift of the village Vontimetta with its hamlets in Sidhavatam-sima of Udayagiri Rajya to god Raghu Nayaka of the same village said to have been consecrated by Jambavanta, by Naga Raja Deva Maharaju of Kasyapa-gotra, and Surya-Vamsa and the son-in- law of Rama Raju and Gutti Yara Thirumalaraju Deva Maharaju of Kasyapa-gotra, and Surya- Vamsa and the sons of Sri Ranga Raju and the grandsons of Aravidu Rama Raju of Atreya-gotra and Soma-Vamsa. The gift village was situated in Siddhavatamsima which the donor appears to have held as his nayankara. Kolis, cholas, kaikadi Erukalas, Valmiki Bedara Nayakas are all solar race people.

Naga cult is widespread all over south India where it is associated with fertility believes and rituals. According to another legend ahikshetra was a place on the banks of Saraswati river. "ahi" means snake (chiefly serpent). It is believed that Bunts were "naga or serpent worshipers prior to being buta/boota or spirit worshipers. So there is reason to believe that bunts were mainly serpent worshipers and many groups of us might have come from north.

The Nagas, like most of the other native tribes had serpent as their totem. They also used to worship serpent and consider them to be their protective deity. They also used to wear artificial hoods of cobra on their heads at certain occasions. The tradition of Naga worship or totem was in prevalence in Babylonia, Assyria, Palestine and Iran from ancient times and it was brought to India alongwith migration of Sumerians and Assyrians and Dravidian race. There are enormous evidences of seals and seal impressions found from Indus towns to show that Indus Valley people also used to worship this serpent deity.

In Rigvedic account, there is a mention of Nagas or Ahi (serpent) race, Naga warriors or Naga kings among them Ahivritra is prominent, who was sworn enemy of Indra, the Aryan God and militant leader. In Atharva-Veda there are some hymns, which describe serpents named Iligi and Viligi, according to B S Upadhyaya, these were names of father and son in the genealogical table of Assyrian Kings. This proves that serpent (Naga) race and its tradition of serpent worship came from Western Asia. On the basis of findings of pottery type from Ahar and its proto-type from contemporary sites in Anatolia, Assyria and Iran, Dr. Sankalia has reached a conclusion that new immigrants came from the above mentioned region.

Archeological evidences recovered from the excavation of Prabhasa a site of B & R Ware culture in Kathiavar, it has been proved by scholars that users of this pottery were Yadavas of Mahabharata fame. These Yadavas were original inhabitants of Western Asia and Iran. Racially they were round headed Alpine or a blend of Alpine or Dravidian race.These people, according to Rigveda were non-Sanskrit speaking non-Aryans whose mother tongue was Souraseni, which has been described as Mlechchha language in Puranas. They are also called Dasas in Rigveda." (jacket)

Kolis were initially labourers and labour providers in Simla hill region.
Beth was a system of forced labour where the lowest castes like the Kolis, Doms, Chamars, etc., provided agricultural labour and other menial and `polluting' services to the chiefs, the leading families and the village divinity. They also provided agricultural labour to the Kanet peasant proprietors ( "cultivating, inferior Rajputs" ), though only seasonally.

Bethus were basically the lower castes in the villages who, it is claimed in their origin myths, were the first inhabitants of the Western Himalayas. They were displaced and subordinated by the incoming tribe of the Khash, a part of the Aryans, who now constitute the overwhelming majority of the population of these hills. The Kanets, the Bhat Bramhins and some Rajputs claim their descent from this tribe. The tribes that the Khash subdued are collectively called the Nagas and the reference to the Karavaras in Smriti literature is also attributed to this same group. The Kolis who form the largest section of the Bethus and other low castes are supposed to have descended from them. Their social role, as given in the Smritis, was to carry conveyances, provide agricultural labour for the higher castes and do other menial work. Some Smritis also identify a caste/tribe in the Western Himalayas called the Kol who live in the forests.

the Kolis/Bethus were generally agricultural labourers bonded to the chief's land which was known as Bassa. While they were ritually tied to their lord and his land, they could not own any land. They mainly worked in the fields and were recorded in Settlement reports as "hardworking cultivators". Other than agricultural labour, they also gave labour in their chief's household on a daily basis. Physical transfers of Bethus and transfer of their ownership was also prevalent as in the case of land being donated by the ruler and when he gave them as part of the dowry of his daughter / sister. Kolis were also responsible for doing all the menial work (and some ritually important work in the local religious ceremonies) for the village Bhaichara. Even during Begar distribution the Kolis got the more strenuous and polluting duties.

They are the great warrior tribes of Mudiraj / Muthuraja
The Maharashtra highlands and Karnataka were home to Kolis, Berads and numerous others. Kolis also lived in many areas of Gujarat. Further south there were large tribal populations of Koragas, Vetars, Maravars and many others. For more details, please see web page on "WAR(RIOR)- TRIBES" in this website MUDIRAJA.

Nagas of Kashmir
Karkota, the name of an early dynasty, itself signifies naga worship in Kashmir. Sculptures of nagas and yaksas found in widespread sites suggest a common spirit of adoration, as do sculptures, paintings, temples, and religious texts that for centuries were preserved within an oral tradition without losing their immaculate intonation. The same classical dance is seen in sculpture in Gandhara in Pakistan, in Bharhut in the north, and in Amaravati in the south.

Naga Race
The word Naga in the Sanskrit language means snake or serpent. It seems likely that the Naga people were a serpent-worshipping group who were later described as serpents themselves in ancient Indian literature. This transformation or identification was much like the Vanaras (forest-dwelling humans) turning unto monkeys in the later literature.

Naga Kingdom refers to the territory of a tribe called Nagas who were a group of people spread throughout India during the period of the epic Mahabharata. They were also considered as one of the supernatural races like Kinnaras and Yakshas. Not much is known about their territories beyond ancient India except a region known as Airavata mentioned in the far north. It seems that the first settlement of this race in India is the Kashmir region. River Vitasta (Jhelum) in Kasmira is mentioned as the abode of Naga Takshaka. The city named after Takshaka, viz Takshasila (Taxila) is just to the west of this river. Places like Anantnag also is found in Kashmir. Ananta was the foremost among all the Nagas. Iravati River (Ravi) to the south of Kashmir could be the Indian territory of the Nagas called Airavatas. Their original abode could be the Airavata region mentioned in the far north.


The Wagengera fort, which witnessed a historic struggle between the Bedar kings and the Mughals, led by Aurangazeb to establish supremacy in Surpur town in Gulbarga district in the 18th century, is in ruins at present.

A plaque embedded on the wall to the entrance of the fort reads in Persian: "By command of the emperor, defender of faith Mohammed Mohi-u-din Aurangazeb king, conqueror of universe, may god preserve his country for ever," signifying the fall of the fort in 1705.

The Wagengera fort is situated on top of two hillocks and surrounded by rocky patches. The Bedar kings shifted here after losing their fort at Sagar, now in Shahpur taluk, to the Mughals in 1667. From the day they shifted to Wagengera fort, the Bedars were a thorn in the flesh of the Mughals.

Many, particularly the younger generation, are not aware of the valiant struggle of the Bedar kings who zealously defended the fort. So fierce was their resistance that finally Aurangazeb himself had to lead the attack to capture the fort.

Although a well-trained army like the Mughals could have breached the fort easily, it was the warring skills of the Bedars that kept the enemy at bay for a long time.

The unfortunate thing is that so far the Government has not made any effort to convert this into a tourist spot. Besides Wagengera fort, Surpur can boast of many other historical monuments including the beautiful palace of the Surpur kings.

Webmaster
Kokolu Ankarao
Date : 21st August 2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


go TOP


9. CHOLA MUTTARAYAN - A CHOLA SENAPATI OF RAJENDRA CHOLAN :

The Cholamuttarayan was the 'Cholasenapati' or the army chief of Rajendra Chola of the 10-11th Century AD. He was the native of Tirumittakkode in the Nila River valley of Kerala. He was a shaivite. He seems to the descendant of Muttarayas who converted from jainism to shaivism earlier. This Chola Muttarayan can be refered as an example to the spread of Muthurajas into Kerala in around 7th Cen. A.D or even earlier.

Cholasenapati = Army General of Cholas

The present Nila river valley as a whole comes under Kudanadu. Southern neighboring land of Kudanadu was Kuttanadu, where the second Chera rulers (Cheras of Mahodayapuram) established their capital on the western coast at Cranganore. The northern neighboring land was Pulinadu, supposed to be ruled by Nannan of Ezhimala (noted in the Sanghom literature) in the beginning of Christian era, and during the period of Kulasekharas. This was ruled by Kulasekhara Cheras during 9th cAD to 11th cAD. After the decline of Kulasekharas. almost all of Kuttanadu, Kudanadu and Pulinadu up to Badagara beyond Calicut in the north became under the rule of Zamorins of Calicut.

During the period 10th cAD, one envoy by name Chola Muttarayan, came over to a place Tirumittakod, close to this area and had established a Siva temple in the temple complex of Vishnu. This Muttaraya belonged to Kavanurkuttam of Melurkot area in the Tondai mandalam. Circumstances reveal that the Muttarayas of 7th - 8th cAD of Tondaj mandalam were Jainas.It is said that they converted to Saivites. The places around the Core area is completely settled by moothans, who are great traders of Zamorins. Thus. due to various historical reasons and evidences we have to assume that there was a large migration of Jainas (converted to Saivites )from Chola territory after 11th century AD. and they settled in and ound Palghat gap and places up to the market noted at Kulamukku. This demographical situation has its origin in the trade facilities and royal supports.

The Kavalappara family also perhaps has some Saivite origin, possibly through a Chola Muttarayan, looking at their family deity which is Siva in the Eruppa temple in Aryankavu. How the kavu system evolved to a Kshetra system is another interesting development in the Nila area. It is well covered in Dr Nampoothiri’s study, which shows the presence of various forms of worship, intermingling and connecting up nicely, the festivals of the Parayas (pooram), the festivals of the Chettis and (chettivela) so on.

The Tirumittakkode temple epigraphs are one of the most important documents as far as the political and cultural situation of Nila river valley is concerned. This erigraph is the only evidence to prove the Chola supremacy in l0th Century AD in Kerala, which in turn accelerated the fall of Kulasekharas of Cranganore. Kulasekhara, the Chera king came over to the temple and prayed the diety for a helping hand. It is suspected that an idol in the form of a 'Sanyasin' seen in the temple complex worshipped as Dharmaputra, the eldest Pandava, is none other than the idol of Kulasekhara, placed by some devotees in commemora�tion of the visit of the royal king. However, the epigraph says that Cholamuttarayan with his army came over to Tirumittakkode (Tiruvittuvakkode - a place were Vittuva or Vishnu is worshipped) and the Vaishnava temple was brought to his custody.

There were 13 Vaishnava tirupatis or Patal Petta temples in Kerala. Only one Saiva temple is praised by Saiva Nainars. This Saiva temple is at Tiruvanchikkulam, on the river mouth of Periyar near Cranganore. Among the 13 Vaishnava temples two are on the banks of Nila. They are Tirumittakkode and Tirunavay. Both of them were well established by the 9th Century, and Kulasekhara (Alwar) of that period personally visited Tirumittakkode and praised the temple in his famous Alwar Tirumozhi, along with Srirangam, etc The Tirumittakkode temple epigraphs are one of the most important docu�ments as far as the political and cultural situation of Nila river valley is concerned.

The 'Cholasenapati' was the army chief of RajendraChola of the 10-11th Century AD. He came aver to Tirumittakode, conquered the area where Valluvanadu Utaiyavar had their 'original ancestoral house at Arangot, a neighboring village and the temple complex. The Chola muttarayan constructed a temple of Siva in front of the Vittuva temple itself so that the front part of the Vittuva temple is barred from visionof the devotees. The temple - (Siva in the Sanctum Sanctorum in front of the Vishnu's Sanctum Sanctorum - a twin 'Sreekovil' system) is a unique architectural pattern of temple construction seen at Tirumittacode. This peculiar dimension of the Saiva- Vaishnava feud and Chola - Chera war has not yet been noted by scholars.

The evidences show that there were Jainas or Budhist groups spread over the valley as a whole. This might have happened in 7th or 8th century AD. because we notice strong Jaina centres at Cranganore. A stronghold of them existed at Alathur, on the southern side of the Palghat gap spreading over the ghat area and Palghat These situations of feuds of larger scale between these three religious sects be seen in Tamilnad during 6th 7th and 8th cAD, and we could expect such feuds on the western side of the Western Ghats. By 10th century AD we note migration of Muttaraya groups, a group of Jaina converted Saivas on the banks of river Ni1a, on eastern half.

Dr.Bhattatiripad has stud�ied the Tirumittacode temple and has brought to light the Chola influence in architec�ture in the shrine of Siva, establishing the reference in the epigraph that the Siva shrine was constructed by chola muttaraya in 10th Cen.AD.

The inscriptions of 898 AD found out from the Iranikkalam temple near to Chera capital at Mahodayapuram reveales the basis of Saiva Vaishnava feud existed in original Bhramin settlements. The inscription when compared with another inscription of Chola muttarayan dated 1015 AD found at Tirumittacode temple on the bank of Nila also reveals the Saiva Vaishnava feuds of original gramas and probable interference of Cholas, the ardent Saiva propagators. There seems to be the necessity of hard treatment to the temple organisations to save the temples from Sai va. Vaishnava feuds and ultimate damage.

A topographical list of the inscriptions of the Madras presidency (collected till 1915) with notes and references (Volume 3) - Madhurantaka-Irukkuvelar.

369 of 1914. In the same place. A record of the Vijaya-nagara king Bukkana-Udaiyar I in Nala (S. 1298), Vaigasi, sixth day. Records that a certain VikramasOla-Muttarayan of Kllaippudu-vayal made an assignment of one-fifth of his profits as kaniyakshi and arasu over his estate to the temple and stipulated that in the absence of any male issue the remaining four-fifths should also belong to the temple.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 25/08/2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


go TOP


10. VIRA NARASIMHA:

Vira Narasimha the son of Narasanayaka of Chandragiri, who had rose into prominence in 1486, succeeded his father as the regent. It was only when Immadi Narasimha Saluva died in 1505 AD, Vira Narasimha, deposed the last ruler of Saluva Dynasty and seized the throne for himself, and took control of Vijaynagar Empire. This was 'Second Usurpation' in Vijaynagar Empire. This led to the direct rule of the Tuluva dynasty over Vijaynagar Empire. He died in 1509 A.D and his brother, Sri Krishnadevaraya, by far the greatest ruler of Vijayanagara and the most famous king in the history of India succeeded him.

go TOP


11. SRI KRISHNADEVA RAYA:

He was certainly the greatest ruler of Vijaynagar Empire and one of the most famous kings in the history of India (the other 3 would be Ashoka, Vikramaditya, and Shivaji.) He was gallant warrior, statesman, administrator and a patron of arts and like Vikramaditya; he was always successful in the wars which he waged throughout his reign. He was a fine statesman and treated the defeated enemy with honor.

Sri Krishnadevaraya's rule saw the reign of peace and prosperity. Krishna Deva Raya (1509-1529) was the greatest emperor during his time and the period of Krishna Deva Raya was considered as the golden age of the Vijayanagar history. He secured Raichur Doab in 1512, and later marched victorious into the capitals of his enemies like Bidar (1512).

First, in 1511-1512 AD, he captured southern Mysore, Shivasamudram fortress and Raichur. In 1513 AD, he humbled the king of Orissa Gajapati and in 1514 AD he captured Udaigiri, and Bijapur (1523) and in the East, Cuttack (1518), the capital of the Gajapatis. Eventually he captured Vishakapatnam and completely abolished the authority of King of Orissa. His greatest and most celebrated military achievement was crushing defeat of Ismail Adil Shah on 19th March 1520. This ended the Muslim dominance in south and made him master of whole of south India.

During his last days, Krishnadev Raya devoted all his attention in organization of his empire and improving the administration. He maintained friendly relationship with Portuguese and granted some concessions to governor Albuquerque. Reign of Krishnadev Raya reached to its zenith not only in terms of expanse of the empire, but also in terms of growth and development of literature, music, art and culture. His rule saw the reign of peace and prosperity. Raya himself was an accomplished poet, musician, scholar and was fluent in Sanskrit, Telugu and Kannada (and perhaps Tamil too!).

He wrote an immensely important (both historically and religiously) book Amuktamalyada in Telugu. He patronized many poets which includes Ashtadigajas (eight elephants, the great poets of Telugu) and scholars like Tenalirama. His reign also saw the remarkable development in art and architecture. The famous Hazara temple built during his reign is one of the most perfect examples of Hindu Temple architecture. Vithalswami temple is another fine example of the Vijaynagar style of architecture. Krishndev Raya and all other rulers of this empire were pious Hindus and were devoted to Dharma, but they had very liberal outlook for other religions. According to Barbosa, a historian and many contemporary travelers, `the Kings allows such freedom that every man would live without suffering and annoyance, whether he is a Christian, Jew, Moor or Hindu'.

Telugu language and literature was given a preferential treatment and Telugu was treated as official language of the empire. Simultaneously, Sanskrit and other languages were encouraged by the Vijayanagar rulers. The renowned Telugu poet Srinatha was honored with Kanakabhisheka by Proudhadevaraya of the first dynasty of the rulers. Particularly, the reign of Krishnadevaraya marked a new era in the literary history of south India. He was himself a scholar and authored Amuktamalyada, a celebrated Telugu work. His court known as Bhuvanavijayam was adorned by such eminent poets like Allasani Peddana, Nandi Timmana, Dhurjati, Tenali Ramakrishna, Mallana, Ramarajabhushana, Pingali Surana and Rudra, known as Ashtadiggajas. The greatest of them was Allasani Peddana whose famous work Manucharitra heralded the eminence of the native genius of Telugus.

Sri Krisnadeva Raya was a Bunt: Researchers have identified Sri Krishnadeva Raya and their ancestors as kuruba BUNTS. Bunts are the counterpart of Mudiraj from Karnataka today. The Gotra of Sri Krishnadeva Raya was traced to be SALINNAYA and it is the gotra of some Tuluva families today. The kings of Tuluva Dynasty were technically from a Tulu family, but they were all thickly associated with SALVA Kings of Telugu heartland who ruled the Vijaynagar Empire with Chandragiri as their capital. Chandragiri today is a tourist spot and can be reached very easily from Thirupathi by bus.

It is a well known fact that Sri Krishnadeva Raya was a great patron of Telugu language and lovingly known as ANDHRABHOJA. He was a Telugu poet himself with Amuktamalyada in Telugu to his credit. This clearly indicates that the Tuluva rulers of Vijaynagar Empire too were truly the Telugu people by way of their birth, living and up bringing in Telugu speaking regions.

Relation between Mudiraj, Mudaliyars & Padmasalis
In Tamilnadu Padmashali = Mudaliyar. Aslo Devangas = Lingayats. As per History, 600 years back, Mudaliyars and Mudirajas were of the same caste. So Mudirajas like Padmashalis.

There are two interpretations for the origin of the word "Padmashali". Some anthropologists believe it is derived from the Sanskrit. See Anthropology. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India.

However, linguistic construction of Dravidian languages traces its root to Proto-South-Dravidian word saal. In Tulu, Saalye or Taalye means "spider". Also, saali means spider in Telugu. Probably, symbolising the weaving activity with the spider's web, this word was coined for weavers. In Tamil, it's Saalikan or Saaliyan. 'vadiyari' or 'badiyari' is a Kasaragod Malayali lineage (Gotra) and its Tulu equivalent is called 'saliyan' or 'salinnaya'. In Kannada, it is Shaaliga or Shaaliya. In Malayalam, Chaaliyan. In Telugu, it's Saalodu or Saalollu.

Krishnadevaraya was from Salinnaya gothra, a gothra of Tuluvas. People from Shirva Kodumane, Shirva Savira Hobali Mane, Nandalike Chavadi Mane, Thalapadi Mane and Bellippadi Mane are all from the same Salinnaya gothra who are still in Tulunad. Sri Krishna Devaraya was the son of a Narasa Nayaka, General of Tuluva origin in Saluva Dynasty. Many Mudhaliyars and Bunts are Tuluva Vellalas. Telugu Mudirajus are also known as Bantus. This indicates that Sri Krishna Devaraya having Salinnaya gotram could be from Mudhaliyar branch of Mudirajas. There are also Telugu Mudaliyars in Telugu speaking lands.

Mudiraj = koli
Padmasali = Mudaliyar = Kori
Kolis = Koris

While Kolis are fishermen, the koris a variant of Kolis, who became specialised in preparing nets for catching fish. Later on , the koris became a separate caste / community with the by expansion of their skills into weaving cloth for men and women. Padmasalis seems to staunch Hindus and they never accepted either Buddhism / Jainism as their religion. They used to wear sacred thread of Hindus like brahmins even today.

Interestingly, my Kula guru( Webmaster Kokolu Anka Rao ) and my Padmasali friend was one and the same person from a Brahman community. The Brahman Pujari called our families to a place where he was camping and informed about our gotram. My family gotram = palavalli.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 04/06/2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


go TOP


12. PAM NAYAK OF SAGAR KIGDOM, SHIMOGA, KARNATAKA :

The Berad King of Sagar used the title Nayak and is known in Persian histories as Pam Nayak. Sagar , the heavily fortified capital, was the seat of Pam Nayak, the Bedar ruler. His opponent in 1680 was the Mughal commander, Dilir Khan, a Ruhela Afghan. Dilir Khan�s tribesmen had colonized the district of Shajahanpur in modern Uttar Pradesh (North India), and Dilir Khan had won the position of a Mughal Mansabdar (Commander) under Shah Jahan.

These Nayakas are known as Bedars and they are the descendants of Bedara Kannappa. While some sections of Kannappa descendants are known as Vettuvas, some others are known as people of Kannappa Kula. Both are subsects of Tamil Muthurajas. These Nayakas are also known as Valmikis and they are a subsect of Telugu Mudiraj.

Sagar is a Taluk in Shimoga district. SAGAR means ocean in Sanskrit and it is Taluk town in Karnataka state of INDIA . Its around 360 km away from Bangalore. The region of Sagar is known as Malnad (Hilly region). It receives heavy monsoons rains. Its got thick forests, hilly regions and wildlife. Its got good scenic beauty and is paradise for nature-lovers. Sagar is also known as Srigandhada Gudi (Home of Sandalwood) since this place is rich in Sandalwood. Its also known for Sandal wood carvings. Ikkeri, a place where you can find a beautiful ancient stone temples is around 4 km from the centre of the town.

The modern town of Sagar is situated in the Shimoga district of Karnataka, between the Krishna and Bhima Rivers. The region between these rivers is hilly and forested and is called Malnad on account of the heavy rainfall it receives. In the middle ages there was no town, the forests were thicker, and the wildlife profuse.

Mustafa Khan invades Sagar : Shah Jahan called on Adil Shah and Qutb Shah to destroy the Hindus of the South and bring the whole of Hind under Islam. First, Mustafa Khan attacked the Vijayanagaran army lead by the Nayaka Shivappa who had liberated Ikkeri (1645). The Hindus fought with great fury and inflicted severe losses on the Moslems in the battle of Sagar. But Mustafa Khan who greatly hated the Hindus was strengthened by reserves and he fell back on Shivappa Nayaka and routed in the second battle of Ikkeri.

From Mysore north through the Malnad region and all the way to Bijapur were lands colonized by the Berads�a race of aboriginal Kanarese belonging to the lowest Dhed caste on account of their life style. Although many of them were Lingayets or Vaishnavs they had no dietary restrictions and ate mutton, beef, pork, and fowl with gusto and drank to excess. Their race name means �hunter� in Kanarese and they also indulged in cattle-lifting and other crimes. Kallar clans of Mukkulathor relating Tamil Muthurajas are also known as cattle lifters.

Alternatively called Bedars/Beydurs these people were dark, muscular, and of middle height; with round faces, thin lips, and frizzled hair. A popular story ran that the Mughal historians were so impressed by their fighting qualities that they changed the name Berad to Be-dar, meaning fearless.

t is these fighting qualities that are of importance to our study. For the purpose of hunting and war the Berads had adopted the matchlock and had become adept in the use of this firearm. heir tribal organization�where headmen controlled different bands of younger fighters�ensured discipline and unity in their ranks. Not surprisingly they had become the steadiest and most accurate musketeers in 17th century South India. Another singular name used for them was kala-piadas or black foot-musketeers. Later on these same Berads formed the bulk of Tipu Sultan�s French-led infantry.

The Berads of Sagar had been tributaries to the Bijapur Sultans, but that the Sultan was a mere figurehead and the various Bijapuri officers were carving out their own personal estates, Pam Nayak lived and functioned as an independent king. Pedda Pidia Nayak was the nephew and adopted heir of Pam Nayak (reign 1678-1688). He had waited on Aurangjeb as early as 1683 and been given a post in the imperial army.

Pam Nayak was a loyal Hindu feudatory to Bijapur Sultans. Pam Nayak sent 6000 infantry to help his overlord, but these men were waylaid by a Mughal trap while carrying their provisions on their heads and with their matchlocks tied to their backs. Undaunted, Pam Nayak sent help next to the Sultanate of Golconda, which place was also won by the Mughals�but this time with treachery. It was now 1687 and as Aurangzeb turned his eye from the city of Golconda to the city of Bijapur, the eyesore of proud and independent Sagar interrupted to disturb the view. To punish the Berad chief and also to secure his line of communication, Aurangzeb dispatched an army towards Sagar.

Pam Nayak used his monetary rewards to organize more infantry units, till he had armed almost a hundred thousand kala-piadas. He also hired twelve thousand cavalry. Pam Nayak hired Hindu and Muhammadan cavalry�including many Sayyids of the Deccan�to the intense abhorrence of the pious Muslim Aurangzeb! A popular story ran that the Mughal historians were so impressed by their fighting qualities that they changed the name Berad to Be-dar, meaning fearless.

The �Kala� word is significant here as these Nayakas were related to Tamil Muthayars who are considered to be the descendants of Kalabhras and inturn Kalachuris.

Kala = Black
Paidal = Foot
Paidas = Piadas = Foot soldiers of Bednur
Bantoos = Foot soldiers of Kakatiyas
Bants = Bantoos = Bunts = Mudiraju warriors

Diler once attacked Bijapur sultas to plunder. Diler�s position before Bijapur was no onger tenable, So, on 28th January 1680, he began his retreat, after having wasted 56 days beore the fort of Bijapur. On his way back he invaded the Berar country then ruled by Pam Nayak, one of the most powerful and loyal Hindu feudatories of Bijapur. So heavy was the Diler�s loss that he abandoned berar country ruled by Pam Nayak, one of the most powerful and loyal feudatories of Bijapur.

The war between the Mughal Empire and the southern kingdoms thus became a war between the Mughal army and the Maratha resistance, who were allied with the indigenous people of southern and central India. The Polygars and Nayaks of the south, the Berads of the Krishna valley, and the Gonds in the northern Deccan, all played a part in the Mughal defeat. The alliance with Berads, Nayaks and Gonds in the south became an alliance with Rajput .

The Battle of Sagar, 1680 :
To save his people from needless slaughter, Pam Nayak offered to pay 1.5 Lakh Rupees as ransom for his capital but Dilir Khan demanded no less than ten times that amount! The Mughals pitched their camp at Gogi, five kilometers north of Sagar, and laid siege to that fort.

On the first day (20th February) Dilir Khan decided to storm the village at the base of the fort. The village was manned by a force of Berad infantry and in addition was protected by a wall skirting its homes and fields, so Dilir�s initial plan was thwarted by the firing from the Berad matchlocks. The Mughals then laid siege and began firing their own matchlocks and swivel guns. The exchange of fire continued all day long�towards sunset when the firing on both sides began dying down the Berad infantry delivered a sudden charge and drove the Mughals back with loss. Dilir Khan retired back to Gogi.

The next day he returned with his entire muster of artillery and cavalry. The Berads took shelter behind rocks, in the nearby jungles, on the fort parapet, inside huts�and manfully faced the reckless firing. At last the gate of the village was breached. The Afghan stood near the broken gate on his elephant while his men poured into the village and began looting the houses. But the fighting wasn�t over just yet.

Dilir Khan imagined that the Berads had either been cowed or had made their escape from the pressure of the Mughal artillery�no such luck. From the fort walls, from the nearby hillocks, and from the surrounding jungle, a blaze of fire descended on the crowd of Mughals, Sayyids, Rajputs, and Afghans . As his soldiers began dropping like flies, Dilir ordered a retreat; soldiers around him and with his son in the nearby fields were still maintaining their order.

All of a sudden the firing ceased and through the smoke and the haze the Berad infantrymen tumbled down, sword in hand, to complete the rout. Attacked on all sides the two remaining Mughal wings gave up their order and bolted; the Berads bringing down the Afghan cavalrymen in their expensive armor and costly dresses. Dilir Khan�s son escaped with his bare life�the total Mughal casualties on that day mounted up to 1700 men.

The battle was decisive. For some time Dilir Khan plotted revenge on the Berads but the spirit of his soldiers was utterly broken and they threatened to abandon him if he did not withdraw from this foreign land. The Afghan�s military reputation and finances alike were utterly ruined�his troubles ended with his death only three years later in 1683.

Pam Nayak was feted and highly rewarded by the court of Bijapur for this splendid victory. His tribesmen were rightly exultant�they had added to their reputation of being the steadiest musketeers of South India by defeating a leading Mughal general in a pitched battle. Pam Nayak�s services were now eagerly sought by both Bijapur and Golconda.

Epilogue up to the Battle of Wagingera, 1705
The very next year Aurangzeb crossed over the River Narmada to begin the Deccan Wars�which were to last for a quarter century and would end with the Marathas completely dominant over the peninsula. After some initial operations against the Marathas, Aurangzeb turned his attention to Bijapur, assaulting the city with an enormous park of artillery . Pam Nayak sent 6000 infantry to help his overlord, but these men were waylaid by a Mughal trap while carrying their provisions on their heads and with their matchlocks tied to their backs.

Undaunted, Pam Nayak sent help next to the Sultanate of Golconda, which place was also won by the Mughals�but this time with treachery. It was now 1687 and as Aurangzeb turned his eye from the city of Golconda to the city of Bijapur, the eyesore of proud and independent Sagar interrupted to disturb the view. To punish the Berad chief and also to secure his line of communication, Aurangzeb dispatched an army towards Sagar.

The invading Mughal General, Khanazad Khan, was told to avoid a conflict and simply induce the Berad chief to enter Mughal service. The Berad national levy was rumored to be 100,000 infantrymen, along with 12,000 hired cavalry [8]! Pam Nayak accepted the Mughal terms and paid a visit to Aurangzeb but died only five days later�his sons and nephews were now enrolled into the Mughal service. The remaining Berad families were ejected from Sagar�where a mosque was built and the Muslim creed chanted for the first time.

They shifted base to the village of Wagingera only eight kilometers west of Sagar. The most enterprising successor of Pam Nayak was his nephew Pidia; he helped the Mughals in the siege of Raichur and then took leave to ostensibly replenish his troops and equipment. Arrived at Wagingera Pidia fortified the hill where his uncle�s leading associates had built their homes. He improved cultivation and furiously collected money and materials�all the time pretending to be a loyal servant of the Mughal Emperor.

More information about Wagengera Fort of Bedar Nayaks
The Wagengera fort, which witnessed a historic struggle between the Bedar kings and the Mughals, led by Aurangazeb to establish supremacy in Surpur town in Gulbarga district in the 18th century, is in ruins at present.

A plaque embedded on the wall to the entrance of the fort reads in Persian: "By command of the emperor, defender of faith Mohammed Mohi-u-din Aurangazeb king, conqueror of universe, may god preserve his country for ever," signifying the fall of the fort in 1705.

The Wagengera fort is situated on top of two hillocks and surrounded by rocky patches. The Bedar kings shifted here after losing their fort at Sagar, now in Shahpur taluk, to the Mughals in 1667. From the day they shifted to Wagengera fort, the Bedars were a thorn in the flesh of the Mughals.

Many, particularly the younger generation, are not aware of the valiant struggle of the Bedar kings who zealously defended the fort. So fierce was their resistance that finally Aurangazeb himself had to lead the attack to capture the fort.

Although a well-trained army like the Mughals could have breached the fort easily, it was the warring skills of the Bedars that kept the enemy at bay for a long time.

The unfortunate thing is that so far the Government has not made any effort to convert this into a tourist spot. Besides Wagengera fort, Surpur can boast of many other historical monuments including the beautiful palace of the Surpur kings.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 17 / 08 / 2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


13. UMAJI NAIK - A BEDAR RAMOSHI FREEDOM FIGHTER FROM PURANDHAR

Umaji Naik is called as one of the freedom fighters in the period 1791 to 1832. He fought against the atrocities by British and courageously handled the warfronts during the Peshwa rule. Umaji Naik led an uprising against the British in the first half of the 1800s in Pune district. The famous Ramosi brigand Umaji Naik was hanged 1831. History did not record the brave deeds of Ramoshis; instead it made them history sheeters: the British declared the Berad-Ramoshis a criminal tribe.

There is also a section of kolis who are known as Ramoshi - kolis. This is a clear indication that kolis and Bedars are one and the same people and so it is quite natural to find large population of both these sections in Telugu Mudiraj community today. They are basically Bhil -boya descendants to which the vanaras, Srirama and also Valmiki belonged. Ramoshi could mean both (i) Ramavamsis ( belonging lineage of Srirama) and Ramavasi ( Under control of Rama during his war against demon Ravana ). While Mudiraj fishermen are akin to kolis, the others may be synonimous to hunting valmiki nayakas

Ramavamishi => Ramoshi = Belonging to lineage of Srirama
Ramavashi => Ramoshi = Controlled or commanded by Srirama

Umaji Naik protested against the English and was hence hanged during the National Uprising. Ramoshi led by Umaji Naik in 1826 fought and fell. Umaji became a legendary figure. The Kolis in the north-western part of Poona District rose in revolt in 1830. Over a generation they continued their sporadic disturbances.

Umaji Naik ( Tribal revolutionery leader ) commanded widespresd influence among his Romoshis ( Bedars ) caste fellows at the peak of his career. Ability of Purandhar Ramoshis to shelter undetected in Satara territory and to raid thence into the Southern Konkan indicates a widespread network of contacts, a theme often mentioned in the official correspondence, which notes the extreme reluctance of Ramoshis to give information abput the movements of the gangs of their own caste.

Ramoshi Naiks often gained considerable power and status as a reward of military services performed before the Raja of Satara. It is said that Almost every fort of Shivaji had a settlement of Berad-Ramoshi warriors at its foothills. And that 50 Ramoshis captured Fort Purandhar near Pune defeating the Mughals.Umaji Naik was proud of the close alliance of his ancestors with Shivaji Maharaj and claimed conversation with captain Mackintosh that the Ramoshis were legally proprietors of twenty six forts, including Pratapgad which they had captured first and subsequently gifted to Shivaji .

The Marathas were never reconciled to the British Raj, and occasionally challenged its officers. In 1826, the Ramoshis of Pune district, under the leadership of Umaji Naik, revolted against the British, who subsequently compromised with them. The Ramoshis were absolved of their crimes, absorbed in government service and granted lands in inam. They revolted again. Umaji Naik was captured. Raghu Bhangra of Nasik, Ramji of Nagar and his associate, Govindrao Khare, the killedar of Ratnagiri, also resisted British rule. The Kolis of Pune and Nagar ( Bednur ) districts also organised themselves against the British. It is really surprising that these unlettered, unequipped residents of the hills had the courage to challenge the British long before intellectuals could start the freedom movement.

In the year 1826, partly owing to the scarcity of 1825, partly owing to the reduction in the local garrison, the Ramoshis of south Poona rose into revolt and outlawry. For three year bands of Ramoshis were guilty of atrocious acts of violence. Under the leading of one Umaji Naik, they were so enterprising and successful that, in 1827, as they could not be put down, their crimes were pardoned, they were taken into pay, employed as hill police, and enriched with land grants. [Capt. Mackintosh in Trans. Bom. Geog. Soc. I. 260. Details of Ramoshi risings an given under Justice.]

There were a lot of oral narra- tives from pastoral, rural groups, especially those that were told about the Ramoshi brigand Umaji Naik, for instance, that are strikingly similar to elite narratives of Shivaji in invoking values of heroism, masculinity and nobility, or as- serting rights over patrimonies.

Prabalgad fort is situated on northeast side of Panvel, on Mumbai-Pune road. One can see it from express highway as V-Shaped mountain. The left one is Kalwantin durg & on the right side is Prabalgad. But there is a dense forest on the way till the the top of fort Prabal. Historical references indicate that Freedom fighter Umaji Naik made a stay there in 1826.

There are few records mentioning the historical or geographical importance of Prabalgad, save that in 1826, the freedom fighter, Umaji Naik, along with his companions, had made the fort his home for a brief period. The fort is close to Mumbai as well as Pune, making it an excellent place to go for a weekend trek.

Bedars are Ramoshis and Narveer Umaji Naik, in a letter of 1828, mentions as Ranvasi addressed to Ramoshis. Those days they were staying in hills and doing the job of protection of villages and crops in fields. Ramoshis are there among kolis also. These letters were found by KV Purandare in the possession of Nana Naik, great- grandson of the famous Umaji Naik and published in BISMT VII 1-4.

Umaji Naik looted the British and helped the Indian poor
Born in 1791 to a subedar in Shivaji's government, Umaji began his revolt at the age of 19 by looting the British treasury at Shivajinagar (then called Bhamburda). This was to be his trend in fighting British rule � looting European coffers, and distributing it among the poor.

A story is told that the famous dacoit Umaji Naik (1827) was resting at a spring in the ravine which leads down to the fort from the plateau and that a Brahman on his way to Tathavad passed by with a little grain given him in charity. Umaji called on him to stand and give up what he had. But when he learnt that it was only grain sent him off in peace, entreated his blessings, and gave him Rs. 25.

Gang Robberies,1827-1834.
In 1827 a band of Ramoshis, who then infested the Purandhar hills in Poona, under one Umaji, crossed the Sahyadris with horses, tents, and 800 men, and camped at the foot of Prabal hill about twelve miles east of Panvel. From Prabal they sent a proclamation, calling on the people to pay their rents to them not to Government, and distributing bundles of straw, charcoal, and fuel in sign of the ruin which would follow if rents were not paid to them.

The proclamation ran: [' Know all men that we Rajeshri Umaji Naik and Bhargaji Naik from our camp at the fort of Purandhar do hereby give notice in the year Sursann Suma Ashrin Maiyatain Va alaf 1827 to all Patils, Mhars, and others of the villages of Ratnagiri in South Konkan and Salsette in North Konkan, that they are not to pay any portion of the revenue to the British Government, and that any instance of disobedience to this mandate shall be punished by fire and sword. All revenues are to be paid to us. This proclamation is sent to you that you may make and keep a copy of it and act according to it without any demurring on pain of having your village razed to the ground. Given under our hand this 25th December 1827.]

Koli Raids, 1820-1825.
At the beginning of British rule the hill Kolis and Ramoshis of Thana, Ahmadnagar, and Nasik, led by Devbarav Dalvi, Kondaji Naik, Umaji Naik, Bhargaji Naik, and Ramji Kirva, caused such mischief and terror, that a reward of �3 (Rs. 3O) was offered for the capture of every armed man and of �10 (Rs. 100) for the capture of every leader.

Bedars were the first freedom Fighters of India
Vetars / Bedars / Valmikis ( Ramoshis ) and other subsects of Muthuraja - Mudiraja warrior community who ruled the entire South India were one of the first freedom fighters against Islamic Invaders and as well as British colonialists. MORE than a century before Mahatma Gandhi called for the British to quit India, an illiterate man from a backward community in a small village near Saswad issued an anti-British manifesto directing his community to execute every Angrez European. This was in 1831. In 1832, Umaji Naik was hanged as a 'plunderer' by the British.Innumerable Boya Berads sacrificed their lives in uprisings against the British. History knows very few names. The important are:

  • 1820 -1831 -- Umaji Naik, Bhulaji, Pandu Naik -- they rovolted in Pune, Nagar, Nasik, Satara, Solapur, Kokan. Most of participants in these rebelions were Ramoshis.
  • 1817 -- Gokak, Pachapur regions in Karnataka, Nayaks organized and rebelled. They were mostly Berads.
  • Revolt of Kittur Channamma and Sangoli Rayanna in Karnataka had mostly Berads, 1817 -- Trimbak Dengale's revolt in Pune by sardars in Peshaai - mostly had Ramoshi, Bhil, Koli etc.
  • 1857 - Uprising of Rango Bapuji in Satara, rebelled in name of Chatrapati of Satara. Centres established for recruitment where Ramoshi Koli and Mangs were in majority. Two Madane Brothers of Ramoshi wadi (Koregaon Satara) and Nana Ramoshi of Kundal were blown by cannon. Many Ramoshis from Tasgaon in Bijapur Taluka participated.
  • 1844-50 -- Tukaram and Mahankal, two sons of Umaji Naik revolted.
  • 1857 - Berads of Village Halgali Dist. Bijapur Karnataka revolted against disarming act. 19 Berads were hanged at Mudhol.
  • 1857 -- Raja Venkappa Nayak of Shurpur Dist Gulbarga rebelled. He died in struggle,
  • 1870 -- 1880 Rebellion of Vasudev Balwant Phadake was participated by most of Ramoshis. Head was Daulati Naik, who died in fight against Capt. Daniel in Tisubai Hills. Hari Ramoshi was hanged at Jejuri and Berads at Mudhol.
  • 1910 -- Veer Sindhur Laxman rebelled against Sansthanik at Jat anti-British, was killed by treachery. Vajya - Baijya - fought against Saranjamdar at Kukudwad District of Satara.
  • 1942 - 'Quit India' movement and formed 'prati sarkar' - parellel Government. Most Ramoshis of Satara Sangali Pune Districts participated.


Umaji's birth anniversary celebrated at Bhiwadi
Umaji Naik was the first Krantiveer. The memory of Umaji Naik, regarded by many as the first freedom fighter to become a martyr, lives on in obscurity at the Mamledar Kaccheri (Tehsildar Office) in Shukrawar Peth, where he was hanged on February 3, 1832. September 7 is his 211th birth anniversary.

The Mamledar Office in Shukrawar Peth is where legendary freedom fighter Umaji Naik was hanged in February 1832 from a banyan tree, but no local politician had ever demanded that it be included in the heritage list. Not till now, and thereby hangs a tale.

Naik's birth anniversary has been traditionally observed at Bhiwadi village in Purandar taluka, his birthplace, where his community � the Ramoshis � are in majority. For the first time, his birth anniversary will also be observed at the Mamledar Kaccheri, besides Bhiwadi.

The 'Adhya Krantiveer Raje Umaji Naik Ramoshi Samaj Sanghatana' has made several appeals to various ministers for funds to construct a memorial. The Ramoshis have been noted for being doughty fighters, and traditional thieves � a stigma which his followers feel is to blame for Umaji being denied recognition. ''Every freedom fighter has a memorial, but not Umaji,'' Ramoshis say.

Surrounding Baramati there are so many religious as well as historical places such as Jejuri, Morgaon, Ketkawale, Purandar fort, Saint Sopandev Samadhi, Umaji Naik's Samadhi etc.

Webmaster
Kokolu Ankarao
22nd - August - 2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


go TOP


14. SHIVAMARA MUTTARASA

Shivamara II was the son of Sripurusha and ruled the Western Ganga Dynasty from 788 - 816 C.E. He was also known as Madhava Muttarasa. He is considered as one of the famous kings of the dynasty. He was also a noted scholar in Kannada, Sanskrit and Prakrit. He succeeded to the Ganga throne during a time when the Rashtrakuta were the empire on the rise in South India and the Deccan.

Important among the Gangas were King Durvinita, hailed as an able warrior and an early writer in Kannada language, King Shivamara II and minister Chavundaraya, both known to be courageous warriors and writers in Kannada and Sanskrit.

The Rashtrakuta monarch Dhruva Dharavarsha defeated Shivamara in Mudagunduru and took the Ganga king captive. The Rashtrakuta then took direct control of the Gangavadi with the appointment of Kambharasa, son of Dhruva Dharavarsha as its governor. He was later released, only to be imprisoned again during the rule of Govinda III when he refused to pay the Rashtrakuta tribute. Shivamara II again was released only to defy the Rashtrakuta yoke by waging wars. He died fighting them in 816. Manne near Bangalore was one of his capitals during this time.

Shavamara Muttarasa was defeated by Rastrakuta king Dhruva
Gangas ruled over a greater part of Mysore district, then known by the name of Gangavadi. In the end of the 8th century, the Rashtrakuta king Dhruva Dharavarsha defeated the Ganga king Shivamara II and wrested Gangavadi from him. Gangavadi came under the governorship of Kambarasa, the son of Dhruva Dharavarsha. Gangas who were overthrown from Gangavadi, had to wait till their king Nitimarga Ereganga (853 - 869 CE) won a victory against the Rashtrakutas at Rajaramudu.

Shivamara Muttarsa was imprisoned for the second time
Though Govinda III of Rastrakuta became the emperor, it was not before having to face some internal family fueds. His elder brother Kambarasa (also known as Stambha) who coveted the throne went to war having formed an alliance of twelve chiefs as written in the Navasari record. Other records like the Sisvayi and Sanjan records mention support to Govinda III from brother Indra and victory against the combined forces of Kambarasa. Shivamara II of Ganga Dynasty of Talakad had joined Kambarasa but after the defeat was improsoned for a second time while Kambarasa was pardoned and allowed to govern from Gangavadi.

Shivamara Muttarasa was mostly known for his wars with Rastrakuta
In 753, when the Rashtrakutas replaced the Badami Chalukyas as the dominant force in the Deccan, the Gangas offered stiff resistance for about a century. King Shivamara II is mostly known for his wars with the Rashtrakuta Dhruva Dharavarsha, his subsequent defeat and imprisonment, his release from prison and eventually his death on the battle field. The Ganga resistance continued through the reign of Rashtrakuta Govinda III and by 819, a Ganga resurgence gained them partial control over Gangavadi under King Rachamalla.

The first to revolt was the Western Ganga feudatory led by King Shivamara II. In the series of battles that followed, Shivamara II was killed in 816 and Amoghavarsha I's commander and confidant, Bankesha, was defeated in Rajaramadu by the next Ganga king, Rachamalla.

Shivamara II refused to accept the suzerainty of the Rashtrakutas, which was considered as one among the four greatest empire reigning at that time and had to spend over two and a half decades in imprisonment. Even after his release Shivamara II refused to barter his self-respect and died fighting against the Rashtrakutas in a battlefield.

Tradition of hero stones
A hero stone bears an inscription containing not only the name of the sculptor, but also the further information that in the days of Madhava Muttarasa of the Ganga line about 890 A.D , when ' the army having marched upon Mahavali Banarasa' was 'penetrating' a village , a soldier 'smote and fell' and that ' for him was granted as a kal-nad thirty ploughs of land' under a tank free of all imposts.

Shivamara Muttarasa followed Jainism
Avinita's son and successor was Durvinita. Jaina muni Pujyapada was the royal preceptor. He is said to have built a basadi at Kogali in Bellary district. Hereafter the Ganga kings building basadis and providing them with municificent grants become very common. Apart from the Kings patronising Jainism we find from Shivamara II onwards the Ganga kings distinguishing themselves as the real followers of Jainism.

Much of culture of Hassan district in the past is linked with the Hoysala and Ganga dynasty rulers who ruled over this area. Initially the Gangas were Hindus but by the time of king Shivamara II (785 CE.), took to Jainism. Shivamara II helped in building the Jain temple at Shravanabelagola

The Chandraprabha basadi which is to the west of Shasanabasadi consists of an open Garbagriha, a sukhanasi, a navaranga and a porch and enshrines a seated figure of Chandraprabha, the eighth tirthankara. The inscription on the rock close to the outer wall of the navaranga states that a basadi was built by Shivamara and it may be concluded from its paleography that it refers to the Ganga king Shivamara II. If the basadi referred to in the Chandraprabha basadi, this temple would be one of the oldest on the hill and its date would be about 800 A.D. But the temple appears to have been rebuilt at a much later date with brick and mortar probably over the original plinth.

Dr. S. Srikanta Sastri was of the opinion that Durvinita was a Vaishnava. Inscriptions speak of the Kalamukhas, Pasupatas and Lokayatas who flourished in Gangavadi. However, from the time of Shivamara II, the Ganga rulers appear to have embraced Jainism. Perhaps his contacts with the Jaina saints and Philosophers like Toranacharya and Pushpanandi must have contributed to this change in faith. In fact, the Ganga period witnessed the activities of several Jaina saints and scholars like Pujyapada, Jinasena, Ajitasena, Akalanka or Nemichandrasiddanta. Many Jaina basadis were built at Manne, Sravanabelagola and Kambadahalli. The great minister Chavundaraya was a champion of Jainism and the Gomata monolith at Sravanabelagola is a standing testimony to his religious fervour. However, whether the followers of Vedic religion or of Jainism, the Ganga monarchs always remained tolerant in their religious attitude.

The Jaina monuments are mostly centered around the two hillocks namely Vindhyagiri and Chandragiri in Sravanabelagola. Of these, the Chandraprabha basadi belongs to the period of Shivamara II, and is a beautiful structure with a Garbhagriha, a Sukhanasi, a Navaranga and a porch.

Literature
Gajashtaka ( a hundred verses), a rare work on elephant management was written by the Western Ganga King Shivamara II around 800 but is now considered extinct. King Shivamara II is known to have written Gajamata Kalpana.

In spite of being imprisoned on multiple occasions and being at constant war he found the time to write famous literary works. Gajashtaka in Kannada, Gajamathakalpana in Sanskrit and Sethubandha in Prakrit attest to his inclination towards arts.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 28 / 08 / 2008
Nagpur, India, Maharastra


go TOP


15. KAMPILA RAYA:

Kampila Deva was son of Mummadi Singa and king of Kummatadurga which was about 12 kms northwest of Hampi. There are sevaral memorial stones and Virakals at Kummata. Verrakals were normally erected for the commando warriors who died in the mission of their masters or kings. Veerakals was normally a bunt / bant / mudiraj practice and the same could be seen in kingdom of Kodagu relating muddurajas.

Further Sangama Raya, the father of Hakka Raya and Bukkaraya, was the son-in-law of Kampila raya. Every one knows that Hakka and Bukka founded the Vijayanagar kingdom to fulfill the Kakatiya mission of protecting Hindus and Hinduism in South India. There are some people among mudiraj community who claim their subcaste as Bukka.

Kampila Raya was the chief of Kummitadurga in the Tungabhadra region; he was subordinate to the Emperor of Hoyasala. He fought with admirable courage against the repeated attacks of the Sultan of Delhi and finally laid down his own life in the service of his country.

In 1323 AD Prataparudra the Kakatiya ruler of Warangal was defeated and over throne by Ulugh khan, the general of Sultan Ghajas-ud-din. The treasury superintendents of Prataparudra were Harihara and Bukka. They fled to Kampil, and took refuge there. Kampiladeva the ruler of Kampil was overthrown, and Harihara and Bukka were taken as prisoners to Delhi. There they were converted to Islam, and were commissioned to consolidate his rule in Kampila.

According to Ibn Batuta, Sultan Muhammad marched southwards against his rebel nephew, Baha-ud-din Gushtasp, who had fled to the protection of the "Rai of Kambila," or "Kampila" as Firishtah calls the place, in his stronghold amongst the mountains. The title "Rai" unmistakably points to the Kanarese country, where the form "Raya" is used for "Rajah;" while in "Kambila" or "Kampila" we recognize the old town of Kampli, a fortified place about eight miles east of Anegundi, which was the citadel of the predecessors of the kings of Vijayanagar.

Raja => Raya => Rai

Though not it actually "amongst the mountains," Kampli is backed by the mass of rocky hills in the centre of which the great city was afterwards situated. It is highly natural to suppose that the "Rai," when attacked by the Sultan, would have quitted Kampli and taken refuge in the fortified heights of Anegundi, where he could defend himself with far greater chance of success than at the former place; and this would account for the difference in the names given by the two chroniclers. Ibn Batuta goes on to say that the Raya sent his guest safely away to a neighboring chief, probably the Hoysala Ballala, king of Dvarasamudra in Maisur, then residing at Tanur.

He caused a huge fire to be lit on which his wives and the wives of his nobles, ministers, and principal men immolated themselves, and this done he sallied forth with his followers to meet the invaders, and was slain. The town was taken, "and eleven sons of the Rai were made prisoners and carried to the Sultan, who made them all Mussalmans." After the fall of the place the Sultan "treated the king's sons with great honor, as much for their illustrious birth as for his admiration of the conduct of their father;" and Batuta adds that he himself became intimately acquainted with one of these -- "we were companions and friends."

The titles Mummadi, Mummudi and Mummidi seems to be related to each other and it appears that Mummudi title was initially used by chola king Rajaraja and later by Recharla Nayakas (Mudiraj, Velama & Kamma). As per Chola -Mutharaya research center, Tanjore, the cholas and Mutharayars are one and the same people with different dynasty names.

Mummudi => Mummadi => Mummidi

Some Telugu chettiyars of bangalore and Chennai today, belonging to Balajiga ( Balija ) and Sadhu chettiyar subcastes claim their gotra as Mummudi. Mummidi is a surname of Kapus ( balija / Telaga ) of Andhra Pradesh. Balijas are the descendants of banjara trading community of North India and they once formed part of Mudiraju bantlu during medieval times. While Telagas are a subcaste of kapus in Andhra region, the same people who are known as Tenugus are a subcaste of Mudiraj in Telangana region. It appears that these Raya rulers of Bellary region belong to bunt warrior community relating to Mudiraj people.

Tenugu = Telugu
Tenugu => Telugu => Telagu => Telaga
Tenugus of Mudiraja = Telagas of Balija = bantlu

"TEN or THEN" refers to south (India ) in Proto-Dravidian. Hence tenungu refers to Southerners. Some say that tenugu is older than telugu because Nannaya used the word tenugu and Ketana who is younger than Nannaya used the word telugu in his Andhra. It may mean that most of the South Indian warriors including Cholas who first used Mummudi title were Tenugus and later became Mutharayars.

Kampila Raya was the king of Kummartadurga and he was the son of Mummadi Singa (Singeyanayaka -III). Mummadi is a common surname in the castes / social groups of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka . It is very interesting to note the fact that many communities with the surname of mummadi worship "Mysoramma" (Mother of Mysore - Goddess Chamundeshwari) as the deity. The following is a short list of some well known personalities carrying the last name of "Mummadi".

Mysoramma seems to be the modificationof the name Mahishasura Mardhani. Goddes Chamundeswari is another name of Mahishasuramardhani.

Mahishasura => Maishasura => mysura => Mysora
Mahishasura Amma => Mysora Amma = Mysoramma
Mysora => Mysore

  • Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar - Member of the Wodeyar dynasty which ruled Mysore, known for his service to the Mysore state. Wodeyar title is used by both Yadava and Mudduraja kings.
  • Mummadi Kempe Gowda, the founder of Bangalore- the gowda seems to be a modification of the word gounder and gounders are releted western ganga muttarasa kings.
  • Mummadi Rajarajanarendra Choda, the founder of Rajamhundry, the cultural capital of medieval Andhra- Telugu chodas claimed be related people of Tamil Cholas. Cholas and Mutharayars are believed to have common ancestry. The Chodas are often known as present day Kapus. Kapus seems to represent bantu sections of Mudiraju community which is evident from several common surnames among Mudiraj - Balija - Kapu - Tuluva bunts.
  • An Inscription (dated 1213 A.D.) on the south wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the temple of Tripurantakesvara, Tripurantakam, Markapur Taluk, Kurnool District, mentions about the donation made by one General by name Recherla Mummadi Nayaka, son of Nagi Nayaka - Recharla gotram exists among Mudiraj, Kammas and velamas.
History has it that the governors of Hoysala, Singeya Nayaka-III (1280 - 1300) declared independence and formed the kingdom of Kampili around 1280 AD. The kingdom faced constant threat from the powerful kingdom of Hoysalas and Yadavas. But in 1327 AD, the Muslim expedition took toll of Yadavas and the kingdom of Kampiladeva as well and opened up routes for the Muslim rulers.

As per the story narrated by ballads during Ankamma Kolupu conducted by Mudiraj, it is mentioned that Dharma Choda Chari and his seven brothers were anti Yadavas of Devagiri. The son of Choda chari was Rava Deva Raju and this name contains title "Deva", much similar to that of Kampila Deva. So, the Devagiri mudiraj could possibly belong to Kampiladeva community or sect. Kampila Deva also fought against Yadavas at one time to become independent.

Mummadi Singama was a warrior from hill country (malanad) of Karnataka and the founder king of Kampili. Kampili was a tiny kingdom on the banks of the Tungabhadra river in present day Karnataka state during the 13th century. The governor of Hoysala, Singeya Nayaka-III (1280 - 1300) declared independance to the kingdom of Kampili around 1280 AD. Soon the kingdom faced attack by the Yadava king Ramachandra but the latter was replused. Kampili was a small state comprising the modern districts of Raichur, Dharwar and Bellary and a small portion of the districts of Anantapur in the South and chitaldurg and Shimoga in the West. The river Krishna seperated this kingdom from Maratta provience of the Delhi empire. Mummadi Singa, the founder of the kingdom died in A.D 1313.

Singeya Nayaka of Kampili and Gangeyadeva of Gutti put Mallideva to death. Mallideva was the son of Ramadeva's sister and he ruled Rayadurga in Bellary. He was killed for declaring himself as the king of Maharastra for the provience he was ruling.

Singeyanayaka was succeeded by his son Kampilideva ( Khandeyaraya or Khandeya Raneya ) in 1300. Kampilideva was a brave prince and helped his master Ramadeva of Devagiri against his foe of Balla-III. Kampiladeva ruled a fairly large kingdom in the modern day Bellary district Karnataka from his capital Kampili and Anegondi. Anegondi is a rocky place on the banks of the Tungabhadra, on the opposite bank of which the city of Vijayanagara was founded. However, he was indignat against the Muslim invaders and never allowed them to set their foot in his land. He faced the wrath of the Hoysala Empire and the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri but finally fell to the invasion from the north by the forces of Alla-ud-din Khilji, the Sultan of Delhi.

When it seemed, with his fort besieged that defeat was imminent, Kampiladeva and his nobles rode out of their fort to face the enemy and perished against the enemy, while their wives and daughters lighted a pyre and courageously accpeted death rather than dishonour. The head of kampilideva was stuffed with straw and paraded around to put the fear of Allah into the people. This practice od sati is no different than the jauhar that Rajput womenfolk have practised on many occassions in a similar context. This indicates that Kampiladeva could be Hindu Rajaput - bhilala descendants.

Hosamaledurga was one of the capitals of Mummadi Singa and Kampila deva. Doravadi or Daroji in Sandur taluk, Bellary district was ruled by Mummadi Singeyanayaka in 1280 AD. The element of Nayaka in the name Singeyanayaka indicates that Mummadi could be from Mudiraju bantu (Balija) community. Nayaka title was to a great extent a proprietary title of kapu, balija, mudiraju, kama, boya and banjara chiefs who belong to the same vanara genetic pool.

When the Raja in whose service Mummadi was, Ramadevaraya of Devagiri, fell before the Muslims, Mummadi fled South to the Tungabhadra where he established a strong fortress at Anegondi, where later the Vijayanagar kingdom was also established by Hakka & Bukka. Kampila and his father Mummadi Singa were feudatories of Ramadeva, the Yadava ruler of Devagiri, and often helped him against the Hoysala Ballala III.

When Malik Kufur ended the rule of the Hoyshala and Yadava kings, Kampila was the ruler of a minor kingdom of the region. In the early fourteenth century, between AD 1303 and 1327, Kampili became the seat of an independent principality for a short time under the family of Kampiladeva.

After the capture of Devagiri by the Sultan of Delhi, Kampila appears to have become an independent ruler. He steadily built up a large kingdom which included parts of modern Anantapur, Chitradurga, Shimoga, Raichur, Dharwar and Bellary Districts. The ambitious Kampila was frequently at war with the Hoysala Ballala III, Prataparudra, the Kakatiya ruler of Warangal and the Sultan of Delhi.

According to Ibn Batuta, Sultan Muhammad marched southwards against his rebel nephew, Baha-ud-din Gushtasp, who had fled to the protection of the "Rai of Kambila," or "Kampila" as Firishtah calls the place, in his stronghold amongst the mountains. The title "Rai" unmistakably points to the Kanarese country, where the form "Raya" is used for "Rajah"; while in "Kambila" or "Kampila" we recognise the old town of Kampli, a fortified place about eight miles east of Anegundi, which was the citadel of the predecessors of the kings of Vijayanagar. Though not itself actually "amongst the mountains," Kampli is backed by the mass of rocky hills in the centre of which the great city was afterwards situated.

Rajah = Raja = Rai

Kamipila seems to the first king wao was referred as Rai in 13th A.D. Presently, the title "Rai" is mostly used by Tuluva bunts who are either variants or a branch of Mudiraju bantlu.

Sangama Deva was the son-in-law of Kampila Raya and treasurer of the State. Hakka and Bukka were the sons of Sangama Deva. Some believe that Sangama and his five sons were probably local chiefs in the service of Kampila.

Kumara Rama is a revered as a central figure in the history of Karnataka State prior to the establishment of the Vijayanagar Empire. Kumara Rama was the son of the King Kampila Raya of Kummata Durga or Hosamaledurga. Kummata Durga is a small town in Bellary district of Karnataka. Kumara Rama(1290-1320), was an ideal prince and an embodiment of virtues, who stood by his father in waging relentless wars against the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal, Hoysala Veeraballalas, and Muhammad bin Tughlaq. Kumara Rama died at a very young age battling the Muslim armies of Tughlaq.

Kampila's son Ramanatha was noted for his heroic strength and valour. Kampila and his son fell fighting and the kingdom became a province of the Delhi empire in about AD 1326-27. Kampila was killed in war in 1327 A.D.

Delhi Sultans laid siege to Kummatadurga. They killed most of the residents mercilessly. Out of the surviving relatives of the King, eleven were taken prisoners by the soldiers of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq's army and were taken to Delhi. Hakka and Bukka were among the eleven prisoners taken to Delhi.

It is said by some that originally Hakka and Bukka were from the Kakatiya kingdom of Warangal and working as treasurers in the court of the Kakatiya king Prataparudra II of Warangal. After the annexation of the Kaktiya Kingdom to the Sultanate of Delhi in 1323 by Juna (or Ulugh) Khan, they had been taken taken to Delhi as prisoners and were forcibly converted to Islam. It is also said that Hakka and Bukka were commissioned to consolidate sultan's rule in Kampila after converting them to Islam.

In 1332 , when Malik Mohammed , the governor of the southern province of Kampili , failed to put down a wide- spread rebellion there , the two brothers were sent there to put it down. But , in Kampili they met the sage Vidyaranya , under whose influence Harihara & Bukka reconverted to Hinduism & stood up as champions of a resurgent Hindu cause. They established their sway over Kampili , conquered more territories & subsequently pro- laimed their independence . They founded their capital city opposite to the Anegundi Fort , on the south bank of the river Tungabhadra & named it " Vijayanagara " or " the City of Victory " , the name by which the kingdom itself , that in its heyday assumed the proportion of an empire , subsequently came to be known.

  • Kamila Raya was a chieftain of Kummatadurga
  • Mummadi Singa was the father of Kampila Raya and feudatory of Devagiri Yadava ruler Ramadeva
  • Kampilaraya had a son Ramanatha alias Ramaraja who was noted for his heroic strength and valour.
  • Sangama Deva was the son-in-law of Kampila Raya and treasurer of the State.
  • Kampila was killed in war in 1327 A.D.
Immadi Singeyanayaka and Kampiladeva seems to belong to bana / bant race as per the following information :
'In the Saka year (specified) Singeya-Nayaka, the son of Kanneya-Nayaka, with his wives Kettavve, Honnave, Nochavve and with ten maid-servants and twenty men servants, on or from the head of an elephant, six times embraced Garuda and fulfilled his engagement with Narasimha Deva.

Inscription No. 146 of the Kadur Taluq which records the death of Bammarasa in the battle-field in 1180 A.D., also describes the death of his follower, Bammaya Nayaka, who sacrificed his life in order to win fame. A Virgal is said to have been erected in his memory by his son Hariyama Nayaka.

The above account clearly shows that the practice of Anumarana was widely prevalent in the north and south of India, about the 11th century A.D. The earliest reference to the existence of the custom is, however, obtained from the account of Bana. The Anumarana in its simplest form, i.e. the self-immolation of a widow on the death of her husband, can be traced to an earlier date.

It has also to be noted that the person or persons who thus immolated themselves were, with the exception of the wife or the nearest relatives, pledged to do so before hand and hence on the death of the person fulfilled their Pledge and in so doing showed their devotion to their master. ( This practice seems to be in line with Bant / Bunt culture of self sacrifising through suicides for the sake of and serving their masters. )

Inscriptions Nos. 5 and 27 of Arkalgud Taluq disclose the self-destruction of two persons on the deaths of their respective masters, the Ganga King Nitimarga, who lived about 915 A.D., and Satyavakya Kongunivarman, lord of Nandagiri, who also lived about 915 A.D. ( Western ganga kings were Muttarasa kings ).

Mummudi
Mummudi seems to be a modification of Mummadi or vise versa. Mummudi was a title used by solas or cholas. Cholas and Mutharayars are believed to be the same people.

Cola => cola => chola
Mummadi <=> Mummudi

The original name of Rajaraja chola was Arulmozhivarman. The original title of Arulmozhivarman was Rajakesari Varman or Mummudi-Sola-Deva. Having overcome the Chera, Rajarajan assumed the title "Mummudi Cholan". He was the second son of the Parantaka Chola II alias Sundara Chola and Vaanamaadevi. Raja Raja Cholan had an elder sister, Kundavai and an elder brother, Aditya Karikalan. He had a high regard for his sister, who spent her later life in Thanjavur with her younger brother, and named his first daughter after her. ( Verma surname can be seen prevelent among Mudiraju and Kamma castes )

In the war against the Pandyas, Rajaraja seized the Pandya king Amarabhujanga and the Chola general captured the port of Virinam. To commomorate these conquests Rajaraja assumed the title Mummudi-Chola, (the Chola king who wears three crowns - the Chera, Chola and Pandya). Rulers of eminence assumed the title Trikutachalapati to mark their valour. The Cholas a little later assumed the little "Mummudi" which in all probability refers to Trikuta. In Telugu language, moodu means three.

Moodu = Three = 3
Moodu & Moodu = Mummoodu
Mummoodu => Mummudu => Mummudi => Mummadi

Mummadi or Mummudi could be an indicator towards Kalabhras who defeated chola, chera and pandyan kingdoms and ruled the entire South India. Kalabhras were also the worshippers of mother Goddess. While some of these these Kalabhras assumed the titile of chola, some others assumed the title of Pandya. Today we can see mutharayars having cholai and pandyan titles.

The King of Srilanka had established marriage relations with Asoka and the whole Kingdom was then converted to Buddhism. Hinduism reappeared in the island only around 1,000 AD when the Cholas conquered it and established the province of Mummudi Chola Mandalam (Jaffna Peninsula), settling it with Hindu Tamilians.

One of the mightiest south Indian sovereigns, the Rajaraja Chola (985-1014) invaded Lanka in 990 AD and conquered the northern half. Ruining Anuradhapura he made Polonnaruwa his capital on the island; a region which he re-named Mummudi- cholamandalam. Rajaraja associated his son Rajendra Chola in government during 1012 and then died in 1014.

The Sri Lakshmi Narayana Perumal Temple at Ammangudi (near Kumbakonam) is in a dilapidated condition after it was renovated by Srikrishnanraman alias Mummudi Chola Brahmaroyan, the commander-in-chief of Raja Raja Chola-I (1022-1044 AD). Mummadis are Devi worshippers and seems to belong Mudiraj group who worshi Goddess Ankamma. Cholas are already known to worship Goddess Ankamma as Rajendra Cholan named his daughter Angamma.

Mummudi in Inscriptions :
BOMBAY - KARNATAKA INSCRIPTIONS- THE YADAVAS - No. 222 - ( B. K. No. 23 of 1935-36) - LAKSHMESVAR, SHTRHATTI TALUK, DHARWAR DISTRICT - Hero-stone in the Taluk Office Ramachanadra�A. D. 1287 This badly damaged record is dated in the king's regna; year 17, Sarvajit, Kartika,Su. 10, Thursday, corresponding to A. D. 1287 October 16, Thursday, f.d.t. 93. The inscription seems to commemorate the death of Damanayaka, a hero who died in a fight with Mummudi Singeya of Kummata.

Inscriptions of the Ranganathasvamy Temple, Srirangam -No. 543 - (A. R. No. 6 of 1938-39) - II Prakara, east wall - Nandana (1593 A.D.) - Incomplete. Refers to some gift (not specified) by Uruttiramuttiyappan (Rudramurttiyappan), son of Nallama Mummudi . . . . . . . . of Kangayanallur, on behalf of Virappa Nayakkar Ayyan. The details of the date viz., Nandana, Panguni, Ekadasi may be equated to 1593, March 18, but are not sufficient for verification. This inscription showing the name of Mummudi seems to belong Telugu Nayaka rule of Vijayanagar kingdom in Srirangam.

The stone inscriptions discovered in ErAgaram temple pertains to 12th century. These and other inscriptions prove that this place 'Er" was also called "Mummudi Chola Mangalam" and was a famous place in those centuries. The 12th century stone inscriptions only indicate that extensions and modifications were done by the Chola kings.

Tamil Inscriptions -part - ii - INSCRIPTIONS OF THE TANJAVUR TEMPLE INSCRIPTIONS ON THE WALLS OF THE ENCLOSURE, THE CHANDESVARA AND THE BRIHANNAYAKI SHRINES - No. 31. On the north face of a pillar of the south enclosure - (1). Hail! Prosperity! This (is) an edict of Rajaraja, (alias) Rajakesarivarman, which is cherished by the multitude of the diadems of (i.e., which is obeyed by) the crowd of all princes.(2). By order of the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva, this hall which surrounds the temple (tiru-surru-maligai) was caused to be built by the general (senapati) Sri-Krishna Rama, alias Mummadi-Sora-brahma-marayan, (a native) of Amankudi, alias Keralantaka-chaturvedimangalam, in Vennadu, (a subdivision) of Uyyakkondan-valanadu in Sora-mandalam. ( Mummadi Sora here means Mummadi chola or Rajaraja chola ).

Throne of Kampilaraya
Kampili kingdom of Jambukeswara (Kampiliraya) in Anegondi was invaded on the pretext of harboring a rebel and destroyed by Tughlaq and the brave king died valiantly on the battle field fighting for his honor and the country. His two ministers Harihara and brother Bukka raya ( Formerly in the service of Pratapa rudra of Kakatiya kingdom ) were held prisoners and were taken to Delhi and were forced to convert.

According to historical records, in A D 1327, Kampiliraya fought a fierce battle with Muhammed-bin-Tuglak, and died. However, Tughlak was not able to find the throne. Saint Vidyaranya Tirtha, who was also the pontiff of Sringeri Sharada Peetha, aided him in hiding the throne from the Muslim invaders. It was then given to Harihara (1337-57) of Vijayanagar, who salvaged it.

The throne is said to have belonged to Dharmaraja Yudhistra of the Mahabharata fame. How it came into the possession of Kampiliraya of Kampili is not definitely known. But he brought it from Hastinapura to Anegondi (Hampi). In 1327 A.D. Kampilaraya was then the chief of Kammitadurga in the Tungabhadra region. Kampiliraya fought a fierce battle with admirable courage against the repeated attacks of the Sultan of Delhi Muhammed-bin-Tuglak, and finally laid down his own life in the service of his country. He died but not before he hid the throne. It was the philosopher-saint, Vidyaranya Thirtha, pontiff of Sringeri Sankaracharya mutt, whose premonition pinpointed the spot where the throne was hidden, to Harihara (1337-57 A.D.) of Vijayanagar who salvaged it.

According to legend, the Mysore royal throne, which is made of gold, was used by Dharmaraja, the Pandava king. It was brought from Hastinapura to Penugonda by Kampilaraya, where it lay buried. It was rediscovered by Vidyaranya, the royal priest of the Vijayanagar empire and subsequently presented to Raja Wodeyar in 1609.

Kumara Rama was the son of Kampila Raya
Ibn Battuta states that eleven "sons" of Kampilaraya (all unnamed) were captured and taken to Delhi; Barni speaks of only one individual, identified as one " kumara Rama".

The valiant junior king of the Kampila dynasty before the Vijayanagara Empire coming into existence in Karnataka is Kumara Rama. The son born to maid servant from his father Kampilaraya is 'Channa Rama' is the Robin Hood of 13 th century. For valiance, effortless solving of problems, Hindu Muslim unity and daring nature, Kumara Rama acquires the prefix as 'Gandugali'.

Kumara Rama has uphill tasks before him. Kumara Rama falls in love with an aboriginal girl who later becomes his father's wife due to some circumstances. Though Rama takes this development as a fall out of destiny, the lady does not reconcile to her fate and tries to seduce Rama to be with her. Rama stands out for morals and will be humiliated by his mother. Inspite of such a personal crisis, he concentrates on expansion of his territory. Then he becomes the victim of his lover's tricks and Kampila Raja orders for his execution. But his look-alike brother Chenig Rama sacrifices his life for him. Then Rama wages battle against the onslaught of Tughlaq's army. He faces tough enmity from Mohammad Bin Tuglak of Delhi.At this time Mathangi ask Kumarama to accept her as his wife but he stands by the promise that all women are like mother to him except Ramale his wife. Mathangi joins the team of Tuglak and thus in the war Kumara Rama is killed in deceitful tactics. He dies in the battle as a valiant fighter and his dignity is restored even in his death. Kampila is set on fire. Thus the empire crumbles.

Raneya - title was used for Kampila Raya :
Raneya title was also used for Kamipla Raya. Raneya seems to represent present day Ranes of Konkan region in Maharastra. Ranes are Hindu Maratha warrior community. They also seems to be closely related to Yadav community.

Some Ranes claim to be from Teli caste. In Telugu, Telis are equivalent Gondla or Goundla or Gouda who are closely related balija ( Mudiraju bantlu of medieval times).

Raneya => Rane => Rana

Some claim that Ranes are Rajputs. Rajaputs are great wariors and also had traits of undertaking sucidal missions for their masters similar to mudiraju bantlu belonging to bant / banjara races. There are several instances of the Ranes serving the Portuguese as mercenaries in Goa as well as far away from it in Ceylon during the 17th century.

In fact, history tells that originally Ranes were not from Goa, they were not from Satari either but they were from Gujarat and settled in Maharastra and finally one settled in Goa, Satari being their citadel, Prataph Singh Rauji Rane may be one of the descendents of this clan of Rane. Rane Rajaput is a subcate of Maratha Rajaputs.

Maha Rana Pratap Singh was a Rajaput. He is said to belong Sosodia branch of Suryavamsi Rajaputs. Some Kolis claim that their gotra id Sisodia. Mudiraj people are said to be kolis spread into South India.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 31/01/2008
Nagpur, M.S, India

go TOP


16. SANGAMA RAYA:

Harihara Raya and Bukka Raya were the sons of Sangama Deva Raya. He was the son-in-law of Kampila Raya, King of Kummatadurga. Sangama Deva was the treasurer of the State. He had five sons named Harihara, Kampana, Bukkaraya, Marappa and Muddappa. Like their father, all of them loved their country, were brave and were devoted to their duty.

After the fall of Kakatiya kingdom, Harihararaya and Bukkaraya,the state treasury suprintendants of Prataparudra of kakatiya kingdom, fled to kummatadurga with all the treasure. The enemies laid siege to Kummatadurga. They killed most of the residents mercilessly. Out of the surviving relatives of the King Kampila Raya, eleven were taken prisoners by the soldiers of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq's army and were taken to Delhi. Hakka and Bukka were among the eleven prisoners taken to Delhi.

(comment : it is believed by some historians that Sangamaraya was a migrant from Warangal to kindom of Kummatadurga in search of a royal post and finally he settled there as he became son-in-law of king Kamiplaraya of kummatadurga in addition to becoming state treasury superintendant. Sangamaraya most probably belonged to the caste and community of Kakatiyas and was perhaps a close relative of Kakatiyas. This caste relation might have prompted Sangamaraya to send Harihara and Bukka to Warangal to work as treasury superintendants in Kakatiya kingdom.)

go TOP


17. HAKKA RAYA & BUKKA RAYA:

iss Krishna Veni, 23 years old Hindu Telugu female from Mumbai writes in her matrimonial personal profile no. YZY9232 that she is from Mudiraj caste and belongs to subcaste : Bukka. There are some sections of Mudiraj people who write their sub caste as BUKKA.

There are Donga Dasaris in Kancheepuram, Tiruvallur, Tiruchirapalli, Karur, Perambalur, Pudukottai, Chennai, Salem and Namakkal Districts of Tamilnadu. Gudu Dasaris are another group of people who belong to Tamilnadu.

In India, at the present day, there are several wandering tribes known variously by the names Dasaris (Tamil), Guduguduppandy (Tamil), Budubudukalavadu / Budubukkalavadu (Telugu), Langaris (Hindustani).

They are also known as Krishnabalija (Dasari, Bukka, Bukka Ayavar). The Bukka has its origin from Bukka Raya, one of the treasurers in the court of Kakatiya kingdom, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh and also one of the founder brothers of Vijayanagar Kingdom at Hampi, once Telugu speaking Bellary districts in the belt of Rayalaseema and presently located in Karnataka.

Bukkarayalu was a Telugu Bant: Gangadevi (14th Century) was the daughter of Kakatiyas and the daghter-in-law of the Vijayanagara Dynasty founded by Bukkarayalu and Harihara Rayalu. She was the wife of Kamaparayalu, the third son of Bukkarayalu. The rulers of both Kaktiya and Vijayanagar dynasties are indigenous Telugu communities. She wrote the true story of her husband's victory over Muslims in Madhura, entitled "Madhura Vijayamu" in Telugu. This Kavyamu (poem) is also known as "Veerakamparaya Charitramu," and contains 8 chapters.

Yakshaganams are an ancient form of staged and costumed dramatic performance, put on in the Telugu-speaking region in the past by hereditary specialists such as Chindus, Dasaris and Kuchipudi Brahmins. In the twentieth century, their performance spread amongst other castes who had previously only been audiences for the specialists.

The origin of Vijayanagar empire in southern India in the 14th century CE has been a controversial topic and has been debated over the past decades by various historians. The differing opinions balance on the question of whether the founders of the empire Harihara I and Bukka I were of Telugu or Kannada origin.

Many theories have been propounded about the genesis of the empire. Well known historians from Archeological Survey of India hold their own opinions about the origin of the empire. Prof. K.A. Nilakanta Sastry, Dr. N. Ventakaramanayya and B. Surya Narayana Rao claim a Telugu origin of Harihara and Bukka Raya. However, historians such as Dr. P.B. Desai, Dr. Henry Heras and Prof. Dr. B.A. Saletore attest to the empire's Kannada origin.

The fact is that Harihara Raya and Bukka Raya worked in the court of Kakatiyaya Kingdom as treasurers. This proves that they knew Telugu and they were of Telugu origin. They were known to come from from Kampili near Bellary districts to Kakatiyas. It is also believed that their father Sangama Raya migrated from Warangal to Kampili to work in the court of Sangama Raya of Kampili. The people of Bellary districts of pressent Karnataka were all Telugu speaking in those days of Bukka Raya due to simple fact that these districts were made a part of Andhra State when states were reorganised for the first time in the independant India based on languages on the demand of Potti Sreeramulu who sacrifised his life by going on hunger strike.

The people belonging to Bukka subcaste of Mudiraj may most probably fall under Telugu Bunts / Bants subgroup.

According to popularly believed theory by the historians that Harhara Raya (HAKKA) and Bukka Raya (BUKKA) were the two great warrior sons of Sangama Raya out of the five sons he had and the two were working as treasury superintendents in the court of Kakatiya king Prataparudra at WARANGAL. In 1323 AD Prataparudra the Kakatiya ruler of Warangal was defeated and over throne by Ulugh khan, the general of Sultan Ghajas -ud-din. Harihara and Bukka fled to Kampil with all the booty, and took refuge at Kampil. Kampiladeva the ruler of Kampil was overthrown by Ulugh Khan. Harihara and Bukka were taken as prisoners to Delhi.

Later, on account of the bad administration of Tughlaq there was lawlessness in the southern states. In order to suppress it, Tughlaq freed able young prisoners and sent them to the South with his army. It was then that these two young men made use of the opportunity and escaped. When the Sultan became weak, they renounced Islam and conquered the territory of the Hoysalas under the guidance and inspiration of the hermitage of Vidyaranya, who gave them shelter. Vidyaranya had made up his mind and come to the decision to build the new empire through these youths.

Anegondi Captured:

Mohammad Bin Tughlaq, Sultan of Delhi, had defeated Jambukeshwara Raya, King of Anegondi, and had him imprisoned in his own palace. He had appointed Mallik Nayab as his representative to rule over the State.

Hakka and Bukka organized a band of patriotic youths according to the advice of Vidyaranya. They entered the fort of Anegondi very cleverly and took Mallik Nayab prisoner when he was fully drunk. They had freed Anegondi without bloodshed from the enemies. They set free the King and his family. The flag bearing the symbol of Lord Vishnu in his incarnation as Varaha (Boar) was hoisted on the fort of Anegondi.' Harihara and Bukka and their three brothers made earnest efforts to organize resistance against the Muslim invaders from the North.

The foundation of Vijayanagar city:

After the fall of Hoysala kingdom, by making use of the celebration of this victory, Vidyaranya selected a suitable place in Pampakshetra on the southern bank of Tungabhadra river near Anegundi fortress on Thursday, the seventh day of the first half of the month of Vaishakha, during the year Dhatu in 1336 A.D. with the capital Hastinavati (modern Hampi) and laid the foundation for a new city named Vidyanagara. When the Vijayanagara Kingdom was founded by the Sangam brothers, people wholeheartedly supported them. At this time he found a hidden treasure. This helped him to build the new State. The common people believed that Vidyaranya prayed to Bhuvaneshwari and made her rain gold flora few hours.

Hakka and Bukka wanted to name it Vidyanagara' (the city of education). But Vidyaranya named it 'Vijayanagara' (the city of victory).

Harihar became the first ruler of the kingdom. After the death of Ballala III (Veera Ballala (1343) and his son Virupaksha Ballala (in 1346), the whole of the Hoysala dominion came under control of Harihara Raya. So Hakka and Bukka themselves had to look after the welfare of the Hoysala Empire. In course of time, the Hoysala Empire merged into the Vijayanagar Empire. His brother Bukka (1356-77) succeeded in destroying the Madhurai Sultanate.

(comment : The fact that Harihararaya (Hakka) and Bukkaraya were the treasury superintendents of king Prataparudra of Kakatiya dynasty at Warangal, indicates that the two brothers were undoubtedly Telugu peaking people and came from kingdom of kummatadurga because of his father's relation to kakatiyas and Warangal. The Kingdom of Kummatadurga ruled by Kampilaraya was located in Bellary districts and was part and parcel of grand Rayalaseema Region since unknown times till Andhra Pradesh came into existence. It was a well known fact that Bellary districts were in Andhra State immediately after the first reorganization of states based on languages in independent India. Bellary districts were trasferred to Karnataka by Andhra Pradesh in exchange of some other regions from Karnatka for administrative reasons. Though the telugu speaking people are on decline, there is quite a large population of telugu speaking people in Bellary dustricts even today.)

It was also popularly believed that Sangama Raya was originally from Warangal and migrated to Kampil to work as treasury superintendent in the court of Kampila Raya and finally he became the son-in-law of Kampila Raya. It can be concluded that Kampila Raya, Sangamaraya, Harihararaya, and Bukkaraya, were all belonged to a caste block to which people of present day bunt-mudiraj community belong. Kampilraya was one of the first known king who was referred by foreign visitors as " RAI ". The people who traditionally use RAI and SHETTY titles belong to BUNT community of Karnataka. World's most beautiful girl -Aiswarya Rai, Hindi cine actress - Shilpa Shetty, and Bollywood hero Sunil Shetty, etc., are the famous personalities of Karnataka Bunt community, who had their connection to this Royal block of Bunt-Mudirajas.

The Rayas of Kampil and Hoyasala were of the KURUBA origin and BUNTs. They were slightly different from the YADAVAs. The Yadavas were similar people but for Aryan mixed blood. The Yadavas of North mostly belong to Gujarat, Rajastan, Utter Pradesh and Bihar. They came to Maharastra and South to establish their kingdoms when they were driven out from North.

The GOLLAs / GVALAs of South are the people of Kalabhra or Kuruba origin. There are several surnames in mudirajas which are found similar in the people of GOLLA and many other communities of agricultural background. The main reason for this lay in the fact that all these people descended from the same Kalabhras and they belonged to one caste which was then known by name RAYA till about 1600 A.D. With change in the professions, the differentiation among the groups of the same people increased and caste names undergone modifications. Even the Yadavas of North India might be having their roots to Kalabhras, which needs to be studied in detail.

The story of Shasi Rekha Parinayam which dipicts the marriage of Shasi Rekha, the daughter of Balaram with Abhimanyu, the son of Subhadra was quite an interesting one. The deep study of this story tells us that Yadavas too were the people of aboriginal Indians and perhaps closely related to bunt-mudiraj-koli block of people. Subhadra was the only one sister of two great Yadava brothers - Balaram and bhagavan Sri Krishna. Thus Balaram and Sri Krishna were maternal uncles to Abhimanyu and Abhimanyu was son of Subhadra and Arjun. Subhdra was an Yadava by caste and Arjun was Aryan Kshatriya by caste. Abhimanyu married Shasi Rekha, the daughter of his maternal uncle -Balaram. This type of marriages normally take place in Andhras and in South Indians and such marriages are forbidden in Aryan North Indian practice.

go TOP


18. PRATAPARUDRA DEVA:

Prataparudra -II succeeded his grandmother Rudramba in A.D.1295 and ruled till A.D.1323. He was the grandson of Rani Rudramadevi, but adapted him as her son on the advise of her father as she was not having her own son. According to the kaifiats found in Rayalaseema Kakatiya Prataparudra was an important ruler. In some records he was mentioned as Prataparudra Maharaja. . He is one of the most important and notable rulers of the Kakatiya dynasty. He was the last ruler of Kakatiya dynasty. Prataparudra-II ( Virarudra ) is one among the three greatest rulers of Kakatiya dynasty rulers. The other two were Prataparudra - I (Rudradeva) and Rudramadevi.

Rudramadevi died in the month of November, 1289 CE., fighting battle against the rebel Kayastha chief Ambadeva. On the death of Rudrama, her grandson Prataparudra, who was adopted by her as son and as heir apparent on the advice of her father Ganapatideva, ascended the throne at the beginning of the year 1280 CE. Prataparudra had to fight battles throughout his reign against either the internal rebels or the external foes.

A number of accounts states that Prataparudra began his rule in Dharanikota, an ancient town in Guntur distrct, before moving to Warangal It clearly indicates that kakatiyas ruled coastal Andhra and Rayalseema region uniting the entire Telugu country. King Erikal Mutthuraju, who ruled parts of Rayalaseema around 575 A.D, could be from the same Erukala tribe to which Kakatiyas are said to belong. He pushed the western border of his kingdom up to Medak and Raichur. In the reign of Kakatiya Prataparudra II, the Nellore region became part and parcel of the Kakatiya empire and lost its political significance.

In the latter half of 13th century, the Cuddapah district fallen in to the hands of Ambadeva who had temporarily usurped the Kakatiya crown and ruled from Vallur, 15 Kms. from Cuddapah. Kakatiya King Prataparudra succeeded this throne after death of Ambadeva and ruled the district with Warrangal as the Capital during the opening of 14th century.

Administration
He introduced many administrative reforms. He divided the kingdom into 77 Nayakships. Some of these reforms were later adopted in the Vijayanagar empire. He was one of the first Telugu kings who defended the Telugu country from the onslaught of Muslim invaders. It was only after the death of Prataparudra that Muslims could enter into Telugu lands to rule the Telugu people.

Historians of the Southern Nayaks note that the Palaiyakkarar system might have originated from the Kakatiya dynasty's model by Prataparudra, who similarly divided his kingdom among 77 Padmanayakas. Palaiyakkarar is the head of Palayam (a fortified district) of the Madurai Nayak kingdom.

Fight against Muslim invaders
In A.D.1303, the Delhi Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji sent an army to plunder the kingdom. But Prataparudra defeated them at Upparapalli in Karimnagar district. In A.D. 1310, when another army under Malik Kafur invaded Warangal and indulged in murder and mayhem around the fort, it prompted King Prataparudra to make a pact and offer an enormous amount of tribute.In A.D.1318, when Ala-ud-din Khilji died, Prataparudra withheld the tribute and asserted his independence in 1320 CE. . It provoked another invasion of the Muslims. In A.D.1321, Ghiaz-ud-din Tughlaq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country then called Tilling. He laid siege to Warangal, but owing to internal dissensions he called off the siege and returned to Delhi. Within a short period, he came back with a much bigger army. In spite of unpreparedness, Prataparudra fought bravely. For want of supplies, he surrendered to the enemy who sent him to Delhi as a prisoner, and he died on the way. King Prataparudra, who was taken as prisoner committed suicide by drowning himself in the river Narmada while being taken to Delhi.Thus ended the Kakatiya rule, opening the gates of the Telugu land to anarchy and confusion yielding place to an alien ruler. After Prataparudra got defeated and committed suicide, Tughlak appointed some muslim governers to rule erst while Kakateeya ruled regions. This was the first appearance of Muslims in the Deccan.

Hakka & Bukka in the Royal court of Parataparudra
Harihara and Bukka had held important posts under Kakatiya Prataparudra, before they founded the Vijayanagar kingdom on the banks of Tungabhadra at hampi. According to some historians Harihara and Bukka were the guards of the treasury of the Kakatiya . Robert Sewell considered various such theories and concluded that Harihara and Bukka were treasury officers of kuruba caste.

Kurubas are a branch or variants of Kurumba Erukalas who specialised to handle the animal herds in royal courts. Racially, the Gaikwads, Kurubs and Yadavas are from bhils. They could be the same people as Gaikwads of Gujarat and Maharastra. The Kaikadi Erukalas were most probably the Gaikwads and the Kaikadi term seems to be a modification of the word Gaikwad. Gaikwads were originally the Erukala people who used to look after the cows (Gaai) of kings.

Gaai = Gai = Cow
Gai + Kavala => Gaikavala => Gaikvala => Gaikwada => Gaikwad
Gaikawad => Gaikwadi => Gaikadi => Kaikadi
Kaapala => Kaavala => Kavala => Kavali = To protect or To look after
Kavalgar = kapu = Village protector ( Village Police)
Hence, this proves that
Erukalas = Kaikadis = Korwas = Kurumbas = Kurubas

This proves that Harihara & Bukka too belonged to the same Bhil Erukala community to which Kakatiyas belonged. The difference might be in the profession of their community people for day-to-day survival according to their geographical locations. Other wise, the Eruklas, Pardhis, Korwas, Kaikadis, Kuruvars, Kurumbars, Kurubrs and Gaikwads are all one and the same people. According to Pardhis of Rajastan, the are the descendants of Rana Pratap Singh and Pridhviraj Chauhan.

Harihara & Bukka, two of the five(according to Ibn-Batuta-eleven)sons of Sangama,originally from the Kakatiya kingdom of Warangal. The two brothers, Harihara and Bukka, the treasury officers of Kampila, were taken by Muhammad -bin- Tughluq as prisoners to Delhi where they appear to have embraced Islam. According to another historian who based his research on evidence culled from inscriptions such as Gozalavidu record, "the founders of Vijayanagara were at first in the service of the last Kakatiya king Prataparudra of Warangal, and that when that monarch was defeated by Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323 A.D and taken prisoner, they fled to Kampili and took refuge in the court of Kampilideva. Nuniz also recorded that the brothers were serving the King Prataparudra and were made captive after the fall of Warangal.

Forts
The Bhongir fort was associated with the herioc queen Rudramadevi and her grandson Prataparudra's rule. The fort is located upon a single hill at an altitude of 500 feet. Built is the 12th century the fort spreads over an area of 40 acres. Bhongir fort was built on an isolated rock by the western Chalukya uler Tribhuvanamalla Vikramaditya VI and was thus named after him as Tribhuvanagiri. This name gradually became Bhuvanagiri and subsequently Bhongir.

Kakatiya emperor Prataparudra built Medak fort on a hillock around 12th century, it was called the Methukudurgam (and Methukuseema), from the telugu word Methuku - meaning cooked rich grain. This fort provided as a vantage point for the Kakatiyan rulers in ancient India. The main entrance proudly displays the double-headed bird "Gandabherundam" of the Kakatiyas. The Medak fort stands as an epitome of architectural excellence of the Kakatiya Empire. Medak District is located in Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Medak Fort is known as a landmark left behind by the mighty Kakatiyans. The fort is famous for its architectural brilliance. Strategically located, the fort provided pre emptive advantage over invaders.

Temples
Kakatiya Ruler 'Prataparudra' used to worship Lord Swayambhu in the historic temple every day during his life time. The presiding Diety is Lord Siva called as swayambhu (Lieterally means self incarnated God). The temple is very adjacent to the ruins of Kakatiya Capital at Fort Warangal.

Prataparudra of Kakatiya Dynasty strived a lot for the improvements of Srisaila Jyotirlinga Kshetram and granted Paraganas for its maintenance. Ganapathideva has spent 12000 Golden Nanyas for the maintenance of the temple. Prataparudra and his wife worshipped Srisaila Mallikarjuna and offered Tulabhara. It means with their physical weight they given offerings to God. The records preserved in the Srisaila temple, however, do not take us back earlier than the 14th century AD. The inscription engraved during the reign of Prataparudra, the Kakatiya king who ruled from Warangal, is the earliest found inside the temple. Inscriptions of the Kakatiya king Prola II and Prataparudra found at Karimnagar and Srisailam.

The eight-and-half centuries-old historical Dhyananjaneya temple located at Karmanghat village in Saroornagar mandal near Hyderabad was built by Kakatiya ruler Prataparudra II in 1143 AD. It was then in the midst of a thick forest and the temple was built near a village called Lakshmigudem, now known as Karmanghat village. The Kakatiya king Prataparudra donated utsava vigraha made of gold to the shrine of Malola Narasimha near ahobilam. Prataparudra constructed Suchigiri temple for Sri Venkateswara Swamy, when he happened to visit the place, during his voyage enroute to kanigiri fort.

Kakatiya inscriptions of 14th century mention that the paulastheswara temple at Polasa was built during the reign of Prataparudra (1295-1323). Polasa is a small village near Jagatyala in Karimnagar District of Andhra Pradesh, India.

Panagal (3 km from Nalgonda town) has temples dating to the 12th century Kakatiya period.

Literature
Kakatiya Prataparudrudu was a great patron of letters. He was himself a writer and he encouraged other literature.The Prataparudrayasobha of Vidyanatha is the earliest of the Alankara treatises from Andhradesa. The work was produced about 1323 A.D. The author devoted the netire work to eulogize Prataparudra of the Kakatiya dynasty who was his benevolent patron.Vidyanatha was the scholar poet in Sanskrit. Prathaparudriya was the work wrote by Vidyanatha. It was an Alankara (poetics) work of 14th AD. This work describes the merits and exploits of king Virarudra or Prataparudra of the Kakatiya Dynasty, who ruled Warrangal between 1268 and 1325 AD. This work gives the account of king Virarudra (Prataparudra) and his dynasty.Sanskrit received encouragement at the hands of the Kakatiyas. The treatise on Rhetoric in Sanskrit was named after the king as 'Pratapa Rudra Yaso Bhushana'. One Mallinatha, a sanskrit scholar received kanakabhisheka from Prataparudra.

A passage from Prataparudra Caritramu (early sixteenth century) : " With all these people of various skills serving him, and surrounded by five thousand attendants who showered him with gold and riches and sprinkled him with scented water from golden bottles, Prataparudra sat in the great assembly and ruled the kingdom, considering the petitions of the local lords and entertaining the requests of ambassadors."

Narasimha, who wrote The Kadambarinataka, most likely lived during the reign of the Kakatiya king Prataparudra II (1295-1326) in Andhra, and he most likely composed this play after the death of the king, so, in the "second or third quarter of the fourteenth century".

During the Kakatiya empire, there was a great deal of literary activity in Telugu, but there was no Muslim connection within the empire till the very last, under Prataparudra. Since the North was firmly under the Delhi Sultanate at that time, the argument that fleeing northern brahmin pandits contributed to the Sanskrit element of Telugu would make some sense, on the face of it.

Dance
The most well-known court dancer of Kakatiya times was Machaladevi, and associated with Kakateeya emperor Prataparudra (1291-1323). A legend in her own lifetime, her life history was dramatised and enacted in her own natyashalas.

Coins
Prataparudra also minted and issued coins. The silver and gold coins in Andhra Pradesh Government museum with the titles Rayagajakesari and Dayagajakesari without any name of the king or his dynasty seem to belong to Ganapati Deva and his daughter Rudrama Devi based on epigraphical evidence Terala inscription of Pratapa Rudra. Silver and gold coins with the name 'Rudra' have been described from 1840's onwards and they may belong to Kakatiyas.

Generals of Kakatiyas
Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka (a kamma) and Vema (a Reddy) and Recharla (a Velama) served as chieftains in Kakateeya dynasty. One of the most famous commanders during the time of Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra II was Saagi Nagadeva ( Daadi Nagadeva ? ) who played a prominent role in warding off the attack of the Yadava king of Devagiri. During the rule of the Kakatiya emperor Prataparudra II, one Boppana Kamaya was ruling Kammanadu with Katyadona (Konidena) as the capital. After decline of Kakatiya dynasty, two dynasties of Reddyrajus founded by Prolaya Vemareddy and Vijayanagara kingdom. Prolaya Vemareddy occupied Srisailam. Kammas grew to prominence during the Kakatiya dynasty's reign (1083-1323 CE) by also holding important positions in their army.

Mudiraju Bantus were foot soldiers in Kakatiya Kingdom :
Among the war bands that were closely associated with Kakatiyas, the retinue of Gundaya Nayaka figuresin three different inscriptions from Magatala town in Mahabubnagar district, where it was apperently garrisoned. Gundaya Nayaka, a subordinate of Kakatiya Prataparudra who held the position of "Gaja Sahini" (commander of elephant troops), had nayakas under him who acted as officers (pradhani). The bulk of his soldiers, however, were divided into the two basic ranks of rautu and bantu. On two occassions when tithes were assessed, Gundaya Nayaka's rautus were assigned a far higher rate of contribution than were the bantus. Since a second war band associated with another Kakatiya nayaka in Warangal district followed the same practice in their donation, the division of men into a higher class of rautu and a lower-ranking category of bantu must have been widespread . Rautu invariably meant "horse riding warrior" , so in these contexts bantu may have signified "foot soldier".

Some Kakatiya bantus were not members of organised war bands but instead seem to have been stationed in small numbers in the country side. The reality of an overlord's dependence on his subordinate has been noted in an analysis of the relationship between the Vijayanagara emperor and Vishvanatha nayaka, the lord of Madhurai. Elsewhere bantu may have just meant a warrior or soldier who had sworn a personnel oath of allegiance to some one, since several nayakas attached to non-Kakatiya rulers call themselves their lord's bantu.

For more details about Kakatiya dynasty, please see the web page on "kingdoms" in this website.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 20/03/2008
Nagpur, M.S, India

go TOP


19. MARAVAN KUVAVAN (PERUMBIDUGU MUTHARAYAN-I)
(The Great Builder alias Maravn Kuvavan)

- By Kokolu Anka Rao

(19) Perumbidugu Muttaraiyan -I alias Kuvavan Maran,
(- ) His son Ilangovadiyaraiyan alias Maran Paramesvaran,
(20) And his son Perumbidugu Muttaraiyan-II alias Suvaran Maran.

Perumpidugu Mutharaiyar was a great king of Tanjore and belonged to Muthuraja / Mudiraja community. One of the titles of the Perumpidugu Muttaraiyar was Lord of Tanjore. There is a reference to king Perumbidugu - Muttaraiyan II, who attended the coronation of Nandi Varman Pallavamlla. Perumpidugu Mutharaiyar became the king of Tanjavur by overthrowing Chola Kingdom. The Muttaraiyars ruled over Tanjore and Pudukkotai as the feudatories of the Pallavas from the 8th to 11th Century AD. The Mutharaiyar chieftains fought with Pandyas and their supporters on behalf Pallavas.

Historians believe that Thanjavur was captured by Vijayalaya Cholan (AD 846-880) from the king Perumpidugu Muttaraiyan. Vijayalaya Chola, who conquered Tanjore from a Muttaraiyan in the 9th Century AD, was also a Pallava feudatory. A vindication of the law of nemesis is discernible in the victory of a Chola Chief over Muttaraiyan, who had overthrown the earlier Chola kingdom.

It was believed that the Mutharaiyars and Cholas fought with each other for establishing their political domination over some lands of present day Tamilnadu. They fought with the Pandyas and invaded the Southern Peninsula and later also fought with Pandyas in support of Pallavas as subordinates of Pallavas. The Muthraiyars (mudiraj) were understood to have fought even the Pallavas for centuries before they became feudatories to Pallavas.

The Muttaraiyan chieftains were Hindus and staunch devotees of Shiva and great patrons of temple building art.

The ancient Subramanyar temple which is located 40 Km South of Nagapattinam stands as a beautiful symbol to their and devotion towards Hindu form of worship and Hindu Religion. This temple is linked Sikkal and Ennkann through the legend that the images of Skanda in all the three of these shrines were made by the same sculptor. The image of Skanda in the sanctum is an exquisite one. The entire image is supported by 2 legs of the peacock mount. This image is said to have been installed during the rule of Muttaraiyar chieftains of Tamilnadu.

Narthamalai, which is located 17 Km from Pudukottai is also a historically important place in Tamilnadu. It was the headquarters of the Mutharaiyar Chieftains. The earliest structural stone temple, circular in shape, built by the Mutharaiyar Chieftains are also worth seeing tourist spots in Tamilnadu today.

An ancient geometrical diagram (master key) was also found by the author, T.L.Subash Chandira Bose on the floor of a cave temple in Tamil Nadu, India. According to Srirangam Sridaran-The Registration officer, the department of Archeology-Government of Tamil Nadu, the construction of this Cave temple is of Mutharaiyar style temple architecture and it was built during (600-700 A.D.) the period of Pallava Kings. It was already seen that the Muthariyar chieftains were the feudatories to Pallava Kings.



KUVAVAN MARAN (PERUMBIDUGU MUTTARAIYAN-I)
(The Great Builder alias Maravn Kuvavan)

Kokolu Anka Rao


An inscription belongs to the period of 9th. Century A.D. found on one of the two stones pillars of an ancient type of culvert. Which is located within a reservoir at Kundoor, Tiruchirapalli Dt. Shree. Sridharan, The Registration Officer, Department of Archeology, Government of Tamil Nadu, found this particular inscription (Picture below right) and deciphered the same.

Our research team visited that particular location and took a picture covering the over all view of the ancient culvert (Picture below left not uploaded ).

The inscription reads as follows;
Sri Ko Raja Kesari Panmarkku yandu 13, Kundoor
Perum Thattan Maran Kuvava(n) se(i)
vitha Karkkumuli

In the 13th. Year of a Pallava King; Kundoor the great Builder, Maran Kuvavan built this culvert. In which Perum Thattan means a Great Builder and Karkkumuli means a stone culvert.

According to Shree. T.L.Subash Chandira Bose the Maravan Kuvavan was a mutharaiyan, because such types name Kauvavan is found in many muthatharaiyar's inscriptions of different period. Hence the Maravan Kuvavan must be a mutharaiyan.

Maha Sathan

A 9th. Century A.D., stone sculpture of Ayyanar alias Kari and Maha Saythan was also found at the same Kundoor Village. This particular sculpture was located about 100 meters distance, towards north, from the above said stone culvert.

The detail of this particular sculpture was published in daily newspaper Viduthali on 04.09.92. Shree. Sridharan, The Registration officer, The Department of Archeology, Government of Tamil Nadu, examined the stone sculpture and read the inscription on the seat (Beedam) of the above said sculpture.

The condition of the inscription is such a condition that it cannot be read easily. However Shree. Sridharan could able to read the inscription as; Sri. Perum Kundoor Ayyan Thanmam Maran Kuvavan Seivitha Mahasathan.

We shall observe the name of the Mutharaiyan, Maran Kuvavan is also inscribed in this sculpture. In this inscription we shall find the name Kundoor is given as Perum Kundoor. It appears there was a big settlement of ancient people reasonably higher in numbers of all community. It is needless to emphasize the majority of mutharaiyar community among all the others. An ancient temple of Sri. Maha Sathan is still remain in this particular village. This temple is very close to the previously discussed ancient stone culvert.

We are presenting the above pictures with many thanks to Shree. Sridharan, The Registration Officer, Department of Archeology, Government of Tamil Nadu, and to Shree. T.L.Subash Chandira Bose, The researcher on Ancient Symbols and signs.

@ Kokolu Anka Rao 2006




go TOP


20. SUVARAN MARAVAN (PERUMBIDUGU MUTHARAYAN-II)
The following special article is received from our Mutharaiyar brother T.L.Subash Chandira Bose on 01/01/2006 for publication in this website.

Swaran Maran alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan

Ariviayal Anmiga Vangyani , T.L.Subash Chandira Bose

Swaran Maran alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan

T.L.Subash Chandira Bose

Among all the kings in Chera, Chola and Pandiya dynasty, there are three prominent kings ruling periods are said to be the Golden era. Those kings are Suvaran Maran alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan, Sri Raja Chola and Sri Sundara Pandiya.

The first and foremost king who had so many surnames is Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan. He ruled a part of Chola and Pandiya kingdom during the period of 8th. Century. He is the independent king and had close association with 3rd. Nandhivarma Verma Pallavan. Other way to say, he was supporting the Pallavas in all respects and by ruling a particular region independently.

There are many inscription found in Sri. Meenakchi Sundereshwarer Temple at Senthalai, which is situated in Tanjuvr District. Most of the inscriptions are found on the surface of the stone pillars of a hall in front of the womb chamber. The stone pillars are said to be belongs to a temple at Nemmam. The scholars believe that the temple at Nammam might have damaged and all the pillars are shifted from Nemmam and used at Senthalai in later period.

All the inscriptions are beautifully engraved with ancient Tamil letters, on a hand made smooth surface of the stone pillars. In this article, we shall discuss related to Suvaran Maran alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan' parental note and then about his meikeerthi. Meikeerthi means the titles (names) awarded to him based on his nature, adventures, courage and others etc.

(..dutha Perum Piddugu Mutharai)
yanaina Kuvavan Maranava
n Magan Elango vadhiaraiya
naina Maran Parameshwarana
van Magan Perum Piddugu Mutha
raiyanaina Suvaran Maranava
n edupitha Paddari Koeil (Kovil), Ava
nerintha oorkalum, Avan Peyarka
lum, Avanai Padinor Peyakalumi
thoon mel eludhina, evai.
At first, the inscription describes the parental details of Suvaran Maran Alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan. His grand father name was Kuvavan Maran alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan. Then comes his father name was Elangovathiaraiyan alias Maran Parameshwaran.

Then come the details of the Paddari temple for mother Gooddess, which he constructed. The particulars of the location of war in which he acquire victory, the name of his maikeerthi, the name of the poets who song the poem are all engraved on the stone pillars.

Meikeerthi:

In each and every pillar there is a Meikeerthi of him, then following the details of the war, and about him etc. Among all the meikeerthi, there is only one in which four names are engraved, which are as follows.

First, Sri. Tamaralayan means the peace resides with in himself.

Second, Sri. Abimanadeeran means, he is enemy to the kings those who had Ahankar.

Third, Sri. Kalvar Kalvan means the person who eradicated the thieves.

And the fourth, Sri. Sathuru Kesari means he is just like a lion to the enemies.

In addition to the above, there are many of such maikeerthi are found in other inscriptions related to his victory of wars and others. The other meikeerthi are Sri. Sathuru Mallan, Sri. Adi Sagason, Sri.Maran, Sri. Seru Maran, Sathan Maran, Vel Maran, Tanjai Kon, Valla Kon, Van Maran, etc.

@ T.L.Subash Chandira Bose 2006




THE HEROIC ADVENTURE OF SUVARAN MARAN (PERUMBIDUGU MUTTARAIYAN-II)

A study on Killukottai inscription.

Sri. Sakthi Jothidar, M. Salai Sundaram,
Member of Sri. Vidya Gyana Saba (Tiruchirapalli branch).

An ancient village presently called as Killukottai is situated in Puddukottai District, Tamil Nadu. India. If any one interested to visit to this ancient village, has to travel by road on Tanjvur-Trichy Main highway and take a turn towards south at Valapakudi and from there it is about 7 kms. A single way road will help to reach this particular village.

Few trees and other plantations surround this village settlement. All community peoples are dwelling in this historical village peacefully. The main source of their yearly income is mainly from routine cultivation from Punjai lands. The irrigational water sources depend only by rainwater.

We visited this particular village to take up the field study. A young lad called T.Siva, S/o. Thulasiyappa who belongs to Malaiaddipatti Village guided the team. We could able reach to the spot, with a help of T. Siva and also a small young boy around 12 to 14 years old, belongs to this Killukottai village.

At first we have noticed an erected stone pillar made out of white rock. Such type of stone pillars, with rounded portion at the top is mostly found at the huge reservoirs meant to collect and store rainwater. There will be two such stone pillars in front of the culvert for releasing the water from the reservoir.

Notably these type culverts are of early Chola period, that too of Mutharaiyar kings. Mutharaiyars are the one who have given more attention to the irrigational system to ensure the storage of rainwater and its proper usage.

It appears there was a reservoir at southeast direction of the village. A stone pillar of white stone speaks anent to conclude the presence of an old lake. Possibly the ground level of the reservoir raised due to the accumulation mud and sand, and it was no more useful to store the water in it. It could be reason that particular area is now used for cultivation of various plants.

We walked towards south; at about a 50 meters distance from this white stone pillar, we saw the amazing stone (slab) pillar. At last, we could able to succeed in our third attempt to locate this historical stone pillar.

The sun is almost to set in the west; there was also the sign of rain with dark clouds, which threatened us more. We quickly on the job in clean the surrounding, and then we took as many pictures as possible in our digital camera. In deed, it is a wonderful experience.

For few minutes we observed the inscription and the projected sculpture of an animal on the stone pillar. The animal figure attracted us more, and we decided to identify the same at first. We concentrated on the projected sculpture of the animal. We studied the animal figure deeply and discussed a lot. As an out come of our discussion, we came to the conclusion that it is a lion as if it is running posture with its bent tail and also up lifted. The tip of the tail with hair ends in the third line of the inscription. That is between the letters "ku " and "ith". We observed a clear-cut mark of on its (Lion) shoulder, what does it mean? We shall study about the cut mark later.

Inscription (not uploaded)

The three-lined inscription is on the top of the animal figure. It is certainly 1100 years old with beautiful letters. And all the ancient letters are still intact; it is in readable condition without any difficulties. Some thing flashed in our mind, we could able recollect the letters on the pillar inscriptions belongs to Suvaran Maran alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan at SriMeenakshi Sundereswarar temple at Senthalai, Tanjuvr District in Tamil Nadu. All the letters are exactly of similar pattern. Most possibly the same person must have inscribed these letters at the both places and also of the same period. Now, let us read the inscription.

Sri Shathuru Kesari
Sri Abimana Deeran Sri Kalvar Kalvan
Val Vari Vangai Kuthiadhu
In the first two sentences reads the three meikeerthi Sri. Shathuru Kesari means he is just like a lion to the enemies.

Second, Sri. Abimanadeeran means, he is enemy to the kings those who had Ahankar and the third, Sri. Kalvar Kalvan means the person who eradicated the thieves. All these meikeerthi are belongs to Suvaran Maran alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan. It is exactly same like the one in Senthalai, stone pillar inscriptions.

Third Sentence; Val Varivangai Kuthiadhu
Val: Considering the Tamil letter "L" used here, we decipher this word as the sward.
Vari : Vari means lines.
Vangai : Vangai means Tiger.
Kuthiadhu : Pierced.

The "Kodu Vari" is one of the names of the tiger. But in this case we found the word only "Vari" and the next word is "Vangai". If we join these two words together, it is Varivengai. It means the tiger with lines in its body. All of us know there are many types tigers, existed in ancient India. Among those verities, the lined type of tiger is the notable one. This type of tiger cover a reasonably a long distance in it very step while running. We would like to interpret the Varivangai in Tamil as Paiyum Puli or Paiyum Vangai with lines. And Varivangai is a very ferocious one and it can cover a long distance while in motion (running), and also it can even take a 180 degree turn and can pickup the speed at once.

We assume the word Varivangai (Lined type tiger) used here is to highlight the Val (sward) used by Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan. In other way to say, it is indirectly emphasize the capability of Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan's strength and his wrist movement in handling his sward.

When we consolidate the inscription and lion figure, the sward of Perum Piddugu mutharaiyan pierced this lion and killed it. Where his sward pierced animal? It is on the shoulder, at the important life point (Pidari) at the spinal cord of the animal. It is the reason there is cut mark shown in the lion shoulder. The cut point is very clearly visible even today.

The stone inscription denotes that Sri. Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan alias Suvaran Maran's sward which can rotate fast with full of strength, pierced at the life point of a lion and it got killed at this spot.

It is a fact that mostly all the kings used to go for animal hunting for the purposes to learn the war tactics. Killing a lion, the king of forest is really a great adventure and also a good experience. Hence the heroic adventure of Suvaran Maran alias Perum Piddugu Mutharaiyan kept as a monument stone with the inscription and with the lion figure at Killukottai.

My sincere thanks to Kokulu Ankarao for publishing this article in his web site, and also to T.L.Subash Chandira Bose for all the guidelines for this research and study.

@ Sri. Sakthi Jothidar Salai Sundaram 2006


go TOP


21. VALI & SUGREEVA ( 600 BC to 550 BC)

Some Mutharaiyar researchers believe that Sugreeva, who was crowned by Sri Rama was a common ancestor of Cholas & Mutharayar warrior kings in South India. Whether Sugreeva was an ancestor to Cholas or not but he seemed to be certainly an ancestor of Mutha(RAYA) kings as most of the RAYA kings in South India had their roots in Hampi / Kishkinda region of Rayalaseema & Bellary districts. Mudirajas of Andhra Pradesh and Shettys of Tulanadu who are known as Bants (Bunts) are having their links to these Vanara kings.

Bant <= Bantara
Bantara <= Bant(z)ara <= Banjara
Banjara <= Banchara <= Vanchara
Vanchara <= Vanara

Vaali was the son of dhEvendhran (Indra) or indhran's amsam and the elder brother of Sugreeva. Sugreevan was son of Sooryan (Surya => Sun) or sooryan's amsam and the younger brother of Vali.

Once there was a rishi living in the forest with his two wives. This rishi took his job seriously... too seriously... and not surprisingly, he didn't have children. So he gave his wives an egg each and told them to incubate them with care.

After a period of incubation, one of the eggs hatched, and out came garuda. The second wife, getting a little impatient broke open the other egg, and as a result of this, the child, named arunan, emerged out of it with a malformed leg. Garuda became vishnu's vehicle and arunan became surya's charioteer.

Arunan longed to go to kailash and pay a visit to shiva. Surya warned him that its very difficult for a disabled person to go to kailash. So, arunan disguised himself as a beautiful girl and went to kailash. On the way, he met indra, and indra enamoured by his beauty, fell in love with arunan, came back crying, and gave birth to vaali. He then went on to narrate the story to surya, who became curious to see the feminine form for which indra had fell in love. Arunan changed into a woman again, and this time surya fell in love with him, and arunan gave birth to sugreevan.

According to fables, monkey king Sukreevan ruled nearby Kollimalai, known as `Madhuvanam,' (land of honey). The Kongu heartland is rich in culture and was known for its valour. The compassionate legendary chieftains, Valvil Ori and Kumanan, lived in the hills of Namakkal. Later Buddhism and Jainism also flourished here.

The Kollimalai hills in Salem area near Rasipuram houses a hill temple to Murugan. This is an ancient temple glorified by the Tiruppugazh hymns of Arunagirinathar. This temple is said to date back to the period of ancient tamil kings who ruled the region. Subramanyar is enshrined as a hunter in the sanctum, and there are shrines to Shiva, Parvati, Vishnu, Idumban and Vinayakar.

The Arappaleeswarar temple in Kollimalai hills near Salem is a very ancient one and it dates back to the period of Appar, who has referred to it in his Kshetra Kovai Tiruttandakam. It is also referred to as Madhuvanam, or the forest of the monkey king Sugreevan. This temple is also associated with Matsya Muni - believed to be a Siddha. There are several beliefs associated with the numerious fish in the streams on the hill.

Cholas, Kalabhras and later Mutharaiyars ruled the land of Kongu. Readers will be able to know this fact by going through the list of surnames of Mutharayars in Tamilnadu (a separate list given in this site).

Some references about Madhuvanam and importance of Kongu region for Mutharayars

61 st Sargam : Destruction of Madhu Vanam( Madhuvana Bhanjanam)

After listening to JaamBhavAn's wise counsel , the monkeys took to the air again and arrived at a fertile garden full of flowers filled with honey.This was King Sugreevan's private garden known as Madhu Vanam . The elated monkeys wanted to drink honey there. Angathan and JaamBavAn gave the monkeys permission to partake the honey.The monkeys took in so much honey that they got intoxicated and began to quarrel with each other and engaged in acts of destruction of the beautiful Madhu Vanam. The monkeys pounced on the guards of Madhu Vanam and hurt them in their frenzy.

62nd Sargam : Shouting at the servants of Madhuvanam ( VanapAla PradharshaNam)

The pandemonium continued with encouragement form HanumAn and Crown Prince Angadhan.The chief administrator of the Madhu Vanam was Dadhimukhan, the uncle of King Sugreevan. He was hit over the head and pushed on the ground by the intoxicated Angadhan.Dadhimukhan decided to fly over to Sugreevan's palace to report the destruction of the Madhu Vanam dear to King Sugreevan.

63rd Sargam: Announcement of the destruction of Madhuvanam(Bhanga NivEdhanam)

After hearing the complaint of Dadhimukhan , Sugreevan concluded that the band headed by Angadhan with HanumAn as a key member would not behave in this wild and unrestrained manner unless they had success in their mission to locate SeethA PirAtti.SrI Ramachandra and LakshMaNa were elated to hear Sugreevan's assessment . They became eager to hear the report form HanumAn.

64th Sargam: HanumAr et al's arrival at Raama Sannidhi( HanumadhAdhya Gamanam)

Now Dadhimukhan returned to Madhu Vanam and asked for Angadhan's pardon for his erstwhile harsh behavior.Angadhan requested the monkeys including HanumAn to travel to the Sannidhi of Lord Raamachandran and RaajA SugrIvan to share the good news without dealy.The whole group jumped up in the sky to reach the aasthAnam of their King , where Raama and LakshmaNa were impatiently waiting.As they neared the site of Sugreevan in the Maalya Parvatham , Sugreevan assured Raaman that the mission of HanumAn has been a success and SeethA Devi has been located and that there is no doubt anymore and requested Raamaa to banish His sorrow.

Sugreevan consoled RaamA with comforting words: "Oh KOusalyA Devi's auspicious son ! Oh King of AyOdhyA with the vratham of performing AarAdhanam to SrI RanganAthan ! Please be consoled ! Your Devi has been found. There is no doubt in my mind about that . No one other than HanumAn would have accomplished this mighty task.

Now , the monkeys landed in front of their King Sugreevan and his distinguished guests, Raama and LakshmaNa.

65th Sargam: Presenting of the ChUDAmaNi ( ChUDAmaNI PradhAnam)

] The monkeys prostrated before Sugreevan and the guests. HanumAn described in great detail His successful mission to LankA to locate SeethA Devi and the many incidents that followed threafter.He described the KaakAsura incident as told by SeethA PirAtti to generate the trust of Raama. Next HanumAn presented Lord Raamachandra with the ChUDAmaNi handed to Him by SeethA PirAtti as proof of Her existence . HanumAn coveyed the key message of SeethA that She will hold on to life for another month until Her Lord arrived in LankA to rescue Her.

Ten Kurankaaduturai (Aaduturai) and Vada Kurangaaduturai are 2 shrines where Sugreevan and Vaali are believed to have worshipped Shiva. Vada Kurangaduturai - known so because of its location, North of the river Kaveri, is situated near Tiruvaiyaru. It is considered to be the 49th in the series of Tevara Stalams in the Chola kingdom located north of the river Kaveri.

Legends: Vaali is said to have worshipped Shiva here at Vada Kurangaaduturai.. A sparrow is also said to have worshipped here. Hanuman who is said to have lost his tail at Rameswaram regained it here.

This temple is adminstered by the Thanjavur Royal Palace. Stucco figures representing the legends associated, are seen in this temple & a stone image of Vaali worshipping Shiva adorns the sanctum. Inscriptions from the Imperial Chola period are seen in this temple.



go TOP


22. VEERA PANDYA KATTA BOMMANA( 1760 AD- 1799 AD)

Veera Pandya Katta Bommana was a warrior king of Telugu Mutharacha orgin. Both KATTA and BOMMANA are the surnames of Telugu Mutharacha community. This can be ascertained from the list of Surnames published in this website itself. It is said that the court language of Kattabommu was TELUGU.

Further. Sri Bommu Venkatesan vide his e-mail no.46 ( please see webpage - UREMAILS in this website) says that he is a Telugu Polaikarar - Muthuraju and belongs to the lineage of Veera Pandya Katta Bomman.

Kattabomman was said to be a palayakar / poligar and the people of palayakars are a subsect of Muthuraja in Tamilnadu today.

Veerapandya Kattabomman was born in Tamil Nadu to Aadi Kattabommu and Aarumugathammal on January 3, 1760 and became the 47th king of Panchalankurichi at an age of 30. Veerapandya Kattabomman's father Aadi Kattabommu was a minister in the court of Jagaveera Pandyan, a desendent in the Pandya line. Jagaveera pandyan was issueless and declared Kattabomman as his successor. Since Kattabomman was the first of the new clan, he came to be known as Adi Kattabomman.

Aadi = Beginning = Starting = First one in the line

Eighteen kilometres north west of Tirunelveli lies the hamlet of Panchalankurichi, a place of historical significance. The chieftains ruling Panchalankurichi put up stiff resistance against the East India Company, between 1798 and 1801.

Veerapandiya Kattabomman was a fearless chieftain who refused to bow down to the demands of the British for agricultural tax on native land, a brave warrior who laid down his life for his motherland. The fight he launched in Panchalankurichi has been hailed as the inspiration behind the first battle of independence of 1857, which the British called the Sepoy Mutiny.

Azhagiya Veerapandiapuram (Ottapidaram of today) was ruled by Jagaveera Pandiyan. He had a minister Bommu who had migrated from Andhra Pradesh to Tamil Nadu and a brave warrior. He was known as Gettibommu in Telugu to describe his strength and fighting qualities. This, over a period of time, became Kattabomman in Tamil. Kattabomman ascended the throne after Jagaveera Pandiyan, who had no issue, and later came to be known as Adi Kattabomman, the first of the clan of Kattabomman.

Legend has it that during a hunting trip into the forests of Salikulam (close to Azhagiya Pandiyapuram) Kattabomman watched the spectacle of a hare chasing seven hounds. Kattabomman was amazed at this miracle. Believing that the land possessed great powers that could instil courage in people, he built his fort there and named it Panchalankurichi.

Born in this clan of Adi Kattabomman was Veerapandiyan on January 3, 1760 the 47th king of Panchalankurichi to Jagaveera Kattabomman and Arumugathammal. He had two younger brothers Dalavai Kumarasami and Duraisingam. Veerapandiyan was fondly called Karuthaiah (the black prince), and Dalavai Kumarasami, Sivathaiah (the white prince). Duraisingam, a good orator, earned the sobriquet Oomaidurai, which actually meant the very opposite the dumb prince.

On February 2, 1790, Veerapandiyan, thirty, became the king of Panchalankurichi. The Nawab of Arcot who had borrowed huge sums of money from the East India Company gave them the right to collect taxes and levies from the southern region in lieu of the money he had borrowed. The East India Company took advantage of the situation and plundered all the wealth of the people in the name of tax collection. All the poligars paid taxes except Veerapandiyan.

Poligars <= palegars <= Palayakars => Palayakarars = Palayakkarars => Palayakkarans
Palayam = Mutha = a group villages forming an administrative unit in feudal system.
Poligars <=> Mutharayars

Kattabomman refused to pay his dues and for a long time refused to meet Jackson the Collector of the East India Company. Finally, he met Jackson at Ramalinga Vilasam, the palace of Sethupathi of Ramanathapuram. The meeting ended in a skirmish in which the Deputy Commandant of the Company's forces, Clarke was slain. Kattabomman and his men fought their way to freedom and safety, but Thanapathi Pillai, Kattabomman's secretary was taken prisoner.

The Commission of Enquiry that went into the incident fixed the blame on Jackson and relieved him of his post, thinking the Company's plan to take over the entire country gradually could be marred by Jackson's fight with Veerapandiya Kattabomman. The new Collector of Tirunelveli wrote to Kattabomman calling him for a meeting on 16th March, 1799. Kattabomman wrote back citing the extreme drought conditions for the delay in the payment of dues and also demanded that all that was robbed off him at Ramanathapuram be restored to him. The Collector wanted the ruling house of Sethupathis to prevent Kattabomman from aligning himself with the enemies of the Company and decided to attack Kattabomman.

Kattabomman refused to meet the Collector and a fight broke out. Under Major Bannerman, the army stood at all the four entrances of Panchalankurichi's fort. At the southern end, Lieutenant Collins was on the attack. When the fort's southern doors opened, he was killed by Kattabomman's warriors.

After suffering heavy losses, the British decided to wait for reinforcements from Palayamkottai. Sensing that his fort could not survive a barrage from heavy cannons, Kattabomman left the fort that night.

A price was set on Kattabomman's head. Thanapathi Pillai and 16 others were taken prisoners. Thanapathi Pillai was executed and his head perched on a bamboo pole was displayed at Panchalankurichi. Veerapandiya Kattabomman stayed at Kolarpatti at Rajagopala Naicker's house where the forces surrounded the house.

Kattabomman and his aides fled from there and took refuge in the Thirukalambur forests close to Pudukkottai. Bannerman ordered the ruler of Pudukkottai to arrest Kattabomman. Accordingly, Kattabomman was captured and on October 16, 1799 the case was taken up (nearly three weeks after his arrest near Pudukkottai). After a summary trial, Kattabomman was hanged unceremoniously on a tamarind tree. He was publicly hanged near Kayattar Fort, close to the town of Tirunelveli, in front of fellow poligars who had been summoned to witness the execution..." Subramania Pillai, a close associate of Kattabomma Nayak, was also publicly hanged and his head was fixed on a pike at Panchalamkurichi. Soundra Pandian Nayak, another rebel leader, was brutally done to death by having his brains dashed against a village wall.

The fort of Panchalankurichi was razed to the ground and all of Kattabomman's wealth was looted by the English soldiers. A fort constructed by the Tamil Nadu Government at Panchalankurichi in 1972 stands as a monument to this great hero from the south who played a pivotal role in the freedom movement of our country. "

THE RELATION BETWEEN SERVAIKARS AND KATTABOMMANS:

Marudhu Pandiar of Ramnad kingdom accepted Omaidurai, brother of Veerapandia Kattabomman as refugee. But, took this reason to invade, English attacked Sivaganga in 1801 with powerful army.

Marudhu Pandiar brothers and many of his family members were caught by the English army and ended their life by hanging.

The brothers were the last heroes from Devar community who did armed rebellion against the East India Company of English people.

Servai is one of the surnames of Muthurajas and land owning community in Tamilnadu. Servai is also known as Agamudayar.

Servai = Agamudayar.

Agamudayar, Marvar and Kallar together are known as Mukkulathor. Agamudayars often classify themselves as Rajakula-Agamudayars and Thevar-Agamudayars.

Servai = Thevar = Agamudayar.
Thevar = Thevan = Devar

The close relation of servais of Ramnad with Kattabommans indicate that Kattabommans also belong to the same caste. This point is also well proved in the article on Kattabomman published in this website.

About NAICKER roots :

There is a community of people who are using the name "naicker" (kambalatthu naicker) in Tamilnadu and they are "Gorala-vaalu". They are from Kattabomman community. Gorala-vaalu means those who rear sheep. They worship "Jakkamma". We can hear this name in Tamil movie "Veera Paandiya Kattabomman". The sheep rearers are called Gorrela-vallu, Kuruba, Dhangar etc in neighbouring regions. They had distinction of producing FIVE powerful dynasties ( maybe more) in south India.

Gorre = Sheep
Gorrelavaaru = Gorrelavallu = Those who look after Sheep = Kurubas
Kurubas are bunts.

While the Telugu speaking bants of Andhra Pradesh are known as Mudiraj, the Tulu speaking bunts of Karnataka are known as kurubas.

POLIGARS

Poligars <= palegars <= Palayakars => Palayakarars = Palayakkarars => Palayakkarans
Palayam = Mutha = a group villages forming an administrative unit in feudal system.
Poligars <=> Mutharayars

THE factional violence that often engulfs the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh has its roots in medieval history.

The poligari system had evolved with the extension of Vijayanagar rule into Tamil Nadu. Each poligar was the holder of a territory or palayam (usually consisting of a few villages), granted to him in return for military service and tribute.

Where circumstances allowed, the poligars naturally tended to place less emphasis on performing their duties and more on enhancing their own powers. Given their numerical strength, extensive resources, local influence and independent attitude, the poligars came to constitute a powerful force in the political system of south India. They regarded themselves as independent, sovereign authorities within their respective palayams, arguing that their lands had been handed down to them across a span of sixty generations Such claims of course were to be brushed aside by the East India Company...

The kings of the Vijayanagar empire, which flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries and had its capital in Hampi (now in Karnataka), appointed chieftains in Rayalaseema for better administrative control of the region. These chieftains came to be known as `poligars' and were responsible for law and order and revenue collection in their respective areas.

The Vijayanagar kingdom was defeated and destroyed by the combined might of the Bahmani Sultans in the Battle of Tallikota in 1565. With the fall of the Vijayanagar kingdom, the region's control passed on to the Golconda rulers of Hyderabad.

The poligars of Rayalaseema soon became independent rulers as the weak Golconda administration could not control them. At least 200 such local power centres emerged. Unable to contain the lawlessness owing to internecine feuds among these warlords, the Nizam ceded four districts - Kurnool, Anantapur, Bellary and Cuddapah - to the British.

The British, especially the Thomas Munroe administration, used harsh measures to contain the poligars - including death by public hanging - but did not succeed.

The poligars ruthlessly pursued their rivals and passed on the baggage of vengeance to their subsequent generations.

Over the years, the poligars began extending financial support to the families of their followers to ensure their continued service. In case of death or maiming, the victims' families were always taken care of. This led to a system where the dependent families continued to live in bondage. This mutually beneficial arrangement divided society on strong emotional lines.

In the year 1520, the king of Vijayanagara, Krishna Rayalu sent his Governor Visvanatha Nayaka to take over Madurai (old name Madura). The governor Viswanatha Nayaka appointed the Palaiyakaras (Poligars), many of who were the dependents and adherents of his own caste, and they were granted a tract of country consisting of certain number of villages.

( Palayakarars are a subcaste of Muthurajas in Tamilnadu. From the above it is clear that Viswanatha Nayak himself and most of the poligars appointed by him were the warrior administrators belonging to Mutharaya caste.)

These Palaiyakaras (Poligars) were bound to pay a fixed annual tribute and to supply and keep in readiness a quota of troops for the governor's armies. For fifteen generations Nayaka rulers ruled (1559 to 1736) Madurai. The Nayaka never called themselves kings of Madura. They professed to be lieutenants of the great Rayalu of Vijayanagara. These Poligar's reign record little more than a disgraceful, murders and civil commotions, relieved only by the factitious splendor of gifts to temples, idols, and priests, by means of which they apparently succeeded in getting the Brahmans and poets to speak well of them, and thus in keeping the mass of the people patient under heir misrule. Most of the time these poligars were not fighting the foreign foes but their legitimate ruler of the country.

The Poligar of Panjalamkurichi was a Nayaka of the Kambala division of the caste. Bomma is a common Telugu name. Kattaboma Nayaka's rule towards the close of the 17th century was the centre of all disloyalty and misrule. He was just another ruthless, rapacious feudal lord, who just managed the fort that was granted to him. But, he nor his ancestors were true to their given assignments. From 1748, after the commencement of the rule of the Nawab of Arcot, under the Carnatic Nizam, Kattabomma Nayaka continued his attack against them. They collected taxes and other kaval charges from the people residing there but never gave their annual revenue to their ruling authorities (Vijayanagara rulers or the Carnatic rulers). By doing so, they often fought with the central authority. It was rarely possible to collect from them the revenue due to the central authority without the display of military force. (Even earlier than British Intervention)

From his fort of Panjalamkurichi the Poligar used to sally forth at the head of his armed followers, and making incursions into Circar villages, as well as into the villages of other Poligars, sack and plunder all that came into his way, often times carrying off some of the principal inhabitants. Kattaboma Nayaka often used to make raids into the neighbouring territories, especially into the territories of the Poligar of Ettaiyapuram. He occupied Supplapuram village of Ettappan. This resulted in the enmity between the two Poligars. He often made war or committed depredations, as his local interests, or his passions lead him, upon other Poligar's territories without any provocations.

Some say that Ketti bommu was of naiker clan and his court language was telugu. He was not a king and zamindhar holding just half of todays tuticorin dist.

No relation to Pandiya dynasty and he was not even of tamil orgin. He failed to pay his taxes and escaped to pudukottai after a tussle with british forces, captured and hanged.

Some believe that he a blot to Tamil history. No tamils whose mother tongue was Tamil in the neigbhouring areas liked him. He was brutal and robbed ordinary peasants of that area of their livlihood because he was a telugu and he had no respect for the tamil speaking people. So, they joined hand with the british and eliminated him.

Some people question that if he was a real hero of the masses, then why only naidus in that region worship him (with some of their rusted weapons). That too very few of them in numbers. So they argue that he was a Telugu and he was a Hero of telugus only. This was the reality.

There is a huge portrait of Kattabomman near the Kattabomman memorial fort constructed by the Government of Tamil Nadu in 1974. His name is remembered among the people as a brave tamil hero who stood against the british long before the first war of Indian independence that would be instigated by Mangal Pandey on 1857. Special pujas were conducted at Sri Devi Jakkammal temple, hereditary goddess of Kattabomman, located near the fort. The cemetery of British soldiers are seen near the fort. Within the memorial Hall, there are beautiful paintings on the walls depicting the heroic deeds of the saga. The tourists can easily get a good idea about the history of the momentous period from that. The remnants of the old fort is protected by the Archaeological Survey of India. At Kayatar, very near to Tirunelveli , there is another memorial for Kattabomman. It is the place where he was hanged.

KATTU NAYAKARS:

The Kattu-Nayakars of Tamil Nadu belong to an obscure sect known for their mystic power. The colorful men, more visible than their women, belong to a tradition that is a powerful resonance from an ancient past. It is a past that goes well beyond the borders of India, for they are a lost tribe from the orient with distinct physical traits. A study of their dialect can give us a clue to their origin. The mysteries of this insular community is well-guarded from the outsiders. Membership is through descent and is open only to men. The revelation of mystery is associated with secret rituals. It must be admitted that, the sources for the study is inadequate and need to be thoroughly researched.

The Kattu-Nayakar is literally the 'Lord of Forest' and has no fixed residence. They spend half of the year in the forest and during the rest travel among the people. The period of contact with the world is known as thangal during which they move alone and no two of them might go in the same direction. The norm is so rigorous that one may not meet the same Kattu-Nayakar again in one's life-time; and more than a year might pass before one encounters another. They apparently have no livelihood and are sustained by their ability to foretell the future and provide effective spells against misfortunes in human life. They are also reputed to cast spells to avenge evildoers. Their nomadic life, divided between forests and people, is similar to the Parivrajaka sect mentioned in Brahmanical literature. It is not known what the Kattu-Nayakar does when the primordial forest shelters him. That it helps to sharpen his occult power is a matter of conjecture.

The women of the community do not follow the life-style of the menfolk. They usually stay together in camps. Their sole occupation is rearing their children. In spare time they stitch small draw-string bags out of salvage, sought after by common folk to carry chewing pan leaf and petty cash. A bundle of these bags and layers of colorful clothes received as gifts, form part of the costume of the Kattu-Nayakar. While the turban is usually white, few wear red as a mark of distinction. The regal aspect is enhanced by ornaments, usually made of unusual beads around the neck and ears. They also sport a plain heavy gold bangle. In contrast the women are poorly dressed and are unremarkable. The community has a religious head known as sallipetha. At the administrative level a group of ten is governed by pattayakarar. The Kattu-Nayakars are widespread in Tamil Nadu. While the Nilgiri hills are believed to be their natural habitat, there are groups of settlements in Coimbatore, Kadallur near Dindukal, Nilakotai, Santhaipettai, Pudupatti, Pudukotal in Truchi about 130km from Madurai, Sathiamurthy Nagar in Samayanallu in Madurai and Thanjavur, District.

The Kattu-Nayakars practice necromancy and the rituals are shrouded in mystery. The rituals take place in the cremation grounds during the moonless night of Amavasai. Nothing is more disturbing, more disquieting, sometimes more alarming than a Kattu-Nayakar shrouded in a black blanket in the dead of night; thus he has inherited additional names that are descriptive : Jamakottangi and Kamabalathu-Nayakar. On this fateful night of Amavasai, he may make a short halt to prophesy to the accompaniment of the inevitable drum-beat. But no one stirs out of door, and it is an enduring mystery that even street dogs remain silent. It is reputed that dogs do not bite the sorceror.

Kattu-Naykars worship Goddess Jakkamma and Mallaiyar, the Lord of the mountains. The temple to Mallaiyar is in Padiyur, on the road to Dindukkal and Karur. The main temple of Jakamma is on the west side of the village Kadallur. Believed to be the source of all power, her image is kept under a banyan tree surrounded by thorns of illanthai (zizyphus sp.). The ritual of providing an umbrella to the goddess is celebrated with great festivity. Jakkamma is also known as Kalimma and Bommakka.

A nineteenth century Company Painting identifies the Kattu-Nayakar as a Tadwan or Malabar fortuneteller, giving a clue to the route taken. It is pertinent to observe that Tadwan is a corrupt form of 'Tandavan' in Tamil, a name descriptive of the cosmic power of siva's dance. There are several sub-castes in the Kattu-Nayakar community. One of the sub-sect performs a ritualised dance form known as thevarattam, the dance of the God. It is awesome to watch the whole community go through steps interwoven into the complex rythm of a large drum. On such occasions a dancer with divine connection makes divinition in a trance, in which the body channelises the drum beat to make known the unknown.

A majority of the 3,000-odd Kambalanayakar community members say they still abide by the decree of the village Goddess Jakkamma, do not wear shirts/blouses. They do not comb their hair or brush their teeth or take bath, except when it rains, discourage their children from learning in school and want them to live traditionally like their forefathers - doing farm work and rearing cattle.

webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
dt:06/10/2006



go TOP


23. MUDDURAJU - KODAGU-HADINADU, KARNATAKA

The Mudiraj people in Karnataka are known as Mudduraju / Mudduraja. There was a king by name Muddu Raju / Muddu Raja , who ruled Kodagu with present Medikeri as his capital.

Madikeri, the headquarters of Kodagu District, is over 320 years old and is believed to have been established in 1681 by the erstwhile ruler of Kodagu, Mudduraja.

The historical inscriptions inform that the Kodagu (Coorg) was ruled by several dynasties as Kadambas, Gangas, Chengalvwas, Hoysalas. Haleri kings were famous rulers. Madikeri is named after the king of the haleri dynasty Mudduraja. Virajpet was established and named after Virarajendra in1791.

In the 16th century, in the aftermath of the fall of Vijayanagara Empire, the Keladi Nayaks ( Valmikis = Bedars = Nayaks ) of Ikkeri consolidated power in Kodagu and established the Paleri (Haleri) dynasty (so called because of their capital in Paleri). While bedars or vedars or vetars or vetans are a sub caste of Tail Muthurajas, the valmikis are a subsect of Telugu Mudiraj in some parts of Andhra Pradesh

Paleri kings, who were Lingayats of Veerashaiva faith, ruled the region for more than 200 years (1580 to 1834). The first ruler of Paleri dynasty was Vira Raja. His grandson Muddu Raja I was a popular ruler and ruled for more than 50years. He moved his headquarters to current day Madikeri in 1681. It was called Muddu Raja Keri and later shortened to Madikeri (anglicized as Mercara). Under the Paleri dynasty Kodagu attained a status as an Independent kingdom.

1st Ruler - Veera Raja ( Father )
2nd Ruler - Trimala Raja Nayaka (Son)
3rd Ruler - Muddu Raja (Grand Son)(1633-87)

Dodda Vira Raja (also called Siribai Dodda Vira Raja) ruled from 1687 to 1736. Dodda Vira Rajendra (1780 to 1809) and Linga Raja II (1811 to 1820) also had significant impact on the history of the region. Dodda Vira Raja improved transportation by building bridges across ancient trenches. He also streamlined the administration of the region into villages, districts and appointed district headmen.

4th Ruler - Dodda Vira Raja (1687 - 1736)
5th Ruler - Chikka Veerappa
5th Ruler - Dodda Vira Rajendra (1780 - 1809)- Great Grand son of Mudduraja
6th Ruler - Linga Raja (1811 - 1820)

Chikkavirappa Wodeyar (1736-1766) was a weak ruler. Hyder Ali, soldier (captain) in the army of the Raja of Mysore became the ruler of Mysore. Chikkavirappa gifted a place named Kodali Mande to Hyder Ali in 1756. Yet Hyder Ali sent an army under his general, Fazal Ulla Khan, to Kodagu in 1765, which was defeated.

After Chikkaveerappa's death the Paleri dynasty was split into Paleri and Horemale and two rulers called Mudduraja and Muddaihraja came to power. After their death in 1770, an internal skirmish between Linga Raja-I and a Devappa Raja of Paleri and Horemale respectively, gave Hyder Ali an opening. He sided with Linga Raja I and installed him on the throne and acted as his protectorate. When Linga Raja I died, Hyder Ali took direct control of the Kodavas. This enraged the Kodavas and they started heckling the Muslim garrison in Madikeri. In 1782 the Kodavas took power back from Hyder Ali and declared independence by driving them out of Kodagu. After the demise of Hyder Ali in the same year, Tipu Sultan, the Tiger of Mysore succeeded him and started his ambitious expansion of his kingdom and tried many times to conquer Kodagu in vain. In 1785, Tippu attacked Kodagu, while returning from Mangalore to Srirangapattana, his capital city. He retained control of Kodagu for sometime.

Tippu never could continuously hold his power in Kodagu. As soon as he turned his back on Kodagu, the local heroes revolted and took power back from the Muslim rulers. Tippu returned to reclaim control though he found the Kodavas a pesky thorn on his sides. Both Hyder Ali and Tippu were interested in Kodagu because of its abundant rice crops. In 1788, Dodda Vira Rajendra, who had been taken prisoner, escaped and defeated Tippu and recovered his kingdom. In 1790 Dodda Vira Rajendra signed a treaty with the British, who promised to protect his kingdom against Tippu's onslaught. Eventually, the Kodavas backed the British troops and Tippu fell in the year 1799.

After many wars, the British captured Madikeri in 1834. The Paleri rulers continued to rule until 1834. A Col. Frazer, the British Commander and Political Officer called for an assembly at Madikeri. The invitees were under the impression that they would be treated as the real representatives and thus agreed to be ruled by the East India Company. Thus, the valiant Kodavas who had fought against Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan for over three decades were subjugated.

The British exiled the last of the rajas, Chikka Vira Raja, and took full control of the region. They charged him with cruelty to his people and sedition as an excuse to annex Kodagu under the British Raj.

Under British protection, Kodagu became a State with nominal independence. Coorgs Bopanna became the first governor and later his descendents assumed the role of administrators. The Kodavas in turn earned a name as valiant soldiers and officers in the army. They earned a reputation as able commanders and brave fighters both under the British rule as well as post independent India. Eventually, famous sons of Kodagu became prominent members of the armed forces of India. General K.S. Thimayya DSO and Field Marshal K.M. Cariappa OBE are both well known names to Indians.

MORE DETAILS ABOUT MUDDU RAJA :

Mercara was selected by Muddu Raja, on account of its central and inaccessible position as the site of his fort and capital, and thither in 1681 he moved the royal residence from H⬥ri, a few miles to the north. In the year 1681 he renamed it as Madikeri. It is the headquarters of Kodagu District standing at a height of 1170 meters above sea level. Makikeri is famous for its coffee and oranges. It is famous as birthplace of the most famous river of Karnataka Cauvery.This place is famous for its scenic beauty.The fabulous paddy fields,coffee bushes and the morning mist form a sketch of some unforgettable memories for the tourists.

Mercara a.k.a. Madikeri probably has the most romantic background. Haleri dynasty's Mudduraja is credited with founding the town of Madikeri around 1681. Mudduraja enjoyed the longest reign (54 years) of the Lingayat rulers of Kodagu. He is also credited with bringing together the entire Kodagu region comprising of 12 Kombus (districts) and 35 Nads (subdivision) demarcated by Kadangas (trenches); and ruled by constantly feuding Nayakas (warlords).

Mudduraja initially ruled from Haleri. During a hunting expedition in the present day Madikeri area, he went up a small hillock chasing wild game. He then encountered a strange phenomenon. He saw his hunting dogs beating a hasty retreat with their tails between their legs pursued by a hare! He was highly impressed by this incident and decided that he should build a Fort on this spot as it gave courage even to a meek animal like a hare to stand upto a pack of hunting dogs.

However, similar stories of dogs being chased by hares can be found in several other folklores, and this could well have been adopted by Mudduraja to justify choosing a new area for his Fort, which he could claim to be on veera bhoomi.

This entire area was a thick jungle populated by wild animals. Mudduraja went ahead with the building of a Fort, which was basically a mud walled garrison. A small settlement started, and apparently, this hamlet was named after the Raja as -Muddurajakeri. There are several other explanations for the name Madikeri, one of them being that it was a very clean area and hence the madi (clean) and keri (settlement).

The British took control of Coorg, as they called it, in 1834. They referred to Madikeri as Mercara. We all know how Madikeri got anglicised to Mercara by the British. Since Mudduraja, the third ruler of Kodagu from Haleri, established the town, it gained prominence as Muddurajakeri. It is said that the name of the town remained the same till 1815. A British surveyor deputed by the East India Company to Coorg called the town "Muddukayray". Gradually, the British, after gaining control over the town, began calling it Mercara while, in local parlance, Madikeri remained. Some say that the copious honey (madhu) produced during those days might have been the reason for the town being known as "Madhukeri".

There are many instances to demonstrate the involvement of Haider Ali from Mysore. His help was sought by Lingaraja (also referred to as Lingarajendra Wadiyar) to take over the throne of "Coorg" following a family feud. This opened the gates of Coorg to Haider Ali who established control over it. His son, Tipu Sultan, continued his father's exploits. It was a century later around 1786, that Tippu Sultan rebuilt the Fort with stone and named it as Jaffarabad after his General Jaffar Ali Beg. Tippu held this fortified garrison till 1790.

Today, the fort, which was the "palace" of the rulers of Kodagu, stands testimony to history. The "Raja Seat", the "Omkareshwar Temple", and the "Gaddige" of the rulers, point to the grandeur of the past.

Mudduraja's great-grandson Dodda Veerarajendra recaptured the Fort in 1790 and established Madikeri as the capital. The Fort and the royal dwelling within its walls were developed further by Dodda Veerarajendra. By then Madikeri too grew and became the principal town of Kodagu. The palace building currently used as government offices was constructed during Lingaraja's rule. It was quite a grand building but had thatched roof. It was the duty of the citizens living around Mercara to provide hay for thatching the palace roof as and when required. It was after the British took over Coorg in 1834 that the roof was replaced with tiles.

The Fort continues to be the hub of all government and legal activities even today. It served as the Chief Minister's office and the state Assembly Hall during the 'C' State status of Kodagu.

Dodda Veerarajendra established the town of Virajpet in 1792 to commemorate his meeting with the British General Abercrombie during their joint war against Tippu Sultan in 1791. Virajpet was a strategic place for the British troops to move from Cannanore to Mysore. Dodda Veerarajendra subsequently provided this place as a safe haven for fugitive Roman Catholic Christians who were displaced by areas controlled by Tippu Sultan. He also helped them build the beautiful St. Anne's Church, which is still a prominent landmark of Virajpet. Since this fledgling town had very few inhabitants, the Raja welcomed and settled people of all communities and religions. Settled in this town are Bengali Muslims from the North, Christians, Bunts, Gowdas, Brahmins from South Canara, Moplas from Malabar, Tamilians from Madras, Gowligas and Telugu Chettis from Andhra, Devangas and Jains from Mysore areas. Dooda Veerarajendra was liberal in granting funds and lands to these multi-faceted communities and encouraged them to settle down permanently. We therefore even today have Bengali Street, Telugu Street, Jain Street etc., in Virajpet. This town truly is cosmopolitan in every sense of the term. Virajpet became Taluk headquarters during the British rule and continues to present day. The Civil Courts started functioning in Virajpet since 1885.

Another notable landmark of Virajpet is the Clock Tower. Subedar Mukkatira Aiyappa was instrumental in erecting the Clock Tower in 1914 to commemorate the Delhi Coronation Darbar of King George V. It still stands tall with the Clock in perfect working condition.

Around 1887, some of prominent people in and around Virajpet started a social club and named it the Victoria Club after Queen Victoria. One of the main persons behind starting this club was Subedar Chepudira Thimmaiah a great-grandfather of mine. This club continues to function with active participation by its members.

Virajpet has grown into a bustling town and has been the second most important town in Coorg after Mercara.

Historical inscriptions show that Kodagu was included in the Kingdom of Gangas in the 9th and 10th centuries and Cholas in the 11th century. Changalvas were feudatory to both the above dynasties but they were independent till 14th century since Hoysalas overthrew Cholas in the 12th century. Changalvas accepted the supremacy Of Hoysalas from 14th to 16th century. Then came the Nayakas who later paved the way to the Haleri Rajas of Kodagu till 1834 except Hyder and Tippu Sultan (1780-89).

The prominent rulers were Mudduraja (1633-87), Lingaraja (1775-80) and Virarajendra Wodeyar (1789-1809). Kodagu was annexed by the British in 1834, first Chief Commissioner's Province in India to be permitted to have representative body in 1924, "C" State (1982-56) and a district of Karnataka (Mysore) from 1st November, 1956.

After Mudduraja Siribai Doddaveerappa ruled Kodagu (Coorg) for 49 years. He was a famous ruler, a courageous and honest one. He ruled Kodagu (Coorg) from 1687 to 1736.

At the time of Chikkaveera, a weak ruler, Hyder Ali then the ruler of Mysore started encroaching Kodagu (Coorg). In the year 1763 Mysore grabbed some parts of Kodagu (Coorg). Even though Hyder Ali had a fierce fight against Kodagu (Coorg) he was defeated in the year 1766. Mudduraja and Muddaiaharaja came to power at Haleri and Horemale respectively after the death of Chikkaveerappa. Both of them died in the year 1770. During this time there was a difference among Haleri and Horemale rulers and one of them went to Hyder Ali for help. In the year 1773 Hyder Ali defeated the army of Kodagu (Coorg) and made Appaji, the son of Mudduraja as the King of Kodagu (Coorg). In 1776 Lingaraja became the king after the death of Appaji. Amarasulya and Bellora areas came under Hyder's rule. At the time the death of Lingaraja his children were very young. So Hyder took possession of Kodagu (Coorg) and made Subbanarasaiaha as his representative. But there was uproar against him in 1782 and the prince of Kodagu (Coorg) was transferred to Hassan. At that time Hyder had died and his son Tippu had come to throne.

It is a place with disputed history. Some of the localites believe that this place was ruled by Lingayat rajas who ruled over Coorg.They established Madikeri as their capital.The famous gallient ruler Tipu Sultan in 1785 A.D, annexed Coorg into his kingdom. But,M aharaja Veerarajendra with the help of the British rulers was successful in getting Coorg free.He developed this place into a beautiful hillstation with beautiful coffee and oranges plantation.But,the joy of freedom of this place was short lived and in 1834 AD, the British took over power in Coorg. They imprisoned the last ruler Chikkaveera Rajendra.

During 1785 he put an end to this mutiny and deputed his army to different parts of Kodagu (Coorg). When there was uproar in the year 1789 Lingaraju son of Veeraraja escaped from the jail of Periyapattana and joined the corgis and became their leader. As there was insurgence in Malbar, Tipu could not take any action against corgis. At the same time Tipu had to fight with British also. Thus Kodagu (Coorg) could keep its independence. In the year 1809 after the death of Veeraraja, his daughter Devammaji became the ruler. But in the year 1811 Veeraraja's brother Lingaraja took the reins. He built the palace and Omkareshwara temple at Madikeri. In 1820 Lingaraja passed away. Chikkaveeraraja, who ruled Kodagu (Coorg) between 1820-1834, was the last king of Haleri clan. When he came to throne he was only 22-years of age. He was the son of Lingaraja. As he had inherited lot of power, wealth through his ancestors and as he was very young he had a lack of knowledge and wisdom. So he was too much brutal and he terrorized the people. He even supported and encouraged the atrocities committed by the officials on the people and this paid a way for his destruction. A man by name Kuntabasava, who was taking care of his dogs, became his diwan. By this itself we can judge how he ruled his kingdom.

The British, who were swallowing one state after another of Hindustan did not spared, leave Kodagu (Coorg) also. Veeraraja surrendered himself to Col. Fraser of the English army. Just pretending that they have taken the permission of the people of Kodagu (Coorg), the British captured Kodagu (Coorg) usurping power and brought it under their control in the year 1834, April 10. From that day Kodagu (Coorg) came under the direct rule of the English. Veeraraja was given a pension and was sent to Varanasi. In 1852 he went to England along with his daughter Gouramma and died there. Gouramma converted herself to Christianity and married an English army officer.

When India became independent in 1947, Kodagu (Coorg) also got rid off the rule of English. In 1950 as per the new Constitution Kodagu (Coorg) became a state. In 1956 when there was a state reorganization Kodagu (Coorg) was merged with Karnataka and became a district in Karnataka. It has 3 taluks, Madikeri, Somavarapete and Veerajapete.

According to purana Chandravarma the youngest son of King Siddhartha of Matsya country came on pilgrimage to Brahmagiri the origin of river Kaveri. He settled down with eleven sons married and each having more than hundred sons. The eldest son Devakanta was crowned who with all the members presented before Goddess Kaveri flowing down at Balamuri (Balumberi) in the early hours of Tulasankranthi, the time of sun's entering the sigh of Libra. During the flow the sari knot of Kaveri got turned backwards at Balamuri while she blessed the members present. All of them (Kodavas) took the first bath in the river here.

COORG / KODAGU DISTRICT:

Kodagu in Kannada and Coorg in English are derived from the local version Kodavu and the people Kodava. The name Kodavu is supposed to have been derived from Kodimalenad meaning higher forest land. Puranic version says, that the land of initial settlement was called Krodadesa which later became Kodavu. The word Kodava means the people blessed by Godmother Kaveri ('Kod' means give, bless and 'avva' means mother Kaveri) is supported by the puranic version.

Coorg, Kudagu or Kodagu as this region is called nestles in the western Ghats of south west Karnataka. It is the the district head quarters of Kodagu formerly called as "Coorg", located at about 100 Kms from Mysore.It is dubbed as Scotland of India, it is the home to the colourful, robust, martial race - The Kodavas-the proud of Karnataka.

It is surrounded by Kerala State in the west and south, to the north by South Canara district and Hassan district and in the east by Mysore district.

Coorg is famous for oranges and coffee plantation.This region also is famous for spices. pepper, cardamoms etc can be seen.The coffee plantations in Madikeri alone accounts for almost half of Karnataka' s coffee production. Karnataka is known to be India' s largest producer of coffee even today. Kodagu (Coorg) is one of the most picturesque hill district in South India. Kodagu is a coffee country. The coffee estates here produce some of the world's best coffee. The other specialities here are honey, cardamom, pepper and oranges.

Madikeri, a picturesque , charming town situated at an elevation of over 5000 ft (1,525m) above mean sea level. It is having a pleasant climate throughout the year, any how it is best to visit between October and April. It is a great place to walk. Winding lanes meander off the main street. Mountain trails promise visual delights.

Kodavas said to be the descendents of the Greeks, the Kodavas are fiercely independent. They were never conquered by either Tipu sultan or the British. And so this day all Kodavas retain the privilege of carrying firearms without a licence.

Kodagu has produced the best of Military Generals and able men for the Indian Army including General Kariappa and General Thimaiya. Kodava women are known for their beauty. But what Kodavas are famous is for their hospitality.

The Fort: In the centre of the Madikeri town. this 19th century fort was once the scene of many fierce battle. Today it houses a small museums, a chapel, the prison and a small museum. The fort also offers a panoramic view of Madikeri. The Fort situated on an elevated ground, has a palace inside. Built of brick and mortar, the fort was erected by the King of Coorg. It was repaired by Tipu Sultan in 1781 and called Jaffarabad. Two life-size elephants built in mortar catch the eye as one enters the fort.

Sri Omkareshwara Temple: Dedicated to Lord Shiva, this temple built in 1820, is a mix of Islamic and Gothic style of architecture. Constructed by the King of Coorg in the year 1820, it is dedicated to Lord Shiva. Towards the end of November, a colourful temple festival is held here when the deity is taken in a boat round the tank.

Raja's (King's) Seat: It is located in the centre of Madikeri Town. According to legend, the kings of Kodagu spent their evenings here. You can view the spectacular sunsets from this place. It commands a beautiful view of the Coorg Valley studded with paddy fields and forests, with the blue mountain ranges of the Western Ghats in the distance.

Raja's (King's) Tombs (Cuddige): The last two Rajas of Coorg are buried here. The tombs consist of domes in the centre and minarets at four corners mounted by carved bulls. Stuart's Hill or Stone Hill situated adjoining Raja's seat, from where one can have a magnificent view of the surrounding valley.Chettali Orange & Coffee Research Station (24 Km/15 mile): Run by the Government, many interesting experiments and research on the production of coffee are conducted here. It is on the Mercara, Siddapur-Virajpet road. Enroute to the farm is the Coffee Board.

Festivals Of Coorg : KAILU MUHOORTHA THULA SANKRAMANA HUTTARI DASARA Kailu muhoortha is celebrated on september 3rd of every year it is celebrated as the mark of compleation of transplantation paddy.the people clean all the implements (Ayudhas) and worship them it is an Aayudha pooja of Coorgs .In the olden days this festival Marked the beginning of the hunting season.

Kaveri sankramana (Thula sankramana) On october 17th . mother Kaveri blesses the people she spring s from the sacred tank (kunda ) asTHEERHA ROOPINI the teertha naturally erupts on a partcular Muhoortha devotees Govinda and take holy dip in Talakaveri after Teerthodbhava Tulamaasetu Kaveri Sarva teerthashrite nadi during the Thula masa riveris so sacred that it has all sacred Teerthas Ganga and other holy rivers.therefore throughout the month people visit and take a holy dip.

Huttari Usually is celebrated in the month of december it announces the harvest season , it is joy to see paddy fields and coorg in this season.There are many rituals in the moonligt Family head performs Pooja to the Paddy fields and symbolically begins the harvest.Pancals are offered to village deity people enjoy the sweet dish of new rice.

Apart from these main festivals several festivals are performed in summer in every village there is a deity and particular village festival is celebrated since time immemorial. Main festivals are Bhadrakali Eshvara and Bhagavati festivals every festival is unique in its own manner One has to visit and watch to know the real glory. DASARA AAYUDHA POOJA GANESH CHATHURHI ARE ALSO CELEBRATED IN COORG Madikeri Dasara is held during night and there will be ten well decorated chariots having large dolls of gods and demons (mantapas) which depict the destruction of the evil force s by the Goddess Shakti.

KODAGU PEOPLE :

Kannada is the primary language spoken in Kodagu. Kodagu is home to several other languages, including Kodava Thak, Tulu, and Ravula. All are Dravidian languages.

The Kodava people live a rich life due to the economic freedom provided by the coffee market. Kodavas consider themselves as warriors and they have many cultural practices such as carrying a ceremonial knife on their wraparound robes. The culture also includes communal gatherings where drink, dance and a special pork dish with the special seasoning of Garcinia are central attractions.

The names of Kodava people is also characteristic and include a clan name. The clan is central to Kodava culture and families trace their lineage through clans. Marriage within a clan is discouraged. The Kodava language or Kodava Thak has no written tradition, and has approximately 120,000 speakers. Most speakers are bilingual in Kannada.

webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
dt:18/10/2006

go TOP


24. MUDDURAJA OF HADINADU WAS A GREATGRANDSON OF SINGADEPA CHOLA

The 300-year-old Bale Mantap near the 15th Century Gowreeshwara Temple at Yelandur in Chamarajanagar district is in a dilapidated state. Unlike other temples and mantaps at Yelandur, the Bale Mantap (Mahadwara Mantap), facing the East, was built by the chieftain of Hadinadu, Mudduraja, in 1654 AD in the Hoysala style of architecture. Historically known as 'Hadinadu,' in some 10th century archaeological records, the city was named 'Mysooru Nagara' in 1524 by Chamaraja Wodeyar.

For more details about Gowreeswar Temple, readers are requested to see web page "Temple Cities" in this Mudiraja website.

Yelandur came into prominence under the Cholas. The Cholas were the emperors of the Tamil kingdom. The first known prince of the dynasty to have ruled this region is Singadepa or Devabhupala of Chola dynasty. He is said to have built the famous Gaurishwara temple of Yelandur at about 1550 A.D. This is a magnificient temple. This temple speaks volumes of the Cholas as great builders. It has a very beautiful main entrance. It went into a decreipt state but was later erected in 1654-55 by his great grandson Muddabhupa ( Muddaraju ).

An inscription found in the temple premises states that the Gourishwara temple was built in 1550 AD by Singadepa, the first known prince of the Hadinadu. The mahadwara of the Gaurishwara temple in Yelandur is an architectural marvel, with its monolithic stone chains surrounding the shrine. Gaurishwara temple was built in 1550 A.D during the reign of Devabhupala (Singadepa) of the Chola dynasty. This temple was rebuilt in 1654 -1655 by Muddabhupa, grand son Devabhupala, as the old temple was highly dilapidated.

The temple has some unique features which makes it very distinctive. Though there is no towering entrance gopura (as is common in South Indian temples), it has a mahadwara or gate called "Bale Mantapa" (Bangle entrance) which has exquisitely stone carved themes, on the walls and pillars, depicting mythological stories of Andhakasura (slaying of demon Andhakasura0, Narasimha (Half Man � Half Lion God) in various manifestations of Dakshinamurthy and Sharaba, Bhirava, Kalingamardhana krishna, Vali and Sugriva. Monolithic stone chains (stone carved rings - 20 cm each) adorn the four corners and the door side of the entrance which gives the name of Bale (Bangle) Mantapa to the temple entrance.


Muddabhupa was a Mudiraju chieftain of Hadinadu and he is said to the great grandson of Singadepa Chola. Here, we get a clear proof that cholas and mudirajas were one and the same people.

The engravings on four pillars depict the war between Vaali and Sugreeva. The image of Mudduraja has been carved on the outer wall. Inside the mantap, there is an image of Bhuvaneshwari sitting on a lotus. Some of the stone rings hanging from the ceiling of the mantap have been damaged.

This king Mudduraja seems to be the son of Trimalarajanayaka of Hadinadu. There also lies a copper plate at Biligiri Ranganna Temple Mysore on which the evidence dated is 1667. This copper plate belongs to Mudduraju, son of Trimalarajanayaka of Hadinadu and sheds light on the history of the Biligiri Ranganna Temple in Mysore in India.

Singadepa = Devabhupala

Tirumalarajayya = Trimalarajanayaka

Muddabhupa = Mudduraja

Singadepa => ??? => Tirumalarajayya => Muddabhupa


MUDDURAJU - BILIGIRI RANGANA BETTA:

Biligiri Rangana Betta (literally meaning - Ranganatha's Whiterock Hill in Kannada) is a lofty hillock situated at a distance of 28 km from Yelandur and 90 km from Mysore. The forest around is named Biligiri Rangaswamy Wildlife Sanctuary after this place. One can have a breath taking view of the forest around from the platform behind the temple atop the hill.

There is the famous temple of Ranganatha atop this hill. A copper plate record dated 1667 and belonging to Mudduraju, son of Trimalarajanayaka of Hadinadu sheds light on the history of the temple. Here these hills are mentioned as that of Thiru Venkatanatha of Bilikal (White Rock). In Sanskrit, this hill was called Shwetadri meaning white hill. This is because the hill's weathered granite cliff face appear white in colour. The Venkatanatha temple became known as Ranganatha temple after Tipu Sultan visited this temple while on a hunting expedition and described it as a temple of Lord Ranganatha. Hence, the name Biligiri Rangana Betta.

The highest point of the hill is 5091 feet above sea level. At the foot of the hill on Chamarajanagar road, there is a brindavana (small lake) known as Kanakadasa's cave. It is believed that the celebrated spiritual guru Haridasa Kanaka lived here singing praises of the lord for some time.

There is a mysterious tradition and legend about this temple. Anyone visiting the temple can see a huge pair of sandals. Legend has it that these sandals are used by the presiding deity Lord Ranganatha to roam around these forests. Mysteriously, these sandals wear out and are replaced regularly with new ones by the villagers.

The original inhabitants of these forest areas are a tribal community called Soligas (bamboo people). Even now, these people live in settlements around these forests.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Nagpur, Maharastra, India
Date : 29 / 11/ 2008


go TOP


25. EMPEROR MANDHATHA OF SOLAR RACE GANGA - MOHENJO-DARO PERIOD :

Mandhata was a solar race bhil koli king
It is a well known fact that the people of Mudiraj are descended from bhil � koli race whose professional background was predominantly hunting & fishing. Some sections of Mudiraj in Telangana & Rayalaseema are still depending on fishing to earn their livelihood.

The people who call themselves as muttarasas are most probably the descendants of Western Ganga kings belonging to fishermen warrior community from the banks of river ganga of North India.

Emperor Mandhata is said to be an ancestor of kolis in the lineage of suryavamsi rulers long before Sri Rama and Dasharadha. He ruled vast country that spread from Afghanistan to Kanyakumari. According to Mahabharata, Mandhata was a great Rig Vedic king and Dasyu conqueror, defeated the Druhyus, the lunar dynasty king of Gandhara or Afghanistan. It seems that the very name Mohenjo-Daro refers to Mahanjoddha & King Mandhatha. This is explained to the readers in subsequent paras.

King Mandhata, a supreme and universal ruler whose reputation spread far and wide throughout India and whose stories of valor and yajna were described in the stone carvings of Mohanjo Daro, belonged to this tribe. Archaeological finds of Mohenjo Daro is estimated to date back to 5000-3000 B.C. The stone inscriptions there describe the great Koli Kings and their Pyanchayet method of administration in their Kingdoms. References to the Great King Mandhata is found many times and in various aspects of his deeds of valor and yajna.

During his times, there were only three castes - Brahmin, Kshtriya and Vaishia. It is said that Mandhata defined the duties of every caste group in the society based on dharma. It is understood that the story of Ekadashi was told to king Mandhata by great saint Brahmarshi Vashishta. Learned men say that the glory of this vow is the destoryer of sins, offers salvation and merits of donating thousands of cows, it is such that the hunters can also get freedom from sins, by observing this vow. It is to be noted here that Mandhata belonged to hunting � fishing community.

Prior to Mandhata, his ancestor Manu did the job of defining duties of four castes for the first time for harmonious growth of the society. Many S.T people that Manu was an Aryan but the fact is that he a Dravidian native North India long before Aryans spread into India. Manu and Mandhata were the ancient Dravidian kings in Sindhu - Saraswathi � Ganga � Yamuna river basins. This was the region from where they ruled their empire. Those great kings perhaps never thought that this caste system which they created will one day become a curse to their own descendants. A large number of their descendants are now in the lower caste status of the Indian society. While many of them are in Scheduled Tribes category , some of them are are in the list of Backward Classes.

Mandhata's father Yuvenashawer was known as belonging to Ishvaku-Sun Dynasty and their descendants were known as Sun Dynasty Koli Kings. Archaeological findings when pieced together show several descendants of Mandhata as illustrious and just rulers. They were known to be brave, illustrious and just rulers. Buddhist texts have numerous references proving this beyond doubt. The descendants of Mandhata played a vital role and our ancient Vedas, epics and other relics mention their important contributions in the art of war and state administration. They are referred to in our ancient Sanskrit books as Kulya, Kuliye, Koli Serp, Kolik, Kaul etc.

In present day India, Koli tribe is to be found from Kashmir to Kanya Kumari and are known by slightly different names according to the languages of the regions. The following are some of the major groups: Koli Kshtria, Koli Raja, Koli Rajput, Koli Suryavanshi, Nagarkoli, Gondakoli, Koli Mahadev, Koli Patel, Koli Thakor, Bavraya, Tharkarda, Pathanvadia, Mein koli, Koyeri, Mandhata Patel etc. Koli Patel and Mandhata Patel are the land owning communities from the Surat and Bulsar Districts of Gujarat in Western India. In South India they are known as Mudiraja, Muthuraja and Mudduraja.

Mohenjo-Daro could be a Port Town of Solar race Kings
The cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa are believed to be built in 2600 BCE. Both Harappa and Mohenjodaro are now located in Pakistan. In the history of India, they are the first planned cities that were resided by people, who were very successful in trade and commerce along with agriculture. Mohenjodaro was rediscovered by Sir John Marshall in the year 1920s. These cities were most probably built by the kolis to serve as harbour ports in the North West to link India with Egypt , Sumeria and Mesapotamia. This Harappa or Sindhu civilization is one of the three great early civilizations that arose in the late fourth and third millennia BC around the three large alluvial systems of the Tigris-Euphrates, Nile and Indus rivers. Now, we know that all these civilizations were not only related to each other but they were mostly the people of the same black dravidian race.

According to Sir John Marshall the earliest Indian civilization was that of the Indus Valley and not that of the Aryans. It has been agreed by many a scholars, archeologists and historians that the Indus Valley was occupied by a Non-Aryan (Dravidian) people before the Aryan settlement in the Indus Valley. They had a very rich culture and a language of their own. This clearly indicates that Sri Rama was a Bhil Koli and not an Aryan. The weapon of Sri Rama was Bow and the same is the weapon of Bhils of India. The very name Bhil is derived from Telugu word Vhillu, which means Bow.

Vhillu = Bow
Vhillu => Bhillu => Bhil

The Dravidian civilization is one of the oldest living civilizations of the world. Historically, it flourished well before 5,000 B.C from the period of the Mohenjo daro and Harappa civilizations in north-west India. Where, not only was an ancient dravidian language ( mixure of Telugu -Tamil ) spoken but the Hindu God Siva was one of the Gods worshipped. The language experts of today finally agree that even the Sindhi language spoken in Sindhu region of Mohenjo-Daro & Harappa evolved from primitive Dravidian language and not from Sanskrit. Traces and similarities of ancient dravidian language (Talugu � Tamil mixure) are now seen in the language of Hebrew and Sumerian languages also. All these people of great civilizations could of dravidian race. . This could be either due to the fact they cpuld also be the people of the same dravidian race or it could be due to extensive trde links.

This civilization was thought to have been confined to the valley of the river Indus, hence the name given to it was Indus Valley civilization. This civilization was a highly developed urban one and two of its towns, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, represent the high watermark of the settlements.

Subsequent archaeological excavations established that the contours of this civilization were not restricted to the Indus valley but spread to a wide area in northwestern and western India. Thus this civilization is now better known as the Harappan civilization. Mohenjo-daro and Harappa are now in Pakistan and the principal sites in India include Ropar in Punjab, Lothal in Gujarat and Kalibangan in Rajasthan. Recent research has shown Sutkagen Dor in Baluchistan next to Iran is the westernmost known Harappan site. It is thought to have once been on a navigable inlet of the Arabian Sea, and the usual citadel and town are present, as well as defensive walls 30 feet wide. Sutkagen Dor would have been on the trade route from Lot al to Mesopotamia.

We know very little about this civilization, but what we know is fascinating! Over 4,000 years ago, in the Indus Valley, people built huge, planned cities, with straight streets, and brick homes with private baths! Kids played with toys and women wore lipstick! Archaeologists discovered two 4000-year-old cities, 400 miles apart, along the banks of the Indus River in Pakistan. These expertly constructed cities were parts of an advanced civilization comparable to ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt.

The Harappan Civilization of the Indus Valley was a continuation of the Vedic Civilization; its ending coincided with the drying up of the Sarasvati around 2000 BC. Archaeological studies have shown that there was a gradual depletion of water resources that culminated in a drought in the 2200 BC to 1900 BC [period]. It was a global phenomenon that affected civilizations across the immense belt of Southern Europe to India. As S.R. Rao says, "People were forced to seek new lands for settlement. The refugees from Mohenjo-Daro and Southern sites in Sind fled to Saurashtra and later occupied the interior of the peninsula.

The people of Harappa and Mohenjodaro in the History of India were religious too. Perhaps the ritual bathing of the Indus People was kept as part of the Hindu tradition. The people of Mohenjo-Daro apparently practiced ritual bathing. Incidentally, ritual bathing is a big part of Hinduism, the most practiced religion of modern India. Harappan civilization was Vedic. Harappan archaeology represents the material remains of the culture and civilization described in the Vedic literature, and flourished in the same geographic regions.

Harappa is the first city to be unearthed first and after that the second city of Mohenjo-Daro was unearthed by archeologists. Mahenjo-Daro is found to be bigger than Harappa and it means the 'Mound of the Dead'. It is estimated that each of these cities had a population of about 35000 people. An amazing wealth of pottery, inscribed seals, building tools and architecture and most of all it's jewelry has been discovered strewn across the entire region This civilization existed from about 3000-2,500 BCE to about 1500 BCE, which means it existed at about the same time as the Egyptian and Sumerian civilizations. Collectively, this Indus civilization is referred to as the Indus Valley Civilization and also sometimes, the Harappan civilization.

The people of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa lived in sturdy brick houses that had as many as three floors. The houses had bathrooms that were connected to sewers. Their elaborate drainage system was centuries ahead of their time. Archaeologists have found the remains of fine jewelry, including stones from far away places. This shows that the people of the Indus Valley civilization valued art and traded with other cultures.

We don�t know what happened to the Indus River Valley civilization. It seems to have been abandoned about 1700BC. It is possible that a great flood weakened the civilization. The moving tectonic plates that created the Himalayas may have caused a devastating earthquake. It is also possible that the people may have been defeated by another culture. The most common notion is that the civilization was destroyed due to some natural calamity. Both the cities were close to the river hence there are possibilities of floods in the city that may have destroyed it. Another common belief about the destruction of this most advanced civilization is that the Aryans invaded and destroyed the culture and the city.

Archeologists excavating the sites at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro found human skeletal remains; this seemed to them to be undeniable evidence that a large-scale massacre had taken place in these cities by the invading Aryan hordes at Mohenjo-daro�, states the following about this evidence. At Mohenjo-daro groups of sprawling skeletons in this period suggests some sort of massacre or invasion. The end of the Indus Valley Civilization may have been fairly abrupt and violent, but long before the end came, there seems to have been a gradual process of internal decay and stagnation.

According to all accounts the solar dynasty king Mandhata conquered Afghanistan and some of the Paktas may have joined him. Raghu and other kings of the solar dynasty were also active in the region and the name Ram occurs as an important Persian deity. The Harayu in Afghanistan may have been named after the Sarayu in India.

These cities were built by Dravidians Bhil- Kolis
The extensive excavations carried out at the two principal city sites, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, indicates that this Dravidian culture was well established by about 2500 B.C. Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were apparently the chief administrative centers of the Indus Valley complex.

Fish is the primary symbol of koli fishermen in their art and culture. Manu, the dravidian ancestor of Mandhata, is said to have saved the human race from great flood with the help of a fish, an incarnation of Vishu. Many scholars (Knorozov, Parpola, Mahadevan, etc) see this sign as a fish. Fish in reconstructed Proto-Dravidian is *m�n. Coincidentally, *m�n is also the word for star. On many pots from Mohenjo Daro, an Indus site, there are drawings of fish and stars together, and so affirming this linguistic association. The civilization was educated and cultured people as there are traces of it in the seals and coins found from the sites. It has been found that the Dravidian language was spoken by the people. There are sculptures made on stones in major. This is an important feature of dravidian temple architecture.

F.E. Pargiter (who, strictly speaking, is not an invasionist scholar proper, but belongs to the quasi-invasionist school, which we will examine later) classifies the Aila tribes (the Yadus, TurvaSas, Anus, Druhyus and PUrus) alone as Aryan, and all the rest (particularly the IkSvAkus, whom he classifies as Dravidians) as non-Aryan. Thus, prominent Vedic kings like Purukutsa and Trasadasyu, and prominent Puranic kings like MandhAtA, Sagara, HariScandra, BhagIratha, DaSaratha and RAma, are non-Aryans according to him.

The names of King Mandhata & city Mohenjo-Daro
The cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa could be capital cities provential governments in addition to port cities of Solar Race kings of Ayodhya in North West India. The period of construction and destruction coincides with the ruling period of solar race kings. The story of a fish with reference to Manu, an ancestor of Mandhata matches with the belief of kolis about their descendancy from Mandhata. The reference made about Mandhata in inscriptions found on the walls of Mohenjodaro silently tells that it was most probably built by Mahan Joddha and emperor Mandhata or built in his memory.

Mahan Joddha = Great Warrior

There are literary as well as archaeological evidences to show that there was trade with Mesopotamia. The presence of a number of Indus seals at Ur and other Mesopotamian cities and the discovery of a 'Persian Gulf' type of seal at Lothal - otherwise known from the Persian Gulf ports of Bahrain and Failaka, and from Mesopotamia-provide convincing corroboration of the sea trade suggested by the Lothal dock in Gujarat. In those days, Uru means City and this word seems to be hidden in the name Mohenjo-Daro. Abraham, the father of Jesus, is also said to be born in a place called URU. There are several towns and cities in India whose names are ending with Uru or Oor.

It seems that Mohenjo Daro was named after the great emperor Mandhata who was great Yoddha. The original name of this city could be Mahanjoddha Uru. The gradual modification of this name might have resulted to the present name of Mohenjodaro There is one Manjotha basti in Pakistan and this might also be referring the name of emperor Mandhata.

Mahan = Maha = Muthu = Mudi = Great
Mahan = Great
Yoddha = Joddha = Jodda = A Warrior
Uru = Ur = Oor = City

Mahan + Joddha = Mahanjoddha = A Great Warrior
Mahanjoddha => Manjoddha => Manjotha => Mandjotha => Mandhotha => Mandhatha

Mahanjoddha + Ur = Mahanjoddhaur = The city of Great Warrior
Mahanjoddhaur => Mahanjodar => Mohanjodaro => Mohenjodaro => Mohenjo-Daro

Harappa
The abandoning of Harrapa and Mohenjodaro was probably due to several factors such as sacking and flooding by invaders, progressive desiccation of the Indus Valley and dangers of floods. There is no doubt that the civilization was ancient and well advanced.There are several reference to the town of Hariyupa (later became Harappa). The Vedas also refer to the Dravidians occupying the whole of the then known India from the Himalayas to Cape Comrin. They also mention that during the war the Aryans killed hundreds of thousands of Dravidians, took several as slaves, destroyed several cities and fortresses, plundered their wealth, broke dams against rivers and bunds of tanks thus inundating the areas, and took their livestock and weapons.

One of the most fascinating yet mysterious cultures of the ancient world is the Harappan civilization. This culture existed along the Indus River in present day Pakistan. It was named after the city of Harappa which it was centered around. Harappa and the city of Mohenjo-Daro were the greatest achievements of the Indus valley civilization. These cities are well known for their impressive, organized and regular layout. They have well laid our plumbing and drainage system, including indoor toilets. Over one hundred other towns and villages also existed in this region.

The Harappan people were literate and used the Dravidian language. Only part of this language has been deciphered today, leaving numerous questions about this civilization unanswered. Artifacts and clues discovered at Mohenjo-Daro have allowed archaeologists to reconstruct this civilization. The similarities in plan and construction between Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa indicate that they were part of a unified government with extreme organization. Both cities were constructed of the same type and shape of bricks. The two cities may have existed simultaneously and their sizes suggest that they served as capitals of their provinces.

The streets of major cities such as Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were paved and were laid out at right angles (and aligned north, south, east or west) in a grid pattern with a hierarchy of streets (commercial boulevards to small residential alleyways), somewhat comparable to that of present day New York. The houses were protected from noise, odors, and thieves, and had their own wells, and sanitation. And the cities had drainage, large granaries, water tanks, and well-developed urban sanitation. Harappan cities like Mohenjo-Daro were largely governed by strong civic discipline," says Durrani. "And the streets and houses were purposely arranged to let the prevailing winds keep them clear and ventilated. It's the earliest example of civic environmental planning."

At Mohenjo-Daro there was at least one well supplying water to each housing block, and many houses had their own wells. Many also had private latrines, with individual drains that connected to covered or underground conduits that carried waste water, as well as excess rain from the streets, down to the river. And there is even a water-related structure archeologists have dubbed the Great Bath. Steps lead down into the swimming pool-sized complex lined with tightly fitted brick, sealed with a bitumen under-layer, and served by a massive drain with a corbeled vaulted ceiling, big enough to walk through. It has been interpreted as a public bath or ritual bathing area.

Shiva & Shakti are worshipped by Dravidian Bhil-Kolis
Two Mohenjo-daro seals are found with the figure of proto-Siva, a god in a Yoga posture. These seals from Mohenjo-Daro shows a figure who looks like an early Shiva Worship of Shiva may be the oldest surviving religious cult in the world. Other Harappan seals seem to suggest a religious world centred about a mother-goddess and a bull. The bull survives to this day, the Nandi of countless village shrines all over Hindu India. The city name Harappa appears to be referring to the namof Shiva.

Shiva = Hara
Appa = Ayya = Iah = Lord = Sir
Hara + Appa = Harappa
Harappa = Shivaiah = Lord Shiva ?

The Indus cities seem to have had very few public buildings. The only one of any note is the Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro which appears to have been used in the performance of certain rituals. The great bath at Mohenjo-daro could not have been constructed for the purpose of hygiene since all the private dwellings were equipped with excellent bathrooms. Since so many elements of the Indus culture appear to have found their way into Hinduism, it is possible that ancient purification rites were taken over and reinterpreted by members of the Brahmin caste.

Mandhata was devotee of Shiva. At Omkareshwar, there is the ancient temple of Omkarji built by Raja Mandhata, a great Shiva devotee. Near Indore is Omkareswar, one of the 12 Jyotirlinga shrines of Loard Shiva. Pereched on the Mandhata Hills on the banks of River Narmada., this temple built in the Nagara style, in characterized by a lofty shikara. There are also shrines of Annapoora and Ganesha here. Omkareshwar, located in Madhya Pradesh, on the Mandhata hill on the banks of the Narmada, is one of the 12 revered Jyotirlinga shrines of Shiva. The river Narmada branches into two and forms the island Mandhata or Shivapuri in its center. The shape of the island resembles that of the visual representation of the Omkara sound, Om.

One seal uncovered at Mohenjo-daro depicts a three-faced male god with arms outstretched, seated on a low platform in a cross legged position (like a yogi). His arms are adorned with bangles and his head is crowned with a fan-shaped head-dress from which two horns project. He is surrounded by animals and fertility symbols suggest that he concerned with the promotion of fertility.

The Neem tree was regarded as sacred in Mohenjo-daro Civilization. In the annals of the ancient Siddha System of Medicine, the first medicinal plant mentioned as well as found a place, in ancient Tamil literature is Margosa or Neem. This has been used by Tamils from time immemorial as a deterrent for smallpox and other infectious diseases and also considered to possess powers to ward off evil spirits. Neem tree is worshipped by all South Indians as a symbol of Mother Goddess, who protects for epedimics and evil spirits. This tree is invariably planted and worshipped at all the temples of Mother Goddess.

Recently an extraordinary wood sculpture of a large squatting female figure has been proven to be from the Harappan culture. Radiocarbon dated at approximately 2400 B.C.E., this 28 inch high sculpture depicts a matriarch in a birthing posture, exposing her Yoni. This extraordinary sculpture is published on the Internet for the first time. It is the single most important example of art from the Indus Valley culture and confirms, beyond any doubt, that this tribal society was essentially matriarchal and Tantric.

"Among the many revelations that Mohenjo Daro and Harappa had in store for us, none perhaps is more remarkable than this discovery that Saivism has a history going back to the Chalcolithic Age, or perhaps even further still, and it thus takes its place as the most ancient living faith in the world."-Sir John Marshall.

The seals of the Mohenjodaro Indus valley civilization contain depictions of men playing long cylindrical drums hung around their necks played horizontally. These drums are most similar to the kharrang of Assam and with the dhole of the Reddis of Andra Pradesh. Other drums inscribed on the seals include an hour glass shaped drum like the hudukka, castanets and cymbals.

The dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro, the earliest known Indian lost wax process cast bronze figure (3rd millennium B.C.). two well-known artifacts, castings of the dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro and the Mother Goddess of Adichanallur, Tamilnadu, depict a high degree of metallurgical knowledge.

Language, Inscriptions, & seals
It is said that the name of Mandhata and other Soorya vamshi kings are found inscribed on the walls of Mohenjo-daro. The reason could be that they were the rulers of this North West region with these cities as their provential capitals. They might be the decision makers in constructing those world class cities of bygone years.

The Indus peoples wrote using pictorial symbols, but their language is not understood today. The conventional wisdom till recently was that Harappan was some form of Dravidian language, the language family that contains Telugu, Tamil, Kannada ans malayalam. However, speakers of the incoming Indo-Aryan languages would have interacted with speakers of Harappan and the earliest Vedic Sanskrit should show traces of Dravidian borrowings, which it does not.

Harappan could be related to Munda, the language of Central Indian tribals, which is the third major language group in Indiahe Munda languages of modern India. If it is related to any modern language family. It appears to be Dravidian akin to ancient Telugu - Tamil, presently spoken throughout the southern part of the Indian Peninsula. A study of the evolution of scripts in India indicates that the Dravidians, over the centuries, have made the key contributions to the development of language and literature in India.

The Dravidian languages are grouped into Northern, Central and Southern categories. The Northern is mainly Brahui which is spoken in Southern or Southwestern Pakistan. The southern is the most active and mainly consists of the languages Tamil, Kannada, Telugu and Malayalam. It should be noted that Malayalam, Telugu and Kannada are highly influenced by Sanskrit both in vocabulary and grammar. This could be attributed to the dominance of Brahmins in the past and also to the adaptation of Sanskrit as the principal language of Buddhism, Jainism.

Scandinavian scholars were the ones who later initiated the study of deciphering the ancient script of the Indus civilization. Their reports greatly helped the scholars of linguistics in studying the structure of Sindhi language. Their reports also assisted scholars in establishing that Sindhi is a non-Aryan or pre-Aryan language having its roots in the civilization of Mohenjo-Daro, and is related to the Dravidian languages. The Scandinavian scholars after translating the script of Mohenjo-Daro seals, concluded that Sindhi is a proto-Dravidian language and stated that : "The language (that of Mohenjo-Daro) is an early form of Dravidian, called by us 'Proto-Dravidian'. It appears to be very close to the South-Dravidian, especially Tamil, and decidedly younger than the parent language of al Dravidian tongues."

Mr Sirajul Haque also complements this view. According to him: "Sindhi is one of the Dravidian languages, and has its roots in the civilization of Mohenjo-Daro." The Sindhi people, those of who still live in the Mohenjo-daro area and Gujarat and who have herds of buffaloes as domestic animals give them names which is purely a dravidian custom. Tolkappiam deals with names used as pet names for domestic animals.

Prof Ra. Mathivanan, a research scholar, has determined that letters found in the Harappa inscriptions were ancient Dravidian language. The pictographic writing found under a painting on a rock formation in the South Arcot district of Tamil Nadu was the same as that found in the Indus Valley. A four foot long brick found during excavations in the Karunool district of Andrapradesh has inscriptions in Indus Valley letters. A seal found during excavations in Anaicoddai in Eelam contained both Indus Valley letters and brahmic script. All these have been translated into modern day Tamil.

A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus Valley script has been discovered by a school teacher, V. Shanmuganathan, in a village called Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu. The celt, a polished hand-held stone axe, has four Indus Valley signs on it. The discovery proved that the Indus script had reached Tamil Nadu. He estimated the date of the artefact with the script to be around 1500 B.C.

Mr Mahadevan read the first sign as "muruku" and the second sign as "an." In other words, it is "Murukan." The earliest references in Old Tamil poetry portrayed him as a "wrathful killer," indicating his prowess as a war god and hunter. The third sign looked like a trident and the fourth like a crescent with a loop in the middle.

Mr. Mahadevan commented that the latest discovery was very strong evidence that the Neolithic people of Tamil Nadu and the Indus Valley people "shared the same language, which can only be Dravidian and not Indo-Aryan." He added that before this discovery, the southernmost occurrence of the Indus script was at Daimabad, Maharashtra on the Pravara River in the Godavari Valley.

It has been pointed out that the several signs of Mohenjo- Daro script are found in the prehistoric pottery of the Tinnevelly District, in rock-inscriptions in the Nilgiris, and tombs in the Hyderabad. Thus they show a contact of these people with those.

Mohenjodaro seals Infact, the earliest illustration we have of yoga is from the Mohenjo-daro seals. The Mohenjo-daro seals yoga show a figure standing on its head, and another sitting cross yoga legged.Vedic ShastraSome see yoga?s origins as being from the Vedic shastras, or vedic religious texts, which are the foundation of Indian Hinduism. The Vedic texts were created from 2500 BC.

Many of the seals are found in Mohenjo Daro that must have been an important port to the international trade. Unicorn and the "ship" in the corner could be the symbol of the fellowship of traders. Sails of this type with Oxen-heads are seen on the Egyptian pottery in predynastic time 4th millennium BC.

The Sindhi New Year Cheti Chand and Telugu New Year Yugaadi are one and the same
It is not only the Sindhi language, but also the Sindhi New Year that is perfectly a dravidian one. It proves that Sindhis are dravidians and their ancestral brethern migrated to South India since more than 5000 years untill the end of Aryan invasions in Sindh, Gujarat and Rajastan.

Cheti Chand is celebrated as New Year's Day by Sindhis, which falls on the same day as Ugadi, the New Year in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, and Gudi Padwa, the New Year Day in Maharashtra and Gujarat. According to the Hindu calendar, Cheti Chand is celebrated on the first day of the Chaitra month known as Chet in Sindhi. Every year 1st/2nd tithi of Chet depending upon the new moon day Sindhis celebrate the festival of CHETI CHAND. Hence it is known as CHET-I-CHAND. This day normally comes around 5 - 6 th April every Year. The Prasad of neem leaves / flowers and jaggery is common to all the three. Neem Tree is sacred for Dravidians and it is worshipped as symbol of mother Goddess. Dravidians knew the Ayurvedic medicinal properties of neem tree and hence it is worshipped and taken as prasad.

Gudi Padwa calendar is followed in five states - (1) Andhra Pradesh-Telugu, (2) Karnataka - Kannada, (3) Maharashtra - Marathi, (4) Gujarat - Gujarati and also (5) Sindh -Sindhi.

The Sindhi community celebrates the festival of Cheti Chand in honour of the birth of Ishtadeva Uderolal, popularly known as Jhulelal, the Patron Saint of the Sindhis. This day is considered to be very auspicious and is celebrated with pompous and gaiety. On this day, people worship water � the elixir of life. Followers of Jhulelal observe Chaliho Sahab. It suggests that for forty long days and nights they underwent rituals and vigil on the bank of Sindhu. Water or Ganga is a sacred symbol of koli people.

The Lohana community, which also traces its roots to Sindh in present-day Pakistan, celebrated the festival with equal fervour. The community moved to Kutch about a millennium ago to escape the tyranny of the then Sindh king, Mirkh Shah. The wealthy community has the biggest concentration in Kutch and worships the same Sea-God, Daryalal, also known as Julelal, Vaderolal, Udderolal, Lal Sahin, and Pallevaro Lal, along with their Sindhi brethren.

This common New Year proves their common Dravian ancestry across all these adjacent states which fall in a continuous belt.

The common New Year Day of all these people indicate that the Dravidian people who lived on the banks of river Sindhu and built great cities like Mohenjo-Daro migrated to South India through Gujarat, Maharastra, Karnataka and finally Andhra Pradesh. The New Year Calender starts for all these people on the same day around 5th April.

All these states are in one continuous belt without any break starting from Sindhu River to Kaveri river near Thanjavoor. Tanjavoor is Tamilnadu at present but this New Year festival Ugaadi is celebrated in this region also as Tanjavur city was founded by a Telugu Mudiraj king - Perumbidugu Muttaraiyar.

The common New Year of all these people prove that they are all one and the same dravidians and migrated to South India upto Kaveri river. These bhil - koli dravidian warrior people, who were experts in water management, always moved towards river delta regions and seashores for persuing their agricultural and fishing jobs. On their way built many port cities such as Mumbai, Chennai, Vizag. Tanjavoor was also built by these people only. It is said that Koli king Mandhata travelled all the way to Kerala to perform Tapasya (penance).

Although the calendar dates of Gujaratis are as per Gudi Padwa, the accounting year starts at Deepawali time. Since the Diwali festival is associated with the worship of Goddess Lakshmi, businessmen, mostly Gujaratis, treat that as the New Year and traditional businessmen close their account books during Deepawali.

Trade & Export
The Dravidians of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa had their harbour in the bay of Cambay and disposed of their merchandise in Mesopotamia. The merchandise in turn was carried in caravans overland to the port of Tyre and thence to Egypt. After the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great, the port of Alexandria became the entrepot of the ancient western world. It was in the Gulf of Aden that the Egyptian, Greek, Arab, Indian etc., met to exchange their merchandise.

Indus Valley civilization was mainly an urban culture sustained by surplus agricultural production and commerce, the latter including trade with Sumer in southern Mesopotamia. here are finds of Indus seals in Mesopotamia. Indus ships carried Indus cotton and other trade goods to Sumer and destinations along the Arabian Sea.

Emperor Mandhata might be a decision maker in contructing the planned cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa to serve his koli people for fishing and exporting goods. They are the same Mandhata koli descendants who moved to South India where they built the the great commercial port cities of Mumbai, Madras Pattanam and Vishakha pattanam. Kolis of Maharastra built Mumbai, Telugu Mudiraju people built Madras pattanam and chennai Pattanam and Eastern Ganga fishermen built Vishakha Pattanam. Even the people who built the port city of Mangalore belonged to this koli race. These koli fishermen were expert navigators who sailed into deep sea for fishing and also transported their goods to far away lands of Sumeria.

Geneology of Solar race kings including Mandhata and Sri Rama
Vasishta gives details of the creation of the world to Sri Rama. He says that Brahma, in the form of a boar caused the earth to rise from water and from Brahma is created the entire world. He recites the Genealogy of Rama's line. He informs that Aja and Suvrata were the two sons of Nabhaga and it was Aja who begot the virtuous King Dasaratha; Rama's father. Vasishta also informs Rama that i the whole of Ikshvaku race, only the eldest son becomes the king. He requests Sri Rama not to violate this tradition and take over the reins of Ayodhya.

"All was water only in the beginning" from which element the earth was formed. After that, the self-existent Brahma with all the gods came into existence."

"Thereafter, that Brahma, assuming the form of boar, caused the earth to rise from water and with his sons of pure soul, created the entire world."

"The eternal, changeless and imperishable Brahma was begotten from ether and from his was born Marichi. Marichi's son was kashyapa."
,br> "From Kashyapa, Vivasvan(sun-god) was born. manu was the son of Vivasvan. Manu for his part, was formerly the lord of creation. Ikshvaku was Manu' s son."

"The entire fertile earth was given by Manu to Ikshvaku and know that Ikshvaku was thus the first king of Ayodhya!"

Ikshvaku's son was known as Kukshi, the illustrious king. Then, Kukshi's son was the valiant Vikukshi."

To Vikukshi was born the most splendid and powerful son, Bana. To Bana was born Anaranya the mighty armed and the most illustrious son."

While this King Anaranya, the most excellent among beings was reigning, there was neither dearth of rain nor a drought. No one was a thief."

"From Anaranya was born the mighty armed king Prithu. From Prithu was born the Emperor Trishanku. That valiant man ascneded to heaven along with his mortal body, because of his true eloquence."

"To Trishanku was born a son, the highly illustrious Dundhumara. From Dundhumara was born the hero, Yuvanasva."

The illustrious Mandhata was born as a son to Yuvanasva. To Mandhata was born the hero, Susandhi. There were two sons Dhruvasandhi and prasenajit to Susandhi. From Dhruvasandhi was born the illustrious Bharata, the annihilator of enemies."

"From the mighty armed Bharata was born a son named Asita, for whom his royal adversaries, Haihayas, Talajanghas and the valiant Shashibindavas became the enemies."

"Having drawn out his battle-array against all those kings in a combat, the king Asita was driven away. Asita then became a devoted sage taking asylum in an excellent and charming mountain."

Haihayas were Aryans. The above two line indicate that solar race kings were drvidians and they clashed with Aryans. The solar race dravidian kings and Aryan Haihai kings started clashing with each other starting from Mohenjo-daro on Sindhu river to Mahishmati near Narmada river. At a later stage, they matrimonially aligned in the great river basins to produce Indo-Aryan kings of Rajputs and Kalchuris.

"Asita's two wives became pregnant. It is a hearsay that one of his wives gave poison to the other co-wife in order to destroy her foetus."

"Poison was given earlier by her co-wife with an intention to kill her foetus. Born with that poison itself, he became Sagara (a man with poison)."

"Asamanja was Sagara's son. There was a hearsay that on account of his wicked deeds, Asamanja was banished by his father even during his life time."

"A valiant son called amshuman was born to Asamanja. Dilipa was Amshuman's son. Bhagiratha was Dilipa's son.

"Of Bhagiratha was born kakutstha, from whom the Kakutsthas take their name. To Kakutsthas was born a son called Raghu, from whence spring Raghavas."

"From Raghu was born a renowned son named Pravriddha, known in the world under the names Purushadaka, Kalmashapada and Soudasa."

"Kalmashapada's son was renowned as Shankhana, who, even on attaining his father's valour, perished (in a battle) along with his army."

The fortunate Sudarshana was the son of Shankhana. Sudarshana's son was Agnivarna; and of Agnivarna was born Shighraga. Shighraga begot Maru and Maru's son was Prashushruva from Prashushruva was born Ambarisha of that great radiance. To Ambarisha was born a son named Nahusha who was full of valour. Nahusha's son was Nabhaga of outstanding virtue. Aja and Suvrata were the two sons of Nabhaga and it was Aja who begot the virtuous King Dasartha."

King Ahivarn or Ahibaran was a Kshatriya and a Suryavanshi (lineage of the Sun). He was the 21st descendant of Samrath (Emperor) Mandhata, the ruler of Ayodhya. As per an old treatise on Indian Caste system, 'Jati Bhaskar', it is understood that Samrath Mandhata had two sons, Gunadhi and Mohan. King Parmaal was the descendant of King Gunadhi while King Vallabh was the descendant of King Mohan. As per Mahalakshmi Vrat Katha, it is under Emperor Mandhata lineage that at one stage son of King Vallabh, Agrasen was born and at another stage son of King Parmaal, Ahivarn was born; both of whom further started their own clans: Agrawal (or Agarwal) and Varnwal (or Barnwal).

The Vaishya (Agrawal ) community people were once part of Royal clan family members. These people who specially looked after the kings interest in keeping the treasury houses ( Reserve Bank) full with cash all the time, got expertised in the affairs of fianace & commerce. They exported forest wealth to make money for king. In this process, they became a separate community.

King Mandhata is estimated to have lived some ten thousand years ago. Long after him were born such great souls as Shree Ram, Shree Krishna and Lord Buddha. Yet the greatness of King Mandhata�s achievements were such that a household phrase came into universal use to this day when comparing others to ask � �Was he as great as Mandhata?� Mandhata has been compared as the brightest star in the Sun Dynasty and was born in the 15th generation of Brahma. The great Manu was of the 5th generation and 10th generation after Manu was Mandhata. Shree Ram is said to born as 25th generation after Mandhata. Ishvaku was another great King of the �Sun Dynasty Koli Kings� and so Mandhata and Shree Ram were said to be of Ishvaku Sun Dynasty. This Dynasty later got divided into nine major sub groups, all claiming their roots to the Kshtria Caste. They are: Malla, Janak, Videhi, Koliye, Morya, Lichchhvi, Janatri, Vajji, and Shakya.�

There is a strange story of the birth of Mandhata.
In the lineage of Puranjay, had occurred a king named Yuvnashva. He had no son, so in desperation he gave up his kingdom and, accompanied by his queens, came to stay in the forest. There he organized a grand Yagya, Indrayag with a desire of a son and in the auspices of the great sages. The Yagya lasted day and night. But during the Yagya, Yuvnashva felt extremely thirsty and without giving a thought he drank some of the water from urn that had been sanctified with mantras. Since, the water was meant to produce a child, Yuvnashva begot a child with auspicious signs. Immediately after birth the child began to cry for milk. So to quiten him Indra put his index finger in the child's mouth. Since then, the child got the name Mandhata. Mandhata became a great emperor. He was also known as Trasdasyu because big robbers like Ravan had an inherent fear of him. Mandhata had deep self-learnings, still he organized many grand Yagyas. Mandhata had three sons- Purykuts, Ambarish (second) and Muchkund. He had fifty daughters also. All of them were married to the sage Saurabhi. Mucukunda, a son of King Mandhata whose valiant fighting for the demigods won him a boon by which his glance burned to ashes the barbar.

Mandhata defeated by Lavanasur
King Mandhata with his superior strength, knowledge and well-equipped army conquered vast areas and many surrounding kingdoms. He would reinstate the defeated kings. Such a king would be made to agree to the payment of an annual tax. An ambassador would be posted in each such kingdom to ensure compliance and good governance. Such a king would also enjoy the protection of Mandhata. To fulfil this promise he once had to fight his own Godfather Indra, who when defeated, challenged Mandhata to fight Lavnasur, a demon king. Soon an opportunity for a battle with this demon king arose.

For an ever-victorious King Mandhata, this encounter proved to be an anticlimax end to his life. The King and his army marched right into Lavnasur�s kingdom but no resistance was forthcoming. Evening was approaching. King Mandhata decided to camp for the night, confident of capturing Lavnasur the next day. Lavnasur�s agents however infiltrated the camp in the night and killed the sleeping king.

After the rule of Ben, Mandhata became the king; when he went to the country of Indra, Indra gave him half his seat. The king, taking up his weapons, reached there, where the demon lived in Mathura-Mandal; he was a great stupid and an egoist; he was a most powerful one and dreadfully outrageous. hundering like the clouds Mandhata fell upon (the demon) in the battlefield like lightning; when the demons heard this, they also confronted him and furioudly caused their horses to dance. The king Mandhata was filled with rage and challenging him, held his dagger in his hand; when, in his fury, he was about to strike Indra, then Brihaspati immediately caught his hand.

He said, �O king ! do not strike Indra; there is reason on his part for offering you half of his seat; there is one demon named Lavanasura on earth; why have you not been able to kill him as yet? When you will come after killing him, you will then have the full seat of Indra, therefore now be seated on half the seat and accepting this truth, do not exhibit your anger.� The king, taking up his weapons, reached there, where the demon lived in Mathura-Mandal; he was a great stupid and an egoist; he was a most powerful one and dreadfully outrageous. Thundering like the clouds Mandhata fell upon (the demon) in the battlefield like lightning; when the demons heard this, they also confronted him and furioudly caused their horses to dance.

Lavanasura held his trident in his hand in anger and chopped the head of Mandhata into two parts; the army of Mandhata ran away, being grouped together and got so much ashmed that it could not carry the head of the king. When taking the trident of Shiva, Lavanasura killed the superb king mandhata, then the king Dileep came to the throne; he had various types of royal luxuries. He destroyed the demons in various ways and propagated religion at all places.

Later Shatrughan kills Lavanasura at the orders of his elder brother Sri Rama who became solar race king in the lineage of emperor Mandhata.

Ayodhya
It appears that Afghanistan and Sindhu region was under the rule of Solar race koli kings who ruled their empire from Ayodhya. Manu founded the town of Ayodhya. Manu�s Ichwaku built Ayodhya. Ikshvaku reigns in Ayodhya at the beginning of the Treta or Second Yuga. There are other stories about Ayodhya too pertaining to the solar line of Kings who were either descendants or ancestors of Raama�.Famous amongst ancestors are Raghu and Mandhata, and amongst descendants are the famous Devi Bhakta Sudarshana, and later on Brihadbala was fought in the Mahabharata from the Kaurava side and was killed by Abhimanyu.

Several centuries ago, Ayodhya, which was then famous due to Ramarajyam was ruled by Mandhata of Surya Vamsam.Ayodhya remained capital for 80 -90 generations from the time of monarch Mandhata. Once Chyavana welcomed Satrughna and relayed to him the story of Mandhata, who was defeated by Lavana.

Shashibindu� s daughter, Bindumati was married to Mandhata, however, they were great enemies. King Mandhata won the Kanyakubj from Anu�s dynasty along with parts of land from Pauravs and Druhavs. The King of Druhavs, Gandhar, fled to what is now known as Afganistan and took shelter there. Later on, this same place was named Gandhar. all the lands from the generations of King Yayati and his second wife, Queen Sharmistha:Puru, Anu and Druhu - were acquired by King Sahibindu and King Mandhata. Mandhata became a famous and Chakravarti (ideal universal ruler) king. He defeated most of the other kings of his time. He married Bindumati, a daughter of the Chandravanshi king.

Amarakantak
Amarkantak was initially called Riksh Parvat. A Suryavanshi ruler, Mandhata spotted a city in the Riksh Parvat Valley and named it after his own name. The Narmada River got its name by Mandhata�s daughter-in-law.

Amarkantak and rivers originating from it do not find mention in Vedic literature, but these have been mentioned in Puranas, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Vashishthasamhita and �Satpath Brahman�. After Mahabharata the history of a period of about 3000 years is in dark. Professor Arjun Chaube Kashyap concludes that the Puranic name of Amarkantak was �Riksh parvat�. About 6000 years back the Suryavanshi samrat Mandhata founded a town in the valley �Riksh parvat� and named it Mandhata. The queen of samrat Purukutsa, who was son of Mandhata, gave the title of Narmada to the river. Due to occupation of this area by Mandhata the descendents of Yayati moved from this area to west of Madhya Pradesh and settled on the banks of Narmada River.

Penance in Kerala
Legend has it that Maharshi Mandhata did "Tapas" at the hilltop and hence it is called Thirumandhamkunnu. Devi gave darshan to Mandhata at this place and hence the temple has an inseparable relationship with the Maharshi.

Some say the Valluvanad Rajavamsam was established by Mandhata Maharshi. As evidence of the above contention, they cite the rituals of the crowning ceremony of the Raja. In the olden days there was a rule that the Vallukanari had to live a celibate life at the temple with Vratha for 41 days before crowning.(Sarva sanga parithyagi). Even after the crowning ceremony he had to live like a Rajarshi. There are no celebrations, decorations or special dresses for Vallukanari. He is supposed to dress like a Sanyasi. When people prostrate in front of him to receive blessings, he is supposed to give his blessing with his feet. (As in the film Sankaracharya). This system also must have been inherited from Mandhata Maharshi.

He accepted sanyas and as a Rajarshi (Kshatriya turned to sanyasi) roamed throughout our lands. When he reached Angadipuram, he felt attracted by the beauty of the place. At that time, it was a forest full of wild animals. It is said that all the animals lived in peace with each other at this place. The place appeared special and divine (Pavithram) to him. The sweet music of birds, the vast plain with a small hillock in the middle, to the north of the hillock a stream with crystal clear water rippling over uneven rocks sounding like a waterfall, all attracted the saint. He decided to spend rest of his life doing penance at this place. He found a suitable place for doing Tapas (meditation) on the hillock and settled there.

The place where he did tapas is still preserved. Devotees pluck leaves from a tree from the site and wear it on their heads as prasad. This site is preserved even now and is at the north west side of the Sreemoola sthanam. After years of penance of Mandhatha, God Shiva appeared before him, asking him what he wanted. Mandhata, who had sacrificed all worldly pleasures, said, "I do not want anything material. However, for my daily pooja I may be given the world's best Sivalingam."

Lord Siva replied, "The best Lingam is in Kailas and is used by Parvathi for daily worship. How can I hand that over to you?"

However, Rajarshi Mandhata insisted that he is not interested in anything else than the particular "Sivalingam".

Since Shiva could never disappoint a devotee, he agreed and gave the Sivalingam to Mandhata, who installed it with appropriate rituals at Sreemoolasthanam and started daily pooja. The next day at Kailas, when Sree Parvathi went for her daily pooja, she found her favourite Sivalingam missing. Searching everywhere she finally came to Shiva. Shiva informed Sree Parvati that he had given the Sivalingam to his dearest devotee Mandhata. Hearing this, the angry Devi declared that she would not eat anything till she gets back the Sivalingam. Shiva replied that he could take back what he had given to a devotee, since that will be against Dharma, but that he had no objection to Devi taking it back from him.

Parvathi Devi immediately ordered Bhadrakali and soldiers (Bhoothaganam) to go to Earth (Bhoolokam) and bring back the Sivalingam, immediately. Bhadrakali mounted Vetalam (her carriage) and along with the soldiers, reached Angadipuram. She asked Mandhata to return the Shivalingam which he refused to do.

Bhadrakali tried all peaceful methods to make him agree to hand over the Sivalingam. She even tried to scare him by showing her monstrous form. However, all her peaceful efforts went in vain and she decided to use force. But due to a powerful Jyothi (light) emanating from the hillock, the soldiers were not able to go near it.

At last she and her followers began to shoot arrows at Mandhatha. When the wounds from the arrows became unbearable, he plucked some fruits hanging from twigs (Atanga) and threw it at the soldiers. When the fruits broke and seeds looking like Sivalingams appeared on the horizon, the followers of Bhadrakali started to run away. Then Bhadrakali made a single stone bridge over the stream. She crossed the bridge and started pulling out the Sivalingam. Mandhata resisted the attempt with all his might. Finally the Sivalingam split into two pieces. The Trimurthi (Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva) appeared before Mandhata and blessed him. Sree Parvathi was also pleased, seeing his steadfast devotion. The Sivalingam was presented to the Rajarshi and was installed there itself with the required rituals. Even now the deity at Sreemoolasthanam is a broken one.

Sree Parvathi requested Mandhata to erect a temple for Bhadrakali and the seven ladies who had accompanied her (Saptha Mathrukkal). This is the present Mathrusala. Even now in memory of the fight between Bhadrakali and Mandhata on Tulam (mid-October) there is a ritual of Attangaeru. (Two groups, one on top of the hillock and the other at the bottom at Vadakke Nata throw attanga at each other). It is said tha emperor mandhata became Brahma by virtue of his penance.

Jats & Gaur Brahmans � descendants of Mandhata
Rama has been addressed by the names Raghunandan, Raghukul, Kakasthkul, and Raghuvanshi. Later Lava, elder son of Rama started Lamba gotra in Jats and Kusha started Kachhavahi or kushavansha whose descendant Brahdal was killed by Abhimanyu, son of Arjuna. Suryavanshi kushavansha Jats ruled Ayodhya from 3100 BC to 500 BC. In the 21st generation of Ikshvaku was born Mandhata who has been written and proved as Gaurvanshi Jat in genealogy of Suryavanshi kings. One of sons of Mandhata was Ambarish. His son was Yuvanashva and his son was Harit, who was a great Rishi. The descendants of this king became Brahman who were known as Gaur Brahmans.

When Rama besieged Lanka, all his supporters like Kishkindha king Sugriva and his commander Hanuman, Jatayu, Jamvanta etc were Jat warriors. Vanars were inhabitants in southwest Vindhyas. Pampa sarovar was their main center. Vanars were not monkeys but either aboriginal inhabitants of that area or people of Aryan groups who had come from Iran via Bombay and reached south of Vindhyas. Other Jat historians have also treated Hanuman as a Jat warrior of Maan gotra. ome other historians treat Vanar as a gotra of jats found in Haryana in India. Lord Hanuman of Ramayana was a kshatriya of Vanar clan. He was not a monkey as is shown in Ramayana.

Cholas � descendants of solar race kings
The great Chola dynasty (Chola is the Tamil form of Sanskrit �Surya�) claimed kinship with the Suryavanshi kings of Ayodhya. Rajaraja I�s inscriptions (10th to early-11th century) trace the family tree from Vijayalaya whose son Aditya was famous as Kodanda Rama. Their early ancestors were Surya, Manu, Ikshvaku, Kakutsth, Mandhata, Sagar, Bhagirath, Dilip and Ram.

Sikh Gurus were from solar race Bhil - Bhilala - Koli warrior clans
The ancestors of Guru Nanak and the succeeding Nine Gurus were the Kashtriyas of the Solar Dynasty, Kings Raghu, Aj, Dashrat, and Sri Ram Chander and their descendants, who were the rulers of North western part of India. A section of the descendents of this dynasty became the great scholars of religion and became the exponents of the Vedas. From these scholarly traditions, which were maintained in this clan, they came to be known as Baidis (vedis), Trehans, Bhallas and Sodhis. It was in Baidi clan, Guru Nanak was born in 1469 C.E., Guru Angad Dev in Trehan clan, Guru Amar Das in Bhalla clan, and Guru Ram Das in Sodhi clan; the six remaining Gurus, from 5th to 10th Gurus, were the descendants of Sri Guru Ram Das Sodhi. Guru Gobind Singh has described the origin of Baidi and Sodhi clans in Bichitar Natak, Chapter 2.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date :02/04/2008
Nagpur, M.S, India
go TOP


26. MUTTARASA TIRUMALEI MAHA VILIVANATHI RAYAR &
ANJADAPERUMAL MUTTARASAR


In 1451, it is said a Nayakkan named Lakkana brought to Madura four persons, who he declared to be the true Pandya stock, and set them, or one of them upon the throne. The names of these four are given as follows, namely :

  • (1) Sundara Tol Maha Vilivanathi Rayar (Suntara tora mavili vanathi rayer)
  • (2) Kaleiyar Somanar ( kaliyar somanar)
  • (3) Anjatha Perumal ( Anjatha Perumal)
  • (4) Muttarasa Tirumalei Maha Vilivanathi Rayar( Muttarasatirunali mavili vanathi rayer)
These kings can be seen with titles Muttarasa, Mavili and Vanathirayar and from the following information they seem to belong Kallar branch of Thevar (Mukkulathor) clans. For more details on Kallars and Vandiyars, readers may like to refer to webpage "WAR-TRIBES" in this website "MUDIRAJA"

Mahabali => Mahavali => Mavali => Mavili => Vili
Vanathirayar => Vanadirayar => Vandiyar
Mahavali + Vanathirayar => Maha Vilivanathi Rayar

The surnames used by the Thevar people are Ambalakarar, Servai, Vandaiyar, Mannaiyar, Nattar (not Nadar), etc. The Kallars of Dindigul, Trichy, Thanjavur, Theni, Madurai, Sivaganga, Pudukottai and Ramnad Districts have very distinct surnames.Some of the most common names included are Vanathirayar, Ambalam, Kalingarayar, Vandaiyaar, Thanjaraayar, Vaanavaraayar, Pallavaraayar, Servai, Vanavarayar, Thondaimaan, Thevar, Vanniar, Nattaar, Saaluvar, Onthiriyar, Kaaduvetiyaar, ,olivarayar etc. There are over 700 surnames in use.Now it is clear that the present day Vandayars (Kallars) are the descendants of ancient or vanarayars or vanars or vanathirayars.

Vaanavaraayar => Vanavarayar => Vanarayar
Vanarayar => Vanrayar =>Vandayar => Vandiyar
Vanarayar => Vanadirayar => Vanathirayar

It is said that "Vanar" or "Banar" were called "Vanathirayar" and they claimed to have won over all the three Moovendar and briefly ruled Madurai after chasing away "Pandyans". If it is so, these Bana kings could be the part of Kalabhras who invaded South India displacing the then Chola, Chera & Pandya kings. . The title Muttarasa used by some of these kings too point to this fact that they could be kalabhras as it is widely believed that Muthurajas are the descendants of Kalabhras. Even the name " Kallar " it self is a modification of the word Kalabrar or Kalabar or Kalabhra.

Kalabra => Kalabrar => Kalabar => Kalbar => Kallar

It is probable that all of them were members of one and the same family and resident of Kaleiyar Kovil; and that their mother was the mistress of some petty Pandya chieftain. Whatever they were, they appear to have been crowned, and to have enjoyed a certain amount of kingly power in the Pandya country during a period of fort eight years. Their names still survive in the legends. And it would seem to be by no means improbable that it was these illegitimate Pandyas who built the four loft towers ( Gopuras) which rise from the walls surrounding the great Pagoda at Madura. But the building of them is always ascribed by natives to "the Pandyas".

From the year of Subhanu, of Saka 1327 to the year Vibhava ( i,e 1403 - 48) Lakkananayakkar ans Madana Nayakkar ruled for a period of forty seven years. Then in the year Sukla 1374 saka current, Lakkana Nayakkar brought out of retirement the son of the concubine or dancing girl ( of the Pandya king) Abhirami of Kalaiyarkovil (kali temple) - Sundarattol - Mavalivandirayar, Kaliyar Somanar, Anjadaperumal Muttarasar and crowing him in the days of Tirumalaimavali - Vanadirayar as the son born of the Pandyan king with the difference due to the ancient royal family, gave him possession of the kingdom for forty eight years.

Pandyan clan of kings with the family name vAnar or vAnAthi rAyar. ruled this kingdom for approximately 500 years. Most important of them were "thiru maal irum sOlai ninrAn, mahaabali, vaanaathi raayan, uRangaa villi thaasan. Their names itself is enough a proof to validate the claim that these were very pious srivaishnava kings.

The Gopurams were completed not long before. The East and West gopurams were probably were completed around 1250. Because of slight differeces between West gopura and the other three gopuras, and because of the style of the West gopura Harle argues that the West is the earliest The South Gopura bears the mark of Sundara Pandya, and it is called Pandya gopura, but his claim to have built it is genarally disputed by Schoolars.

The Madurai Meenakshi Sundareswar Temple has 12 gopurams in three corridors. The East Gopuram - The base of the gopuram like those of the other three towers is a stone structure consisting of two storeys - a ground floor and an upper storey. This was built by Maravarman Sunadarapandiyan I in 13th Century A.D and was named after him as Sundara Pandiyan Thirugopuram. The West Gopuram - Built by Parakrama Pandya in 14th Century A.D has many relics of older structure mainly on the ground floor covered with stucco figures of legendary and iconographic nature. Notable figures are churning of the ocean. The South Gopuram - Built by Sirapalli Sevvandi Mudaliar during 15th Century A.D. It is the most beautiful gopuram with two tiers of high stone base with proportionate space and recesses. All the wall pilasters of the south gopuram have the Vijayanagar type of squatting lions at their base. The North Gopuram- Built by Veerappa Naicker, grandson of Viswanatha Naicker in 1600 AD. Till recent years it was without a roof and therefore it was called mottai gopuram. During the end of the last century, Nattukottai Settis provided the mottai gopuram with a roof.

Lakkana Nayakkar : The conquest of the Pandya country by Vijayanagar does not appear to have provided for this immediately, as in all probability this conquest did not involve the acquisition of all the coast territory by the new empire. It is in connection with the appointment of Lakkana, the chief Dannayak at headquarters, as a ' Special Commissioner for the South ', that the first effort at bringing the coast region under the control of the provincia. Lakkana had 'he combined title of Viceroy of Madura and ' Lord of the Southern Ocean ' This ' Lordship of the Southern Ocean ' seems to imply control over the ports and, to a certain extent, command of the overseas trade. Lakkana had 'he combined title of Viceroy of Madura and ' Lord of the Southern Ocean ' This ' Lordship of the Southern Ocean ' seems to imply control over the ports and, to a certain extent, command of the overseas trade. Barkur prospered in the hands of Vijaya Nagara dynasty � 1336 � 1664, almost 350 long years. This period is rightly marked as Golden Age of Barkur province. Chandarasa Odeya was the Governor of Barakuru Rajya in the year 1431.and Devadana Nayaka in 1452, and Lakkana Dhanayaka in1463.

Marainangum Gopuramai Vann Kizhakkum Vasalithu was re-built during the time of Vijayanagara King Devaraya II (1422-1446 A.D.). Tamil and Kannada inscriptions on this Gopura say that a man called Nagarajar built it under the patronage of Dakshina Samudradipathi Lakkana Thanna Nayaka who was a feudal king of the Vijayanagar Empire.

The esteemed scholars in the Hoysala court, Harihara and Raghavanka, were Virashaivas. This tradition continued into the Vijayanagar empire with such well known scholars as Singiraja, Mallanarya, Lakkana Dandesa and other prolific writers of Virashaiva literature. This indicates that Lakkana Nayakkar was a religious vaishnavite. Lakkana Dandesa's seems to have written Shivatatwa Chintamani.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 02/08/2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


go TOP


27. KING KILLIVAZHAVAN :
Killivazhavan or Killivalavan is one of the surnames of Muthuraja (Mudiraj) caste in Tamilnadu today. Killirayar is another surname of Mutharaiyars in Tamilnadu that starts with the term "killi". Killivalavan is the name of an early Chola king of great reputation.

Killi and valavan are the two names that are normally associated with chola kings of Tamilnadu. The name "Killi" means "Dig". These people coud be those belonging to vedars or vadderas, who are normally associated with digging and rock cutting. The name " Valavan" means "Valayar". Valayars are the fishermen who used to catch fish using Nets. Valayars seems to be originally from North Indian Ganga - Yamuna - Sarswati river belt. Valmiky, the author of great epic Ramayana is said to be a valya koli belonging to bhil fishermen community. The Ramayan written by him is known as Koli Ramayan in Maharastra. The weavers branch of kolis are known as koris. Koris might be the first women / men who invented nets and developed technics of weaving in India. The Valayars are related to Kolis similar to Mutharayars. The racial and professional relation of cholas with kolis can be proved from the following sequence of various words and their meanings. Cholas are known by different names such as cola, chola, cholai, cholan, chula, choola, chulia, sola, solan solai.

Valya => Valaya = Circle or closed loop = Net (Fishing Net)
Valya => valaya => valayar => Valaiyar
valya = Valaya => Valayar => Valavan => Vallavan

Koli => Koliya => Kuliya = Chuliya => Chula => Choola
Koli => Kola => Cola => Chola => Cholan => Cholai
Koli => Kola => Cola => Chola => Solan => Solai

It is a well known fact that Cholas and Mutharayars are one and the same people with fishing background and belonging to koli-bhil dravidian tribes of North India who came down to South even before Ramayana times. We all know that every thing is fair in love and war. This fact seems to be true bewtween the cholas and mutharayars as these two factions fought wars to establish their royal supremacy, particularly in Thanjavur, at the same time these two royal clans continued to establish strong matrimonial relations among them to consoldate their royal community bonds. Cholas and Mutharayars got so well integrated into a single community over a period of thousands of years that they are known as "Muthuraja" in Tamilnadu today.

According to the story of Ankamma narrated by ballads during Ankamma Kolupu, the mudiraj people who worship Ankamma belong to Solar Race and they came from Devagiri (Maharastra). The cholas also worshipped Goddess Ankamma and the name of Rajandra Cholan's daughter who married a prince of Eastern Chalukyas (near Godavari) was Angamma (Ankamma).

Killivalavan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature, and of a period close to that of Nedunkilli and Nalankilli. The only source available to us on Killivalavan is the mentions in Sangam poetry. Sangam poetry received a royal patronage by kalabhra buddist kings who are believed to be the ancestors of Mutharayars. The Sangam literature also mentions a number of Chola kings. They had surnames like Killi, Valavan, Senni and Cholan. The kingdom of the Sangam Cholas comprises the present Tanjore and Tiruchirappalli districts. A long line of Chola monarchs succeeded Karikalan (120 C.E) and, Nedunkilli (150 C.E) Nalamkilli (150 C.E), Killivalavan (200 C.E), Kopperumcholan (220 C.E) and Perunarkilli (300 C.E) were the most, famous among them. King Kochenganan was the last in the line of th Sangam Cholas.

In one of the poems of Sangam literatur, it is said that King Killivalavan, who reigned in the 2nd century, became a Buddhist and converted a prison to a preaching hall at the request of the nun Manimekhali. Later he built a Buddhist monastery there.

Karikala was succeeded by two rival kings- Nalangilli and Nedungilli who ruled from Puhar and Uraiyur respectively. The next Chola King Killivalavan from Uraiyur was a brave and able warrior, besides a patron of letters.

Manimekalai embellishes the story of the mortal battle Nedunkilli fought with Nalankilli at Kariyaru. According to Manimekalai, the battle was fought by a junior Chola prince in the reign of Mavankilli, also called Nudumudikilli and Killivalavan.

There are a number of poems in Purananuru sung in praise of the Killivalavan who died at Kulamuttram (Kulamuttrathu Tunjiya Killivalavan) and a solitary poem of another Killivalavan who died at Kurappalli. As Kovur Kilar is the poet who has written about these two Killis, it is reasonable to suppose that these two kings are identical.Killivalavan is celebrated in eighteen songs by ten different minstrels and himself figures as the author of a poem sung in praise of his friend Pannan who was the chieftain of Sirukudi (Purananuru � 173). Urayur was the capital of Killivalavan (Purananuru � 69).

Killivalavan also waged a battle against the Malainadu chief Malayaman Tirumudikkari, who was famous for his liberal patronage of poets. The Malayaman chief was killed in battle and his two children were about to be condemned to a cruel death by the victorious Chola. The poet Kovur Kilar again pleaded for the lives of these children (Purananuru � 46)

It is said that with the help of the Chera Kaari was climbing on the ladder to become an emperor. He began to overshadow the Chola King Killi Valavan. This prompted the Chola king to check Kaari's growth with an invasion on Thirukkoiloor. The battles were fierce, but Kaari was determined to win or die. As a result the Cholas lost 10,000 soldiers in the first five days of the war. But on the sixth day the Malaiyamaan princes, Kaari's three-year-old twin sons, were caught by the intruding Chola spies, giving the Cholas an edge. Killi Valavan began dictating terms and Kaari was forced to venture into the enemy campsite, where he was caught and killed immediately.The Chola king planned to crush the two princes by walking an elephant over them, but on consultation with the poet Kovoor Kizhaar, he changed his mind. The boys were raised with the patronage of the emperor and served as generals of the Chola army under Killi and his son Rasasuyam Vaetta Peru Nal Killi. They were married to the twin daughters of Parambu Malai King Paari.

Thus the poet Kovur Kizhaar address the Chola king Killivalavan to save the lives of the children of a defeated enemy who were about to be executed by being trampled under an elephant. It is said that the Chola King Killivalavan spared the children of Malayan Kari when he ran away in fear, as advised by the Pulavar "Kovoor Kilaan". Also the king abandoned the Malayan Kari's kingdom and did not take over it, but left the place. Also, it is evident from the Sangam literature that these kings also participated in creation of Ilakkana Nool or literary books and they themselves were established Pulavars. These pulavars (the guidelines of the learned scholars) sang in praise of the kings and velirs indicating their important achievements, functions and celebrations. It was a common practice that these kings and velirs listened to the advice of Pulavars regarding warfare and acted accordingly.

It is seen that Karur, the capital of the Chera was captured by the Chola ruler Killi Valavan and the Chera fought back and wrested it from the Chola and assumed the title "Ko-Perum-cheral-Irumporai - who ascended the throne at Karur". Probably this was the strife between the Chera and the Chola, in which the other chieftains were drawn in. The siege and capture of the Chera capital Karur was the standout military achievement of Killivalavan's reign and has been the subject of a number of poems. The poet Alattur Kilar made an effort to divert Killivalavan's attention from this enterprise in order to save Karur from destruction by gently chiding him for pitting himself against an enemy unworthy of his prowess (Purananuru � 36). However this effort was futile and the city of karur fell to the Chola.

Killivalavan was a capable king and was both brave and generous, but somewhat headstrong. A great deal of good advice was very tactfully offered to him by the poets.

Purananuru poems are silent on Killivalavan's campaigns in the south against the Pandyas, but the poet Nakkirar in a poem in Akananuru (poem 345) makes reference to the defeat suffered by the forces of Killivalavan in the hands of the Pandya commander Palayan Maran.

According to Sangam literature he was a contemporary of Pandya king Talaiyaalam-Kaanattu Seru Vendra Neduncezhian. Purananuru is part of the Ettuthokai anthology which is the oldest available collection of poems of Sangam literature in Tamil. The poems at the beginning of the book deal with the three major kings Chola, Chera and Pandya of ancient Tamil Nadu. Purananuru states that Yanaikat-sey Mantaran Cheral, a Chera king who ruled during the Sangam period (between the first and the third century CE), participated in the battle of Talaiyaalam-Kaanam allied by Chola emperor Killivalavan and five other small rulers including Ezhini, Thithiyan, Irungo Vaenmaan, Porunan and Erumaiyuran.

Tamil literature relates the story of Chola king Killivalavan who moved his capital to Uraiyar after the destruction of the Chola capital of Puhar. Mudaliyar C. Rasanayagam of Colombo claims that Killi Valavan had a liaison with the daughter of Naga king Valaivanam of Manipallavanam (in Jaffna peninsula) in Ceylon. From this union was born a child who was named Tondaiman Ilantirayan whom his father, Killi Valavan, made the ruler of a territory which was named Tondamandlam with capital at Kanchi.

Literature states that Killivalavan, the elder brother of Perunarkilli, married a Naga princess named Pilivalai, the daughter of Naga king Valaivanam of Manipallavanam (in Jaffna peninsula) in Ceylon during a romantic excursion. From this union was born a child who was named Tondaiman Ilantirayan whom his father, Killi Valavan, made the ruler of a territory which was named Tondamandlam with capital at Kanchi. Thus even the little power that might have been wielded by the Cholas in the northern part of their vast dominions went out of their hands. Tondai and his descendants are known in later history as Pallavas (Tondaiyarkon). It is significant that the destruction of the capital town of Kavirippumpattinam happened during the reign of Killivalavan. Of Kochchengannan, the Vaishnava saint Tirumangai-Alvar of the 8th century A.D. says that he built 70 temples for Vishnu. This makes Kochchengannan anterior to Tirumangai-Alvar.

Killivallavan Chola built Sri Ranganathar temple in Tiruchchirappalli, the only temple in south India with seven inner circles (each named after an ancestor). The South Tower, which is 236 feet tall, was the highest tower in ancient Asia. The history of the holy place srirangam is thousands of years old.The chola kings namely dharmavarcholan and killivalavan developed the shrine of Srirangam into big temple seen now. They laid the Basic foundations and primary Buildings. Killi, Thiru Mangai, Kulasekaran, Rajamahendra and Thiru Vikrama were named in the Sri Ranganathar temple in Tiruchchirappalli as being ancestors of Killivallavan. Dharmavarma was another ancestor of Killivallavan, possibly his father. It is located in the middle of the Trichy town. It is hardly 5 kms from Trichy well connected by road and rail. The temple is located on Trichy-Madras road. After crossing the River Cauvery Bridge while coming from Trichy, we can see the temple Rajagopuram. While coming by Train we can get down at Sri Rangam Station. We have either stay at Trichy or even at Sri Rangam.

The Surya Dynasty from King Ikshavagu to Lord Rama worshipped the Sriranga Vimanam. Lord Rama after Pattabishekam gave the Sriranga Vimanam to King Vibeeshana of Eezha (Lanka) Dynasty. While King Vibeeshana taking the Sriranga Vimanam to SriLanka, placed on the banks of River Cauvery & Kollidam. After some time when King Vibeeshana tried to unearth it , he couldn't as Lord Vishnu has already given a boon to River Cauvery that Lord will come to Earth and wear her as a garland. Lord Vishnu appeared before him and told that Lord Ranganathar will be lying here and will be seeing the Sri Lanka from here. The Sriranga Vimanam was placed on the banks of Cauvery near Trichy and the ruler of Chola Dynasty at that time was King Dharmavarma. He was very happy and immediately built a small temple there for Lord Ranganathar and worshipped daily. When there was a flood in the Cauvery the temple went inside the Earth. From the heredity of King Dharmavarma came a King called Killivallavan, he while resting under a tree, a parrot advised him that the Lord Ranganathar is under this tree. He immediately unearthed the Sriranga Vimanam and renovated it and named the place as Sri Rangam.

Ten Tirumullaivayil near Sirkali (Chola Naadu -North of Kaveri) is a Shiva Temple where Shiva is known as Mullaivananathar and Parvathi is known as Kothaiyammai. This temple is said to have been worshipped (and built ) by Killivalavan a King of the Sangam period. The deity here is also known by the name Yutika Parameswarar and his consort is known by the name Satyananda Soundari. Legend also has it that Indra worshipped at this shrine.

go TOP


28. KING KARIKALA CHOLAN :
Karikala Chola was from valavan / Valaiyar fishing community and the valaiyars are a subcaste of Tamil - Muthurajas at present in Tamilnadu. Chola Mutharaya Research center published their paper claiming a common ancestry to both Cholas and Mutharayars. This seems to be true from the fact that there are several surnames among Muthuraja which indicate names of chola clans of Tamilnadu. Some of such surnames indicating chola connection are as given below.

  • Cholamutharayar
  • Cholan
  • Cholavalavan
  • Cholavallakamayar
  • Karikalarayar
  • Killirayar
  • Killivazhavan
  • Sennivalavar
  • Senniyar
  • Valavan
  • Valavar
  • Valavarkoman
Before we know about the famous Karikala Chola, it is useful to know the relation that existed between Mutharayars, chodas and Cholas.

Killi, Valavan, Valavar, Senni, chola, cholan were some of the common titles that were used by chola kings of Tamilnadu. Use of surnames having these titles and their combinations indicate the common blood and ancestry between cholas and Muthurajas. This theory also gains its strength from the fact that these two clans were strongly bonded through matrimonial alliances. They were also bonded strongly through rivalry over establishing their supremacy of their ruling power over Tamil lands. Tanjore city was ruled by both cholas and mutharayars where they fought with each other bitterly to claim their supremacy. Ultimately Cholas won the city where they established their kingdom of later cholas and spread all over South including Andhra Pradesh.

An interesting thing to be understood is that there existed a rivalry between cholas and Mutharayas and a similar rivalry existed between kapus and Mudiraj. The following information high lights the fact that Mutharayars, Cholas and Chodas (kapus) were all one and the same people.

The cholas who ruled over Telugu speaking lands came to be known as Chodas. These Chodas also claimed descent from the famous Karikala Chola. They ruled over their kingdom consisting of the Nellore, Kadapa, Chittur and Chengalput districts with Vikramasimhapura (modern Nellore) as their capital. KAN Sastri postulates that there was a live connection between the early Cholas and the Renandu Cholas of the Andhra country.

Many Telugu Chola kingdoms held sway over regions to the south of the Krishna River in the period between the seventh and the thirteenth century C.E. Some of them claimed descent from the legendary Karikala Chola (c 100 C.E.). It is not known much about these families or their origins. Their original home seems to be the region of Chola corresponding to the modern Mahabubnagar and Nalgonda districts of Telangana. They may be identified with the people referred by the Chinese traveller Yuan Chwng as 'Chuliya' in his annals. The chuliyas were the Cholas and they were non other than kolis (Koliyas or kuliyas).

Chuliya <=> Chula <=> Chola <=> choda
Kuliya => Koliya => kola => Cola => Chola

Telugu Chodas of Velanadu (Velanati Choda) were one of the Telugu Choda families which claimed their descent from the illustrious Cholas of South India. Velanadu is located in the modern Guntur district. The chieftains who ruled over Velanadu came to be known as the Velanati Chodas. They belonged to the Durjaya family, a Sudra clan. One of them, Rajendra Choda II had even assumed the title Durjayakulaprakara. Their capital was Dhanadapura or Sanaduprolu, the modern Chandolu in the Guntur district. It is said that kakatiyas belonged to durjaya family and they were also from solar race. Some historians say that they were fishermen. If they they fishermen, there exists a strong possibility that the kakatiyas belonged to bhil-koli orgin.

The Renadu Chodas were independent in the beginning of their career. Later they recognised the suzerainty of the Chalukyas of Badami. The Telugu Chola rulers of Renadu had the unique honour of using the Telugu language in their official records. Those inscriptions belonging to the 7th and 8th centuries C.E. were discovered at Jammulamadugu, Prodduturu and other places.

At this juncture it is to be noted that the kings who made their inscriptions in Telugu for the forst time were Mudiraj / Mutthuraj. The chodas could be the same Telugu Mudiraj kings down the lane who ruled Telugu lands and later they brached off as kapus with agriculture as basic profession instead of fishing at common man level.

There is an evidence that a Mudiraja king by name ERIKAL MUTTHURAJU ruled his kingdom which was perhaps spread over parts of Rayalaseema and surrounding areas of Tamilnadu and Karnataka. Historians has recovered a rock edict written in Telugu language from Chennakeshava temple complex located at Erragudi Palem of Kamalapuram Taluk in Cuddapah district of Andhra Pradesh. This was the first rock edict available to historians which was written in Telugu language and according to this rock edict, Erikal Mutthuraju ruled his kingdom in 575 AD.

It is noteworthy that even the second rock edict written in telugu language, which was discovered by the historians, was installed by Mutthuraju kings. This fact is clearly recorded at page no.106 in a book titled " Mana Lipi- Puttupoorvottharaalu (Our Script-origins & history)".

Cuddapah district is an integral part of Rayalaseema / Vengadam hill range which was the native place of original kings of Kalabhra race and who moved towards down South of South India under external political pressure.

This proves that the kolis, kolas, cholas and chodas were all one and the same people belonging to solar race. We all know that mudiraj people are the kolis of Andhra Pradesh. It is also said that the chodas who ruled telegu lands were the ancestors to Kapus (Balijas). We known that balijas are a variant or an allied warrior group belonging to Mudiraj community and there exists a rivalry between kapus and mudiraj. There are several surnames such as setty, talari, etc which are common to both kapu and mudiraj communities. This rivalry might be an extension of the same rivalry that existed between the two kings Vijayala Cholan and Muttharayan over the Tanjore.

It is said that chode surname among kapu indicates their descendancy from chodas. People having Chodeboina surname belongs to Mudiraj and this confirms the racial and professional connection between kapus and mudiraj. We have also seen the surnames of Mutharayars that indicate their chola connection. The name of one Choda Chari comes to mention by ballads while narrating the story of Mudiraj warrior ancestors during Ankamma kolupu. It once again confirms that Cholas, Chodas, Mudiraj and Kapus (balija) are one and the sames people during medival times.

Let us try to know about Karikala Cholan who is claimed to be the ancestor by some in both Mutharayars of Tamilnadu and Kapus of Andhra Pradesh.

Karikala Cholan :

Karikalachola maharaja is said to belong to Solar Race and Kasyapa Gothram. Karikala Chola was the greatest and most powerful among the Chola kings of the Sangam age in South India. Pattinappaalai describes Karikala as an able and just king. The history says that Karikala was also known as the worst and the most bad king. He was the son of Ilamcetcenni and ruled around 120 C.E and is known by the epithet Karikala Peruvallattan and Thirumavalavan. Illanjchetchenni, the father of Karikala chola had many chariots and he was s an expert in riding them. The early Cholas reigned between the 1st and 4th century AD and the first and most famous king of this period was Karikalan.

'Karikala' means 'elephant legged' or 'charred leg', which is assumed to be a reference to an accident by fire which befell the prince early in his life. Pattinappaalai describes this accident and the enterprising way in which the prince escaped and established himself in the Chola throne. Pattinappalai is a long poem on the then Chola capital Kaveripattinam. Karikala Chola was the most famous among the early Chola kings, while Rajaraja Chola , Rajendra Chola and Kulothunga Chola I were the famous emperors of the medieval Cholas.

It is said that the Pallavas were Mallas and were the descendants of Cholas. Illandirayan, the grandson of Early Chola Karikala was the originator of the Pallavas.

Karikala's family :
Tolkappiyam, states that Karikala married a Velir girl from Nangur. He most certainly had more than one queen. The Ganga ruler Durvinita, who ruled in the later half of 6th cent a.d., had a Chola princess as his Chief Queen. She is called 'the daughter of the family of Karikala Chola, an exemplary Kshatriya, and ruler of Uraiyur'. Sri Vikrama, the grandson of Ganga Durvinita and who ruled in the 7th cent a.d., also had a Chola Princess as his Queen who is called 'the daughter of the Chola family of Karikala, who raised embankments on either side of the river Kaveri'(2). These references do show that Karikala Chola's family, ruling from Uraiyur, was still recognisd as a dynasty powerful enough to be reckoned with.

Karikala was an able ruler & administrator :
Karikala Chola emperor is famous for having united the entire kingdoms of the south India and the first Chola empire was established by Karikala who subdued the Cheras and the Pandyas. Karikala ruled Thanjavur and It is believed from the Epics that many Chola kings were ruling from Thanjavur even before Karikala Cholan. The Chola King, Karikala Chola collected the whole of the Mudali tribe of Vellalars and settled them in Tondaimandalam. The country was divided into territorial domains called kootams, a reference to kurumbar policies. The spatialization of the vellalas in the villages of the Tondai country had begun long before the British arrived. Mudaliar also Mudaliyar, Mudali and Moodley in Tamil language literally means a person of first rank in a feudal society in south India. It is originally the title and the surname of Tondaimandala Vellalars . Mudhiliyars and Muthariyars are one and the same people.

Mutharayars => Muthariyars => Muthaliyars => Mudhaliyars => Mudaliars

Karikala- a great warrior :
Pattinappaalai work describes the numerous battles Karikala fought against the other two Tamil kings in one of which the Chera king was disgraced (received a wound on his back) and committed suicide. According to Porunaraatruppadai 'Karikala Chola with the garland of ar pleasing to the eye' fought a great battle at Venni near Thanjavur in which both Pandya and Chera suffered crushing defeat. Karikala thus broke the confederacy that was formed against him and established hegemony over Pandyas and Cheras. This battle is said to be the turning point in Karikala's career, for in this battle he broke the back of the powerful confederacy formed against him. Venni was the watershed in the career of Karikala which established him firmly on his throne and secured for him some sort of hegemony among the three crowned monarchs. It was Karikalan, the first of the early Cholas, who brought Kongunad under Chola control in the second or third century AD.

After the battle of Venni, Karikala had other opportunities to exercise his arms. King Karikala was also a great warrior. He defeated the confederacy of nine minor chieftains in the battle of Vakaipparandalai. In later times Karikala was the subject of many legends found in the Cilappatikaram and in inscriptions and literary works of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. They attribute to him the conquest of the whole of India up to the Himalayas. The northern expeditions of Karikala gained for him the alliance and subjugation of the kings of Vajra, Magadha and Avanti countries. He conquered the territories up to the Himalayas and made a pass into the China through the Himalayas. On his return KarikalaCholan brought back the monuments and gifts presented by the Vajraking, hte Magatha King and the Avanthi King who were defeated by KarikalaCholan and exhibited them at Poompuhar. He marched north up to the Ganges river defeating all the kings on the way. It is said that Karikala Chola, fought a war against King Gangabaghu and conquered the whole of Sri Lanka.

Karikala Promoted Irrigation & agriculture:
Kallani was the world's first dam constructed across a iver. Tis Supplies water for Irrigation for more than 50000 Acrs of land. Karikala raised embankments on either side of river Kaveri and controlled its floo by constructing kallani dam. The raising of the banks of the river Kaveri by Karikala seems to be first mentioned by the Melapadu plates of Punyakumara, a Telugu Choda king of the seventh or the eighth century C.E. Karikala built the Kallanai - commonly known as the Grand Anaicut - a dam across the Cauvery River about 48 km. from Thanjavur. Kallanai dam built by karikalacholan over cauvery river more than 2000 years ago is still used to its maximum limits. The dam is a great engineering marvel and would have easily earned the Chola King Karikala a memorable place in history. It still stands as an amazing feat of irrigation engineering. The Grand Anicut is the most ancient surviving irrigation work in Kaveri river delta. It is attributed to the Chola king Karikalan, and dates back to the 2nd century. It is considered the oldest water-diversion structure in the world still in use. It is said that Karikala captured twelve thousand Sinhalese soldiers as prisoners of war and brought all the way to the Cauvery delta in Tanjavur to use them as labourers and excavate channels for drawing water from the river Cauvery and setting up a very detailed, intricate and elaborate irrigation system, which is being used till date. The setting of this canal system has resulted in making 'Tanjavur' the rice bowl of Tamil Nadu. Pattinappaalai gives us a vivid idea of the state of industry and commerce under Karikala who promoted agriculture and added to the prosperity of his country by reclaimation and settlement of forest land. He also built a number of irrigation canals and tanks.

The Chola king, "Karikalan" has been immortalised as he has constructed the bank for the Cauvery all the way from Puhar (Kaveripoompattinam) to Srirangam. It was built as far back as 1,600 years ago or even more. On both sides of the river are found walls spreading to a distance of 1,080 feet. The dam Kallanai on the border between Tiruchirappalli and Thanjavur constructed by him is a superb work of engineering, which was constructed with earth and stone and has stood the vagaries of nature for hundreds of years.

Karikala was a great city & temple builder :
There is evidence in Purananuru for Karikala Cholas faith in the Vedic Hinduism in the Tamil country. During Karikala's reign, the capital city was moved to Kaveripattanam from Uraiyur. He made Kanchi a city of palaces. According to historical sources, Karikala Chola a great ruler before proceeding to the Himalayas first set his foot on the divine land of Kanchi. Some say that his conquests and building of Kanchi palaces are as debatable.

Poompuhar (Kaveripattanam) - a port city of cholas : It was the capital city of Cholas. The ancient Kings like Sembiyan, Musugundhan, Manuneethicholan and Karikala cholan, who carried myths with them, added to the glory of Poompuhar town. Poompuhar grew into a great city during the region of Karikala cholan. The excavation has also been taken up near Champapthi Amman and Pallavaneswaram temples. Remains of a brick building and a boat �jetty were discovered at Keezhaiyur area at Poompuhar. Copper coins were also found. These coins are both of rectangular and circular shapes. The chola emblems of the tiger with upright tail and the sun were engraved on them. These coins are considered to be those of KarikalaCholan. Among the Chola kings, King Karikalan renovated and built the renowned port of Poompuhar (located in Nagapattinam district).

Lord Villiswara Temple : Thiruttani and Velanjeri Copper Plates are perhaps the earliest Chola record to refer to the exploits of Karikala. One more inscription throws a different light about uruthirang kannanar A mandapa was donated to kannanar by Karikala. 16 km north of Coimbatore, houses shrines for Lord Villiswara and His consort Vedanayaki. It is of historical and religious significance. This is an ancient shrine, one of a sacred cluster built in the Kovai region by Emperor Karikala Chola.

Perur Patteeswaraswamy Temple : This temple was built by KarikalaCholan. It is situated near the river Noyyal and is about 7 kms west of Coimbatore on the Siruvani main road. temple is at its decorative best in march, when the Panguni Uthiram festival is celebrated. This ancient shiva temple built by Karikala Chola early Christian era is having a Swayambumoorthy and is dedicated to Lord Shiva by Karikala. This temple is also known as Mel Chidambaram, the exquisite sculptures in Kanagasabai are the main tourist attraction. There are some priceless sculptures in the Kanagasabai Hall in the temple, which also has a large number of statues. The King Vishnuvardhana of Hoyasala dynasty converted many shiva temples to vishnu temples and became an enemy to Karikala Chola who was a staunt Shivaite and who ruled the country around Srirangam.

Arulmigu Shree Velayudhaswamy Thirukoil - Senjerimalai is located at 46 KMS from Coimbatore. As Lord Muruga set out with his battalion to subdue the demon Surapadma, Lord Shiva summoned Muruga to the Thenserigiri hills and, initiated him to certain mantras, endowed him with invincible powers to route and destroy the demon and his retinue -this is the legendary origin of this temple. Since then Lord Muruga came to be worshipped as Manthragiri and Sri Velayudhaswami.This temple was originally built by Karikala Chola and renovated by veeraballalai III dates back to 13th Century. A holy spring called 'Gnanatheertha Sunai' and a sacred tree known as 'Karunochi' can be seen.

Thirupasur Shiva Temple : It is one such rich shrine that has come to us from a very distant past. Built by Karikal Cholan, it is on the Thiruthani National Highway, about 60 km. away from the city of Chennai, to the east of Thiruvalankadu and west of Thiruvallore Veeraraghava Swamy temple. We have the Sathiamurthy Saagaram on the north and the grand old shrine of Thiruvooral or Thakkolam on the Southeast.

According to the legend, there was a thick growth of bamboo in this place. The presiding deity of the temple of Thiruppaasur, a Swayambu Lingam, was covered by the wild growth. They were startled when their 'vaasi' accidentally hit upon the deity. Their instrument had already caused deep cut-marks on the idol. They rushed to king Karikalan and he constructed a temple for the Lord and consecrated the deity. 'paasu' is another name for bamboo and the shrine is therefore known as Thiru-paasu-oor. The holy shrine of bamboo. 'vEy' is another name for bamboo. Since the deity was a Swayambu that appeared amidst bamboos, the Lord is known as vey-eendra-naadhar. The Lord born of bamboos.

Another legend has it that Karikalan, who ruled a vast territory and had a large army, could not withstand the attack of a very minor chieftain. Going into the reason, Karikalan understood that the chieftain was under divine protection of Kali. A devotee of Lord Shiva, Karikalan worshipped the Lord, who sent Veerabadhra along with him. Veerabadhra shackled Kali, thus enabling Karikalan to win the war. There is a deity of the shackled Kali in Thiruppaasur, known as Swarna Kali, in the outer corridor. The statue of Swarna Kali Amman was damaged by the passage of time and another idol was consecrated in June 1986.

Tiruchattamangai : The Chola King Karikalan is said to have built this temple. This is a shrine closely associated with Tiruneelakka Nayanar. Sambandar is said to have arrived here after visiting Tirunallar, along with Tiruneelakanda Yaazhpaanar. This is a Shivastalam in the vicinity of Tiruppugalur, Tiruchenkattankudi and Tirumarugal and is located in a hamlet surrounded by lush coconut groves. It is located 11 km to the east of Nannilam. It is considered to be the 81st in the series of Tevara Stalams in the Chola kingdom located south of the river Kaveri.

It is said that the poet Kambar (Sama), who wrote the 'Kambaramayana' in Tamil was in Karikala Chola's court. Kambar was a Nattalvar and Nattalvar is a subcaste of Muthuraja in Tamilnadu. The story of Kovalan and Kannagi started in the great east-coast seaport of Poompuhar. Poompuhar was the capital of Chola land and home of mighty King Karikala. This is the same King Karikala who, early in his reign, had led a victorious expedition to the Himalayas. There in Poompuhar two wealthy merchants had children--one had a boy, Kovalan, and the other a girl, Kannagi. (for more details see saints page in this website). Kannagi was expected to belong to Arayar / Valayar, a subcaste of Muthuraja.

Karikala introduced Indravizha festival :
Indravizha festival is celebrated in Tamil speaking country which has it's origins in North India. Indravizha festival was was instituted by Karikala Chola in the honour of Indra, the Lord of the Marudam region in Tamilnadu. Lot of references could be got from the Sangam literature to the temple of Indra and the festival. Ainkurunur also refers to Indravizha. Silappatikaram details the Indra vizha in one full chapter. Manimekalai refers to Indravizha in detail starting from its origin calling it the festival of the thousand eyed One (I: 26). On the advice of Sage Agasthya, the Chola king prayed to Indra himself to grace the festival dedicated to him on all the twenty-eight days of the festival. Indra was pleased with the king and accepted not only to be present on all the days but also make other gods and the Ganas be present for the whole festival. It was celebrated in other places too, especially Madurai, the capital of the Pandyas. Indiravizha was grandly celebrated during the period of Thodithol Chempian. Inscriptions at Thiruvengadu make a mention of grand festival of Indira, during the latter Cholas times.

Mahabharatha also refers to Uparicara as a chedi king who introduced this festival in the north India. It was grandly celebrated for twenty-eight days in Pukar or Kaviripumpattinam, the capital of the Cholas. The whole city gave a festive look with decorations. Apart from the regular shops and market place, there were new additions too. The commencement of the Indravizha was announced by the hoisting of the flag depicting the White Elephant (Airavata, the vahana of Indra) and Kalpaka tree. As Aryanisation of South India had already taken place there was Vedic influence in festivals and celebrations.

It is already explained in this website under Chedi-Matsya origins of Mudiraj that king Uparichara married a fisher (koli) woman and her son established a matsya dynasty in North India. It is said that Satyavati belonged to this branch of Indo-Aryans kings. The introduction of Indravizha by karikala cholan and the celebration of it in Tamil lands may be a pointer to the descendancy of cholas ( fishermen by profession ) to these Matsyas of Indo-Aryan origin. Kolis also belong to solar race to which Cholas claim their belongingness.

Kokolu Anka Rao
Webmaster
DT:01/06/2007
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


29. KING RAJENDRA CHOLAN :
Rajendra chola had a daughter by name Ammanga ( also called Angamma = Ankamma). This aspect of naming children after Goddess Ankamma is normally prevelent only among those who worship Goddess Ankamma. It means that Cholas worshipped Goddess Ankamma as their royal Goddess. We all know that Goddess Ankamma is a popular diety of Mudiraj. This once again proves that Cholas and Mutharayars are one and the same people having common ancestry, race and profession. Further study reveals that cholas had a strong matrimonial relations with not only with Tamil Mutharayars but also with Telugu kings such as Eastern Chalukyas. It is also said that chodas who ruled Telugu lands were all related to Cholas of Tamilnadu. The wide spread Chola-Choda rule in Tamil and Andhra regions was perhaps one of the reasons why Ankamma is still a popular diety among masses in these regions.

Ammanga was the daughter of Rajendracholan : Ammanga was the daughter of Rajendrachola. She was married to Rajaraja Narendra of vengi (eastern) chalukyas, whose capital city was located near Godavari region in present Andhra Pradesh. Rajaraja was son of Kundava and Vimaladitya. Kudava was the younger sister of Rajendra chola. As per fourth part of the vamsavali, Rajaraja ruled for 41 years, who married Ammanga-devi, the daughter of a Rajendra-Choda of the solar race. Kulothunga Chola ( Rajendra Chalukya) was the son of Rajaraja Narendra and Ammanga Devi. Ammanga or Angamma means Ankamma in Telugu. Ankamma or Ankalamma is the popular diety of Mudiraj in Coastal and South Andhra.

Angamma = Anga + Amma
Ammanga = Amma + Anga
Ammanga = Angamma = Ankamma

Rajendra Cholan was the only son to his father Rajaraja Cholan. Rajendra had three sisters namely Kundavai, who married the Eastern Chalukya King Vimaladitya, Mahadevadigal and another whose name is not traceable. Rajendra Chola continued their family relationship with his sister Kundavai, by giving his younger daughter Ammangadevi in marriage with his nephew, Rajaraja Narendra. Tamil brahmins migrated to Andhra in the Chalukyan times along with Chola princesses Kundava, Ammanga Devi and Madharantaki who married the successive Chalukyan Kings.

Initially, the Cholas and the Chalukyas had been in constant warfare, spaced by periods of uneasy peace, due to differences in religion and ideologies. Cholas were suryavamsis and Chalukyas were Chandravamsis. A sudden turning point in the relationship between the two kingdoms came when Kundavai, the only daughter of Raja Raja Chola 1, fell in love with the Chalukya King Vimal Aditya and determined to marry him. Although Raja Raja Chola initially denounced the alliance, he relented and permitted the marriage. The marriage in turn provided some respite from the constant fighting between the two kingdoms. The union of Kundavai and Vimaladitya resulted in the birth of a son, Rajaraja Narendra. From that point onwards they referred to themselves as Chola-Chalukyas or Chodas.

As a result of several inter-marriages over generations, the members of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty had become plainly Cholas at heart. The close relationship started with Kundavai, the daughter of Rajaraja Chola marrying the Eastern Chalukya prince Vimaladitya. Their son Rajaraja Narendra was closely allied to the Cholas, his maternal relatives, who periodically intervened in the affairs of the Vengi throne propping up Rajaraja Narendra in the Vengi throne whenever he was threatened by one rival or the other. There existed a great animosity between Rajaraja Narendra and his step brother Vijayaditya VII.

After the demise of the Vengi king Vimaladitya, Jayasimha threw his support behind Vijayaditya VII (s/o of Vimaladitya) against the claims of Rajaraja Narendra, another son of Vimaladitya by the Chola princess Kundavai. A civil war ensued between the brothers Vijayaditya and Rajaraja. However Rajaraja Narendra, with the help of Rejendra cholan, was soon able to defeat the forces of Vijayaditya. In 1031 C.E., the western Chalukyas invaded Vengi and drove Rajaraja Narendra into exile and installed Vijayaditya as the Vengi king. Rajaraja once again sought Chola help in regaining his throne. Chola army invaded the Vengi and in a bloody battle near Kalidandi, managed to push back Vijayaditya and his western Chalukya ally. Rajendra Chola I defeated the rivals to Rajaraja Narendra and helped him celebrate his coronation in Vengi (c 1022 C.E.). Rajaraja Narendra managed to regain his throne in 1035 C.E.

Raja Narendra is believed to have laid the foundation of the city of Rajamahendravaram (Rajahmundry), which is named after him. This is supported by Pedanna's statement in Kavyalankara Chudamanim "Rajamahendrapura sthatha Raja Raja Narendra". His period was famous for the advances in social and cultural acitvity. On his request, his court poet Nannaya began to translate The Sanskrit Mahabharata into Andhra Mahabharata, which stood as a land mark in the development of Telugu literature.

Rajendra Cholan : Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. He succeeded his father in 1014 C.E. as the Chola emperor. Rajendra Chola was also a able ruler like his father. Rajendra Chola inherited a vast reserve of wealth from his father. During his reign the kingdom was called the "Golden Age of Cholas.

Rajendra I ruled together with father for two years before going solo in 1014AD. Rajendra Chola followed the footprints of his father and glorified the Chola Empire even more. He aggressively continued his father's imperialist policies with the annexation of the region around modern Hyderabad which was controlled by the Chalukyas at that time. Chola conquered Madurai and Ellam. For a short period, Ramanathapuram area was under the Chola Kings when Rajandra Chola brought it under his territory in 1063 A.D. In 1520 A.D. Karandai Tamil sangam copper plates of Rajandra Chola (1050 A.D.) are the largest written inscription anywhere in the world from premodern times. With both the Western and Eastern Chalukya fronts subdued, Rajendra's armies undertook an extraordinary expedition. C. 1019 C.E. During his successful rule of about 30 years Rajendra Chola had encouraged the spread of Dharma, literature and art in it. He got many grand temples constructed.

Sons : Rajendra Chola I made his son Rajadhiraja Chola co-regent very early in his reign (1018). From that day forward, father and son ruled together and shared the burdens of the empire. From the inscriptions of both Rajendra and Rajadhiraja it is evident that Rajadhiraja ruled in full regal status in the lifetime of his father. Rajadhiraja was at the forefront of most of Rajendra's military campaigns.

South Indian Expeditions : Rajendra's inscriptions include the many campaigns he carried on behalf of Rajaraja from c. 1002 C.E. These include the conquest of the Rashtrakuta country and region around the current northwestern Karnataka state. Rajendra also led campaigns against the Western Chalukya Satyasraya and crossed the river Tungabhadra, carried the war into the heart of the Chalukya country and attacked their capital. To complete the task began by his father, of conquering the island of Srilanka, Rajendra invaded the island in 1018 C.E. In 1041 C.E. Rajendra had to lead another expedition into Srilanka to quell the continuing attacks against the Chola army by Vikramabahu. Also in 1018 Rajendra made a triumphal march at the head of his army through the Pandya and Kerala countries. Rajendra appointed one of his sons as viceroy with the title Jadavarman Sundara Chola-Pandya''' with Madurai as the headquarters of the Viceroyalty.

Cholamuttarayan was Rajendracholan's army chief : The Tirumittakkode ( Tiru mttakode )temple epigraphs are one of the most important documents as far as the political and cultural situation of Nila river valley is concerned. This erigraph is the only evidence to prove the Chola supremacy in lOth Century AD in Kerala, which in turn accelerated the fall of Kulasekharas of Cranganore. The Alwar Tirumohi itself reveal that Kulasekhara, the Chera king came over to the temple and prayed the diety for a helping hand. It is suspected that an idol in the form of a 'Sanyasin' seen in the temple complex worshipped as Dharmaputra, the eldest Pandava, is none other than the idol of Kulasekhara, placed by some devotees in commemoration of the visit of the royal king. However, the epigraph says that Cholamuttarayan with his army came over to Tirumittakkode (Tiruvittuvakkode - a place were Vittuva or Vishnu is worshipped) and the Vaishnava temple was brought to his custody. The 'Cholasenapati' was the army chief of RajendraChola of the 10-11th Century AD. He came aver to Tirumittakode, conquered the area where Valluvanadu Utaiyavar had their 'original ancestoral house at Arangot, a neighboring village and the temple complex. The Chola muttarayan constructed a temple of Siva in front of the Vittuva temple itself so that the front part of the Vittuva temple is barred from visionof the devotees. The temple - (Siva in the Sanctum Sanctorum in front of the Vishnu's Sanctum Sanctorum - a twin 'Sreekovil' system) is a unique architectural pattern of temple construction seen at Tirumittacode. This peculiar dimension of the Saiva- Vaishnava feud .and Chola - Chera war has not yet been noted by scholars. From the above it is evident that during the time of Rajendrachola, the people of Mutharayars and cholas got amalgamated into one community i.e cholamutharayars or cholamuttarayars or cholamuttarayans.

North India Expeditions : The Cholas were invading and conducting successful campaigns in the northern territories of India. The Emperor himself advanced up to the river Godavari to protect the rear of the expeditionary force. Rajendra's forces continued to march through Kalinga to the river Ganges. He reached right upto the Ganges valley, Orissa and west Bengal areas. He was victorious upto the banks of Ganges. During his reign, he extended the influences of the already vast Chola empire up to the banks of the river Ganges in the north and across the ocean. The Chola army eventually reach the Pala kingdom of Bengal where they met Mahipala and defeated him. According to the Tiruvalangadu Plates , the campaign lasted less than two years in which many kingdoms of the north felt the might of the Chola army. The inscriptions further claim that Rajendra defeated '�the armies of Ranasura and entered the land of Dharmapala and subdued him.

During one of his campaigns to the north, Rajendra Chola brought the water from the Ganges River in a golden pot and sanctified the reservoir of Ponneri or Cholaganga. As a result, he was given the title of 'Gangaikondan' meaning 'The One who Brought the Ganges'. He assumed the title of "Gangaikonda" (the victor of Ganges).

During rajendra cholans gangai visit a dynasty called telugucholas ruled sonpur area of south kosala for 120 years. Sonpur is about 240 km from bhubaneswar. There is one copper plate inscription in orissan, where their nick names were mentioned as kaverinathan, karikalavalavan, uraiyuron and so many intersting facts. There is kolleda mandala in orissa and here rajendracholan crossed orissa. There is a murugu parvati temple in keonjhar. Rajendracholans gangai visit through orissa and cholaganga (Eastern Ganga) dynasty, Teluguchola dynasty promoted Tamilars trade with orissa since the times of sangam age about 2500 years ago. Tamil saints visited orissa and exchanged traditional knowledge between two communites. Peoples settelment took place from both sides on habitation. These formed part of the kalinga tamil relations.

To commemorate his celebrated northern campaign to the Ganges, Rajendra assumed the title of Gangaikonda Chola and had the Siva Temple Gangakkondacholeswaram built. Soon after the capital was moved from Thanjavur to Gangaikondacholapuram. Rajendra probably founded the city of Gangaikondacholapuram before his 17th year.

Offshore Expeditions : What were really ambitious were Rajendra Chola's offshore expeditions, involving both the army and the navy against andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Malay Islands and Sumatra. However, these were not colonizing forays, for he never tried to seriously consolidate or move in on his gains in these regions; they were in main campaigns to protect his trade routes with the Southeast Asian nations. The Chola emperor Rajendrachola claimed to have made some conquests himself in the East Indies. Rajendrachola's son only claimed one of these victories - that of Kadaram, possibly the state of Kataha in Malaysia.

Rajendra's territories extended coastal Burma, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Maldives, conquered the kings of Srivijaya (Sumatra, Java and Malaya in South East Asia) and Pegu islands with his fleet of ships. He defeated Mahipala, the Pala king of Bengal and Bihar, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital called Gangaikonda Cholapuram. Tamil Chola armies exacted tribute from Thailand and the Khmer kingdom of Cambodia. Rajendra was the first Indian king to take his armies overseas.

The trade relations the Tamil merchants had with the ports of Malaya led to the emergence of Indianized kingdoms like Kadaram (Old Kedah) and Langkasugam.[2] Furthermore, Chola king Rajendra Chola I sent an expedition to Kadaram (Sri Vijaya) during the 11th century conquering that country on behalf of one of its rulers who sought his protection and to have established him on the throne. The Cholas had a powerful merchant and naval fleet in the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal.

Gangaikonda Cholapuram : Rajendra Chola also built a temple for Siva at Gangaikonda Cholapuram, similar in design to the Tanjore Brihadisvara temple (Big Temple) built by Rajaraja Chola. It is understood that the Temple was Built by Rajendracholan to celebrate his conquest of north India. The Gangaikondacholapuram Shiva temple near Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu was later on built by Rajendrachola based on the model of this Big Temple at Thanjavur.

Gangaikondacholapuram was constructed as an attempt to build a temple, which excels in architectural splendor than the temple made by his father. The king wanted to build a temple comparable to the Brihadeswara Temple at Thanjavur in grandeur. The temple at Gangaikondacholapuram was constructed between 1020-1029 AD. The temple has intricate carvings on the vimana of the temple. The Northern Chalukyan Kingdom influences the style of this temple. The temple is built on a hard southern granite stone and displays the beauty of the carvings of the temple leaving behind the simplicity gracefulness and elegance of the Pallava and the earlier Chola empires. The most outstanding and unique sculptures in this temple are the Nataraja, Coronation of king Rajendra Chola by Shiva and Parvati, the Dancing Ganesha and the Ardhanari or the half man-half woman manifestation of Lord Shiva. The Cholas were believed to be very particular about the keeping records. One can find inscribed texts in the copper plates and in walls of the temple. The walls provide interesting anecdotes about several victories of Rajendra Chola, the land grants made during his period, king's ascend to the throne etc. Gangaikondacholapuram took pretty long time to complete. But it was a favorite place for the monarchs to ascend the thrones. There are inscriptions testifying to his son Rajendra Chola's visit to the Tiruvarur temple, and his donation of a lamp in commemoration of the visit, soon after the conversion of the brick built shrine into a stone structure.

It is said that Vijayalaya Choleeswaram in Narthamalai, though so called under the name of the founder of the Chola dynasty of Thanjavur, is a fine example of Mutharayar style of construction and indeed a forerunner of the magnificent temple at Gangaikondacholapuram built by Rajendra Chola.

Death : Rajendra Chola I was killed in 1052AD, in battle against his old foes the Chalukyas. The Chalukya king Someshwara I, also known as Ahavamalla, killed the Chola king Rajadhiraja Chola in 1054 C.E. in the fifth battle for Chalukyan kingdom, but still lost the battle as Rajendra II crowned himself as the next emperor on his elephant, and led the Cholas to defeat the Chalukyan army. Inscription states that Ahavamalla broke the succession of Rajendra Chola by killing him.

Rajadhiraja Chola, associated in kingship since 1018, ruled independently from the time of his father's death in 1044. He maintained Chola authority over most of Lanka, despite a series of revolts. He continued the struggle with the Chalukyas, defeating Somesvara Chalukya, but losing his own life in battle at Koppam in 1052. His younger brother Rajendra II ascended the throne and ruled until 1064. He was succeeded by the third brother, Virarajendra (1063-1070), who had been created Yuvaraja the previous year.

Coins : Rajendra Chola coins have the legend in Sanskrit "Sri Rajendra " and the emblems, tiger and fish on both sides. Rajendra Chola, the son of Raja Raja, is also known as Gangaikonda Chola for his conquest of many principalities in the Gangetic valley. On either side of this coin is found a seated tiger along with lamp-stand, a pair of fish and a bow. Below the lamp-stand, is a two line Sanskrit legend Gangai (ko) da Chola. The other side of this coin is similar to the first side. Fish symbol indicates cholas professional background from fishing community.

go TOP


30. BADDIGA AMOGHAVARSHA - A RASTRAKUTA KING :
Baddigam and kokolu are two surnames that belong to Mudiraj community people of Andhra Pradesh and they are matrimonoally related at Addanki Town near Ongole in Andhra Pradesh. Surprisingly Baddiga Amoghavarsha was related to Kalchuris towhich the famous clans of kokallas / kokkulas belong.The surnames (i) "Baddigam" seems to be a modified name of "Baddiga" and (ii) "kokolu" seems to be the modified name to "kokalla".

Baddiga => Baddigam
Baddiga => Baddige
Kokalla => Kokala => Kokola => Kokolu

Amoghavarsha-III is the 5th Rastrakuta ruler after Amoghavarsa-I and Amoghavarsha-I is known as the Ashoka of South India. We will also read more details about Amoghavarsha-I who was contemporary to Shivamara-II, s/o Sripurusha Muttarasa of Ganga dynasty in this page itself.

Amoghavarsha III (934 - 939) C.E. also known as Baddiga was in exile in Tripuri. Baddiga Amoghavarsha was a king of Rastrakuta, a region presently located in Maharastra. He was a younger brother of Indra III and uncle to Govinda IV. Baddiga came to power with the help of King Arikesari of Vemulavada in Andhra and other feudatories who revolted against Govinda IV.Not much is known about his uneventful reign. His advanced age and religious temperament did not allow him to show any interest in the governance of the kingdom, which was left to his son Krishna III.

Matrimonial relations with Gangas and Kalchuri clans : Amoghavarsha was married to Kundakadevi, a princess from the Kalachuri dynasty of Tripuri. His daughter was married to Western Ganga Dynasty King Bhutuga II to whom a large territory was given as dowry. The Rastrakutas of Manyakheta and the Kalacuris of Tripuri were matrimonially connected and their relations were generally friendly. But in the reign of Govinda IV, they became strained.

The Kalachuri king Yuvarajadeva 1 espoused the cause of his son-in-law Baddiga Amoghavarsha III , the uncle of Govinda IV, and sent a large army to invade the Rashtrakuta dominion. When it reached the Payoshni (puna), it was opposed by Karkara, the ruler of Achalapura, who was a feudatory of Govinda IV. Payosni is 10 miles (16.093 Km) from Achalpura. He probably belonged to the. feudatory Rashtrakuta family ruling in Vidarbha, whose records, as stated above, have been found at Akola and Multai. A sanguinary battle was fought on the banks of the Payoshni near Achalapura between the Rashtrakuta and Kalachuri forces, in which the latter became victorious. This event was commemorated in the Sanskrit play Viddhashalabhanjika of Rajashekhara, which was staged at Tripuri, the Kalachuri capital, in jubilation at this victory Yuvarajadeva over a confederacy of Southern kings led by Govinda IV in the battle of the Paysoni.

Krishna-III- son of Baddiga : The Rashtrakuta feudatories who had risen in revolt against Govinda IV, deposed him and placed his uncle Baddiga-Amoghavarsha III on the throne. The latter was a man of quiet nature and spiritual temperament, who left the administration of the kingdom to his ambitious and able son Krishna III. Like some of his ancestors, Krishna also led an expedition in North India and captured the forts of Kalanjara and Chitrakuta. He succeeded his father in A. D. 939. He then led an expedition against the Cholas and defeated them in a sanguinary battle at Takkola in the Arcot District. He next carried his victorious arms to Rameshvaram, where he built two temples. Hearing of his victories, the kings of Kerala, Pandya and Ceylon submitted to him. He also placed his own nominee on the throne of Vengi. He thus became the lord paramount of South India.The reign of Krishna III. was remarkable for a war with the Cholas, in which the Chola king was killed on the field of battle in 949. The last of the Rashtrakuta kings was Karka II., who was overthrown by the Chalukyas in 973.

The Kalchuri kings of M.P. wore supporters of Jainism. The evidence on this is that they were closely related to Rashtrakuta. The Rashtrakuta kings had their faith in Jainism. The influence of Jainism during reign of Kalchuri kings of Kalyani was perceptible.

Western Ganga Muttarasas and Rastrakutas were matrimonially related : Revakanimmadi was one of the daughters of Rastrakuta king Amoghavaraha I. She the wife of Ganga Muttarasa king Erraganga. She was the governer of the important distrct of Edatore 2000 in 850 A.D.

Revakanimmadi’s great-grand-aunt was also having the same name Revakanimmadi and she was the daughter of Amoghavarsha III ( Baddega ), and she was married to the princes of Western Ganga Muttarasa king Buguta-II. The Naregal inscription of A.D. 950 reveals for the first time that Butuga had another wife Padmabbarasi besides Revakanimmadi mentioned above.

Surnames It is observed that there are people having surnames - Baddiga, Baddige, Baddega and Baddege in Andhra and Srilanka. There are some people having surname "Baddege" in Srilanka today. We know that kings of Srilanka (cylon) submitted to Krishna-III who was the son of Baddiga Amoghavarsha. But it is very difficult to say any thing in what way this surname - baddege of Srilankan people is related to Baddiga / Baddige of Rastrakuta clans.

Inscriptions : The Rastrakutas have left several records. The earliest of them is the copper-plate inscription of Krishna I discovered at Bhandak and dated in the Saka year 694 (A.D. 772). It records the grant of the village Nagana to a temple of the Sun in Udumbaramanti, modern Rani Amravati in the Yavatmal district. Thereafter several grants of his grandson Govinda III have been found in the Akola and Amravati districts of Vidarbha. The next Rastrakuta record in Vidarbha is the aforementioned Devali copper-plate grant of the reign of Baddhiga's son Krishna III, which mentions the visaya of Nagapura-Nandi-vardhana.

No inscriptions of the Early Chalukyas have been found in Vidarbha, but their successors the Rastrakutas have left several records.The earliest record of them is the copper-plate inscription of Krishna I discovered at Bhandak and dated in the Saka year 694 (A.D. 772). It records the grant of the village Nagana to a temple of the Sun in Udumbaramanti, modern Rani Amravati in the Yavatmal district. Thereafter several grants of his grandson Govinda III have been found in the Akola and Amravati districts of Vidarbha. he next Rastrakuta record in Vidarbha is the aforementioned Devali copper-plate grant of the reign of Baddhiga's son Krishna III, which mentions the visaya of Nagapura -Nandi vardhana.

Baddiga Pochamma Temple : There is one Sri Baddi Pochamma Temple built by Baddiga Bhupathi / Baddige Bhupal at Vemulavada. This one is ancient Sitala Devi Temple, poularly known as Baddipochamma Temple and located at Vemulawada in Karimnagar District of Andhra Pradesh. Baddige Bhupal was a liege of great fame. It is a "Village Mother Goddess". The pilgrims and villagers offer "Bonalu" to this deity for health and happiness, especially on every Sunday and Friday. Vemulavada was also the capital of Wetern Chalukyas.

The temple enshrines the granite image of Goddess Sitala Devi, which is grand to look at with hands adorned with sword and anaatra. The walls of the temple are beautifully engraved with sculptures. Though mainly a Shaiva temple of immense spiritual renown, it is considered as one of the veritable Hari-Hara-shakti shrines. Agamic Puja is performed every day. Sitala Devi Temple is about 25 km north-west of Karimnagar. Regular buses connect Vemulawada with Sirsilla, Elgandal, Mathwada and Rudrangi.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Dt. 26/06/2007
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


AMOGHAVARSHA-I :
Amoghavarsha-I (Amoghavarsha Nripathunga) was son of Govinda-III and a contemporary of Shivamara-II, the son of ganga king Sripurusha Muttarasa. The 5th Rastrakuta ruler after Amoghavarsha -I was known Baddiga Amoghavarsha or Amoghavarsha-III. The people having Baddigam surname belong to Mudiraj Community. Rastrakuta kings had matrimonial relations with Western Ganga kings.

General Information about Rastrakuta Kings :
Rahtrakutas-reign lasted for nearly two and a half centuries (752-973 C.E) and fifteen kings ruled in between. Some of the kings were great soldiers and conquerors. During the reign of Govinda III, Indra III and Krishna III, their power and influence existed from the Himalayan region to Rameshwar. Govinda III, the son and successor of Dhruva, proved to be a still greater conqueror. After obtaining an easy victory over the Ganga king Muttarasa (Shivamara-II) ruling in Gangavadi, he led victorious campaigns in Central and Northern India. He first defeated the Gurjara-Pratihara king Nagabhata and his ally Chandragupta in Central India and then routed Dharmapala of Bengal, who had espoused the cause of Chakrayu-dha of Kanauj. Govinda III, is eulogized in one inscription as, having horses which drank the icy water of the Himalayas and his war elephant tasted the sacred water of Ganga. His invincible armies overran the territories from Cape Comorin to Kanouj and from Banaras to Broach. Krishna III made a clear political mark in the south by defeating the Chola king, whose distinguished ancient line had many victories to their credit. In the north Krishna III over ran Malava. A Kannada inscription found in the north Jura near Jabalpur, lists his political conquests in a poetic language. Most of the inscriptions found outside the region of Karnataka are in Sanskrit. Amoghavarsha-I's queen was Asagavve. He died in 878 and was succeeded by his son Krishna II (Akalavarsha : 878-914) .

The origin of the Rashtrakutas is mired in ambiguity. Some records trace its descent to the lineage of Yadu (the clan to which Lord Krishna apparently belonged). A few epigraphs claim that their early ancestor was Satyaki of the Yadava clan. Rastrakuta acted as a bridge between north and south India. Rashtrakuta kings built several capitals as their political expansion grew. However their regal capital capital was Malkhed in Gulbarga district, also known as Manyakheta. The Rashtrakutas have found immortality in the pages of Indian history, through their marvellous rock cut temples of Ellora, in modern day Maharashtra. The royal insignia of Rashtrakutas was bird Garuda, the vehicle of Vishnu. Both Shiva and Vishnu are invoked in the beginning of their records.

Geneology of Rastrakuta Kings :
Dantidurga (735 - 756) ==> Krishna I (756 - 774) ==> Govinda II (774 - 780) ==> Dhruva ==> Dharavarsha (780 - 793) ==> Govinda III (793 - 814) ==> Amoghavarsha I (814 - 878) ==> Krishna II (878 - 914) ==> Indra III (914 -929) ==> Amoghavarsha II (929 - 930) ==> Govinda IV (930 � 936) ==> Amoghavarsha III (936 � 939) ==> Krishna III (939 � 967) ==> Khottiga Amoghavarsha (967 � 972) ==> Karka II (972 � 973) ==> Indra IV (973 � 982)

Dantidurga was succeeded by his uncle Krshna I, probably because he left no male issue. Krishna I. (c. 760) completed his conquests, and his reign was memorable for the execution of the Kailasa, the rock-cut temple at Ellora. Krshna I was succeeded by his eldest son Govinda Prabhutavarsha Vikramavaloka, soon after 772 A.D. He gave himself to a life of pleasure and vice immediately after his accession. This event must have taken place alter 779 A.D. as Dhulia plates of Govinda II in the year speak of Dhruva as his subordinate. Dhruva, one of the ablest of the Rashtrakuta rulers, not only re-established Rashtrakuta power in the south but carried on a successful expedition in Northern India and made the Rashtrakutas an all-India power. Govinda III who succeeded Dhruva was not the eldest son; but proved to be the ablest ruler in the race. Govinda III. (780-815) extended the power of the family from the Vindhya Mountains and Malwa on the north to Kanchi on the south. He is compared to Partha in the Baroda plates of his nephew Karka. In fact all territories between the Himalayas and Cape Camorin were conquered by his victorious armies. The statement of Vani-Dindori plates that with Govinda III, the Rashtrakuta dynasty became invincible to the enemies is only a statement of fact.

The next king after Govinda-III was Sarva Amogavarsha-I who reigned for sixty-two years. During the long reign of his son namely Amoghavarsha I. the kingdom was weakened by internal struggles. . It is also known that Amoghavarsha was defeated by Devapala of Bengal. He was a lover of peace and literature.Amoghavarsha-I (814�878) C.E. was a Rashtrakuta king, the greatest ruler of the Rashtrakuta dynasty, and one of the great kings of India.

His capital was in Manyakheta in modern Karnataka. Amoghavarsha I moved the capital from Nasik to Malkhed. Manyakheta was the modern Malkhaid , also spelled Malkhed site of a former city in Karnataka, India, about 85 miles (135 km) southwest of Hyderabad. The city was founded in the 9th century by the Rastrakuta ruler Amoghavarsa I and became the capital of the dynasty.

His empire was one among the four great contemporary empires of the world and because of his peaceful and loving nature. Historians have compared him to the legendary Emperor Ashoka in his religious temperament and love of peace. Amoghavarsha is called Ashoka of south India. During his rule he held such titles as Nripatunga, Atishadhavala, Veeranarayana, Rattamarthanda and Srivallabha. He moved the Rashtrakuta regal capital from Mayurkhandi in the Bidar district to Manyakheta in the Gulbarga district in the modern Karnataka state. He is said to have built the regal city to match that of Lord Indra. The capital city was planned to include elaborately designed buildings for the royalty using the finest of workmanship.

Political Ascendancy : Amoghavarsha I (whose birth name was Sharva) was born in 800 in Sribhavan on the banks of the river Narmada during the return journey of his father, King Govinda III, from his successful campaigns in northern India. The Sirur plates further clarify that Amoghavarsha I ascended to the throne in 814 at the age of 14 after the death of his father. All his inscriptions thereafter refer to him as Amoghavarsha I.His guardian during his early years as king was his cousin, Karka Suvarnavarsha of the Gujarat branch of the empire. A revolt led by Vijayaditya II, of Vengi throne and some of his relatives together with feudatories of the kingdom, temporarily overthrew the Rashtrakuta dynasty until 821 when Karakka reinstated Amoghavarsha. His guardian and cousin Karka was also called Patamalla. some of his relatives together with feudatories of the kingdom. After that the first to revolt was the Western Ganga feudatory led by King Shivamara II (son of Sripurusha Muttarasa). In the series of battles that followed, Shivamara II was killed in 816 and Amoghavarsha I's commander and confidant, Bankesha, was defeated in Rajaramadu by the next Ganga king, Rachamalla (grand son of Sriprusha Muttarasa).

Bankapura is named after Bakeyrasa, an officer of King Rashtra Kuta Amoghavarsha-I. Bankapura is situated at a distance of 20 kms from the railway station of Yalavigi on Poona-Bangalore line and 30 kms from Hubli, Bankapura has a fort, now in ruins and two ancient temples. Konnur is situated on the banks of the river Malaprabha. Here lies a Jain temple belonging to 860 A.D. This temple has been converted into a Parameshwara Shaiva temple. It was constructed by Bankesha of Kolanur and was the commander in chief of the Rashtrakuta king Amogavarsha-I (also called as Nrupatunga). He was the deciple of Bhagwad Sri Jinasenacharya who wrote Adipurana and Prashnothara Ratnamalika. The Scantun santorum of the temple is totally ruined. The structure of the foundation is star shaped in a circle. This reminds the hoysala style of temple archietecture. One can find the mutilated Jaina idols. A Jaina image in the padmasana posture and also an idol of Gabapathi are found scattered hapazordly in th temple. The centre hall of the temple is square shaped supported by the sturdy pillars. One can find the idol of a tirthankara in the lintle of the garbagriha. There is a bare pedestal in the scantun santorum. There are many empty wall cells seen.

Matrimonial relations with gangas : Due to the resilience of the Gangas, Amoghavarsha I was forced to follow a conciliatory policy. He married his daughter, Chandrabbalabbe, to the Ganga king Butuga II who became the ruler of Gangavadi and another daughter, Revakanimmadi, to the Ganga prince Ereganga. The Rashtrakutas and the Gangas had matrimonial alliances with each other, Chandroballabba, the daughter of Amoghavarsha was married to Butuga, the Ganga heir , giving an impetus to the spread of Jain religion and art and sculptur. Aditya chozha married Illangopichi, the grand daughter of Amogavarsha-I of Rashtrkutas and daugther of Krishna-II. The Rastrakutas of Manyakheta and the Kalacuris of Tripuri were matrimonially connected and their relations were generally cordial. The Gangas, cholas and Kalchuris were all related to Mutharaya kings. Many of the western ganga kings assumed the title of " Muttarasa or Mutharasa ".

Amoghavarsha-I and Religion : Among Rashtrakuta rulers some had Shiva as their Titular deity, some had Vishnu and Amogavarsha Nrupatunga was a devout Jain. But inscriptions scattered throughout their vast empire bear witness to their munificent grants to Buddhism, Jaina, Shaiva and Vaishnava institutions. Keeping alive the great Indian tradition of religious toleration.

The earliest reference to Pandharpur is from a Rastrakuta grant dated to the 6 th century AD. The operative parts of the grant state that Pandarangapalli along with Anewari, Cala, Kandaka and Duddapalli were granted to a learned brahmana, Jayadviththa. (MAD 1929:198ff;). This grant also refers to the scribe, one Pandaradrisena, or the lord of the Pandara hill. The Rastrakuta king Amoghavarsa gives this grant in the 9 th century AD.

Amoghavarsh is known to be the first follower of Jainism among Rastrakutas. His long reign was distinguished for its royal patronage of Jainism and the flourishing of regional literature.Amoghavarsha seems to a Hindu initially but later became a Jain. As per some information, King Amogavarsha-I himself was a Jaina by faith, but a fervent devotee of Mahalakshmi. In order to avert the severe calamity of an epidemic (small pox?), this king sacrificed a finger to the goddess to please her. The earliest known inscriptional reference about kolhapur Mahalaxmi is from a copper-plate grant made by Amoghavarsha of the Rashtrakuta dynasty in 817 A. D. It was found at Sanjan and states that this Amoghavarsha cut off one of his fingers as an offering to the goddess for bringing peace to his people.

Acharya Jinasen,author of Adipuran, was his learned preceptor. Amoghavarsha was a disciple of Jinasenacharya, the author of Mahapurana, and part author of the Dhavala. Mahaviracharya who wrote "Ganita-sara-samgraha" in 850 AD during the reign of the great Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha. Amoghavarsha I was a follower of the "Digambara" branch of Jainism. Amoghavarsha I patronised both Jainism and Hinduism. Amoghavarsha had become a Jain monk in the later part of his life. King Amoghavarsha (early 9th century AD) is even reported to have abdicated his throne to become a Jain monk.

'Ganit Sar Sangrah' states that Amoghavarsh was follower of the religion of non-absolutism. He left the throne and practised the religion of non-possession for several years. Amoghavarsh requested Acharya Gunabhadra,the main disciple of Acharya Jinasen, to teach his son Krishna II.Gunabhadra has been the writer of the last five chapters of Adipuran, Uttarpuran and Atmanushashan. Krishnaraj was follower of Jainism. He offered gifts for the temple of Mulagund. Krishnarai III also patronised Jainism and Jain scholars. The inscription of Danavulapatu states that king Nityavarsh (Indra IIIrd) constructed a dais for the anointment of Arhant-deva for gaining bliss. The last Rashtrakuta king Indra IV was a devoted Jain. He adopted Sallekhana vow for a peaceful death.

Many warrior ministers and commanders of Rashtrakuta were followers of Jainism. The first representative administratorof Amoghavarsha, whose name was Vankeya, was Jain. He was the ruler of Varanasi. He ordered to give a village to the Jain temples of his capital as a gift. Lokaditya, the son of Vankcya was also supporter of Jainism. Sriivijaya, the commander of Indra IIIrd, was Jain and he patronised Jain literature. About 250 years period of Rashtrakuta rulers was the golden period for creation of Jain literature. At that time about two third population was Jain.

Architecture : The Rashtrakutas have found immortality in the pages of Indian history, through their marvellous rock cut temples of Ellora, in modern day Maharashtra. The Jain Narayana temple of Pattadakal, ( a UNESCO World Heritage Site) the basadi at Konnur and the Neminatha basadi at Manyakheta were build during his rule and is located on the Pattadakal-Badami Road. This Jain Temple was built in the Dravidian style by Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta. This temple has some wonderful sculptures that probably date back to the 9th century. The temple is believed to be built either by Kind Amoghavarsha I or his son Krishna II.

Amoghavarsha was a poet and Sholar :Amoghavarsha -I was also a famous poet and scholar and wrote Kavirajamarga, the earliest extant literary work in Kannada and Prashnottara Ratnamalika, a religious work in Sanskrit. His own writing Kavirajamarga is a landmark literary work in Kannada language and became a guide book for future poets and scholars for centuries to come. The Sanskrit writing Prashnottara Ratnamalika is said to have been written by Amoghavarsha I in his old age when he had distanced himself from the affairs of the state. Many Kannada and Sanskrit scholars prospered during his rule including Mahaviracharya, who wrote Ganita-sara-samgraha, Jinasena, Virasena, Shakatayan and Sri Vijaya. Chandraprabha-purana by Sri Vijaya in the court of Amoghavarsha belonged to early ninth century.Writings such as Mahapurana by Gunabhadra, Prashnottara Ratnamalika and Mahaviracharya's Ganita sara sangraha are evidence that Amoghavarsha I had taken up Jainsim in his old age.

Some Informative Inscriptions :
Rastrakuta Inscription No. 7 - (B.K. No. 59 of 1928-29) - Kesarabhavi, Hungund Taluk, Bijapur District - On A Stone Set Up Near Th Temple Of Hanuman - The king's name which is damaged ends in varsha. Since the record is dated in Saka 759 (=A.D. 837), it may be assigned to the reign of Amoghavarsha I (A.D. 814-15 to 877-78). It mentions a daughter (name lost) of the king who was perhaps the wife of Yeraganga who was ruling over the Edadore and other districts.

Rastrakuta Inscription No. 8 - (B.K. No. 92 of 1929-30) - Huvina-Hippargi, Bagevadi Taluk, Bijapur District - On A Broken Pillar Lying Near The Entrance Into The Village - The record belongs to the reign of Amoghavarsha I and is dated in Saka 784, Chitrabhanu (=A.D. 862). It registers the gift of the village Pipparage (i.e., modern Huvina-Hippargi) situated in the Kannavuri-vishya to the astrologer Goleya-Bhatta. The gift is stated to be a Ratta-maltanda (martanda)-datti, thus supplying us with a hitherto unknown biruda of the king, viz., Ratra-maltanda (Ratta-martanda).

Rastrakuta Inscription No. 9 - (B.K. No. 93 of 1929-30) - On The Same Pillar - This and the previous record appear to refer to the same gift. The genealogies of the king and the donee and the boundaries of the village granted, ie., Puvina-Pipparage are here given in detail. And the occasion for making the gift to Goleya-Bhatta is stated to be the tulapurusha ceremony performed by the king who is called Amoghavarsha and Nirpatinga-Vallabha, at the time of a solar eclipse. The date of these two records would therefore be A.D. 862, August 28, Friday which was the day of the only solar eclipse in the year Chitrabhanu.

An incomplete inscription (No. 12) from Gudigeri, which is not dated but assigned to about the 8th or 9th century A.D. on palaeographical grounds, was published by Fleet. It refers itself to the reign of a certain Marassalba-maharaja and mentions one Dadigarasa as governing the nadu, evidently as a feudatory of the king. Fleet was inclined to identify Marassalba or Marasarva might have been a member of the Western Ganga family, possible the Ganga king Sripurusha-Muttarasa. As suggested by Altekar, Marasarva of the Wani-Dindori and Radhanpur plates seems to have been a petty ruler of Sarbhon in Bharoch and hence cannot be identified with Marasalba of the Gudigeri record. But his view that the latter was a small local feudatory ruling over a district is untenable. For, the record, states in unequivocal terms that Marassalba was 'ruling over the earth' (prithvi-rajyam geye), thereby indicating his sovereign status. It may be pointed out that Amoghavarsha I, the son and successor of a Govinda III, was called Sarva and, therefore, Marassalba or Marasarva may be identified with him. In the alternative, it may be taken to be an epithet of Govinda III himself. Dadigarasa who was governing the nadu, which probably stands for Banavasi-nadu, is not known from any other source.

BOMBAY-KARNATAKA INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME I - Part I
The son and successor of Govinda III was Amoghavarsha I who ascended the Rashtrakuta throne in A.D. 814. He is represented in this volume by 12 inscriptions ranging I date from Saka 759 (=A.D. 837) to Saka 796 (=A.D. 874). The earliest date is furnished by the Kesarbhavi inscription (No. 7) which, though badly damaged, seems to record details of some skirmish in Saka 759. This record reveals for the first time that king had a daughter name Revakanimmadi who was administering Edodore district under her father. It is interesting to note that royal ladies were enjoying a good share in the administration of the country as early as the 9th century A.D. The Ededore country over which Revakanimmadi was ruling, is evidently identical with the Ededore-nadu of the Yewur inscription of A.D. 1077 (E.P. Ind., Vol. XII, page 269) which is specified as Ededore-2000 in an inscription of Western Chalukya Vikramaditya VI, dated in A.D. 1084 and in the Miraj plates of Jayasimha II bearing a date in A.D. 1024 (ibid. page 303). Fleet has identified this district with "a stretch of country between the rivers Krishna on the north and Tungabhadra on the south comprising a large part of the present Raichur district." The village Kesarbhavi where the present inscription is secured, seems to have been included in this district though it does not find mention in the body of the record. For, there would, otherwise, be no relevancy in the inscribed stone being set up outside the limits of the Edodore country which Revakanimmadi was administering. Further Karatikally-300 which was a subdivision of Edeodre-2000 (ibid. page 304) must have extended into the interior of the Hungund taluk up to at least Kesarbhavi which is situated within fifty miles from Karadikallu in the Lingasgur taluk of the Raichur district after the division Karadikally-300 was named. In this case the south-west limit of the Edore country would be pushed back by a few miles to the west of 76, 15' which the Ededore country on the south-western side.

Revakanimmadi is a hitherto unknown daughter of Amogavarsha I who, as stated in the inscription, had been married to a certain Erega[niga]. It is tempting to identify this Ereganga with the Western Ganga chief of that name, son of Rachamalla I, who flourished during this period. But this is rendered impossible by the fact that Amogavarsha I had married his another daughter Chandrobbalabbe to Gunaduttaranga Butuga son of the above-mentioned Ereganga and brother of Rachamalla II. (Circa A.D. 870-90). It is therefore not certain who the Ereganga of the present inscription was. It is probably from the name of the prince, that he was a member of the Western Ganga family, but in what way he was related to the main ruling line, remains to be determined by future discoveries. It is worthwhile to mention here that the queue of Butuga II was also known as Revakanimmadi who happens to be the daughter of Amogavarsa Baddega. Since the date and paleography of the Kesarbhavi inscription are indisputably to be assigned to the reign of Amogavarsha I, there would be absolutely no justification to connect the princess Revakanimmadi of the present record with the daughter of Amogavarsha III. The latter princess appears to have been named after her great-grand-aunt Revakanimmadi, sister of Krishna II.

The latest year for king Amoghavarsha known from the inscriptions under publication is Saja 799 which fell in March 878 A.D. This must have been the last year of amoghavarsha, for his son and successor Krishna II's earliest known record secured recently at Hirebidri in the Ranebennur taluk of the Dharwar district (Bombay Karnatak List for 1935-36, No. 100) bears a date in Saka 800. The last year of Krishna II is furnished by the kavajageri inscription in the volume, which has the Saka date 834. Among his officers, Indapayya, Mangaorana, Mahasirivanta, Vatsayya and Mayirma are brought to light for the first time. His Venkatapur inscription applies to the king, curiously enough, the epithet Amoghavarsha which was borne by his father Nripatunga. If this is not a mistake, we have to suppose that the epithet had been assumed by both father and son just as Indra II and his son Govinda IV had borne the distinguishing epithet Nityavarsha (A.R. Nos. 277 of 1918, 235 of 1937-38 and Arch.Sur. Report for the 1929-30, page 173, ibid. 1930-34, Part I, pages 235 and 244) which is actually applied to the king in a record from Asundi, dated in Saka 847 falling in the reign of Govinda IV. Similarly, Krishna III and his father Baddega are known to have borne the biruda Amoghavarsha (Arch. Sur. Report for 1937-38). It may therefore be concluded that the birudas or surnames such as Amoghavarsha, Nityavarsha, etc., were not personal titles of the respective kings as suggested by Fleet in his discussion on "The appellations of the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed" (Ep. Ind., Vol. VI, pages 167 ff.).

The next king after Suvarnavarsha represented in this volume is Akalavarsha Krishna III , who is introduced in the Ron inscription (No. 36) with the epithets Samastabhuvanasraya and Prithvivallabha which were subsequently adopted by the Western Chalukya of Kalyana became the Characteristic terms in the latter's inscriptions.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Dt. 14/08/2007
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


31. SATTAN MARAN (alias) VIDELVIDUGU VILUPPERADI ARAIYAN :
Videlvidugu Vilupperadiaraisan alias Sattan Maran was the son of queen perumbidugu perundevi. They belong to the Mutturaiyar family, who got the title Videlvidugu after Pallava Nandivaraman II. It appears that Sattan Maran ruled kingdom as a subordinate king under Pallavas in 9th Century A.D. Narthamalai came under the sway of the Mutharayars from 7th to 9th century who were the vassals of the Pallava kings of Kanchi and Pandya kings of Madurai and was later conquered by the Cholas of Thanjavur. The Pandyas and Pallavas carried on the wars by proxy through their subordinate chiefs the Mutharayars and Velirs. The Mutharayars according to the available information had their headquarters at Nemam near Tirukattupalli and held their sway over Tiruchi, Thanjavur and Pudukottai regions until the emergence of the mighty Cholas of Thanjavur. The father's name of the king Videlvidugu Vilupperadiaraisan is not known and the name of of this king's wife is also not known.

Chattan => Sattan = Huge Stable Rock or a boulder

Arya => Araya => Arasu => Arasa
Aryan => Arayan => Araiyan
Araiyan => Araiyar => Araisar => Araisan

Muttarayan => Muttarasan = Muttarasar
Muttarayan => Muttaraiyan => Muttaraiyar => Muttaraisar
Mutta = Mutha = Cluster of villages forming an administrative unit.
Mutharacha = Mutharayan = Muttaraya = Muttaraiya = Administrator of a Mutha

The Kodumbalur tract was mostly under Irukkuvel chiefs (a short note on the Irukkuvel-s is given below) from the middle of the 6th century AD to the middle of the 9th century AD. During the same period the Muttaraiyar-s had been ruling the adjoining areas falling in PudukkottaiTiruchirappalli and Thanjavur tracts. Both these ruling chiefs constantly changed their allegiance with one or the other of the greater powers, the Pallava-s and the Pandya-s. The monuments and inscriptions of this period (6th-9th centuries AD) relate to the Muttaraiyar-s, the Irukkuvel-s, the Pandya-s and the Pallava-s.

Nemam : . Nemam was the headquarterss for the Mutharayars according to the available information. Mutharayars held their sway over Tiruchi, Thanjavur and Pudukottai regions until the emergence of the mighty Cholas of Thanjavur. Nemam is a historical town located near Tirukattupalli and falls under Thanjavur district. Tirukattupalli ( Tirukkattuppalli ) lies South of Chennai on the road to Mahabalipuram. There is one Airavateeswarar temple at nemam. The Nemam temple is noteworthy for its stone work - over 125 beautiful sculptures can be found here. There is one Agneeswarar Temple at Tirukkattuppalli near Thanjavur.

The Mutharayars who ruled Pudukottai, Narthmalai, Thanjore, etc. had their roots in telugu speaking ancestors of Andhra Pradesh. Professor N. S. Ramachandran (born ?, 1908) was one of the leading composers of Carnatic music. His family roots can be traced back to a small village in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu called Nemam in Tanjore district. His Grandfather Sri Nemam Subramanya Iyer had the privilege of being a direct disciple of the great Sri Tyagaraja Tyagaraja (Telugu: 1848; also spelled Thyagaraja). Thyagaraja was a Telugu poet saint. Tyagaraja connection to this region is a strong indication that most of these brahmins moved to Tamil speaking lands along with the kings from Telugu region. Using village name as surname is as per tradition of Telugu people and there is no such tradition among Tamilians.

Mutharayar Inscriptions at Tirumaiyam Temple :

Thirumayam is a place situated between Madurai and Pudukottai. This sthalam is well known as it is one of the 108 Tirupathis. Thirumayam, named after Perumal Thirumeyyar who appears in a lying posture on the Snake 'Aadhiseshan' in a separate sanctum sanctorum. There are nineteen inscriptions in Thirumayam, five in Siva temple and fourteen in Vishnu temple. Some of the inscriptions contain some references to Muttharaiyar kings. There are a number of minor shrines, which include one to Ayyanar, locally called Kaliya-perumal, and another to Pidari. The site where a Vaduga (Nayak) woman is said to have performed Sati is held sacred. The Vaduga Nayakas were mostly Telugu people who migrated to Tamilnadu. These Vadugas could be the descendants of Kalabhras who invaded Tamil & kerala countries during 2 - 3 century AD.

Thirumayam Fort is a place of historical importance located about 20 km south of the town of Pudukkottai in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The main attractions of the place are the fort, and the Shiva and Vishnu temples. Famous freedom fighters Veerapandia Kattapoman and his brother Umathaiturai ( Muthuraja Nayakas ) hided in a fort at Tirumayam, after their fight against the British during 17th Century. Locally it is known as Oomayan Kottai fort-of-the-dumb. The dump (Oomayan) refers to the younger brother of Katta-bomman, who fought against the British and was executed by the British. It was in this fort that the brother of Kattabimman Poisoned. Local stories claim that Oomayan and his brother, Katta-bomman, during their escape from the British, constructed this fort in a night! According to the Statistical Account (1813), it was built in 1687 by Raghunatha Sethupathi of Ramanathapuram. There is an unconfirmed tradition that Katta-bomman and his brother the Oomayan were for a time detained at the fort before the Tondaiman handed them over to the British. (Hemingway in the Gazetteer of the Trichinopoly District mentions only Oomayan as having been lodged at this fort).

Thirumayam Rock-cut Shrines : There are two famous rock-cut shrines, one of Siva and the other of Vishnu, adjacent to each other. The Siva temple, which stands to the west of the Vishnu temple, is the older of the two. These are located at the foot of a hillock on the south side of the town. The rock cut Shiva temple is situated on a hill amid the relics of another ancient and ruined fort. Near this temple stands one of the largest rock inscriptions in Tamil Nadu. The inscriptions are of particular interest since they deal with music, a rare subject for inscriptions. The Vishnu temple is located on the foot of the hill; it is much a much-venerated temple and is considered second in importance only to the temple at Srirangam. Vishnu temple contains an octagonal sacred tank called 'Satya-pushkarani'.

Thirumayam Inscriptions :
The earliest inscription in the Vishnu temple is on a slab, which is now placed in the western prakaram of the Sathya-moorthi shrine. This slab must have once formed part of a parapet to the steps leading to the cave-temple. It may be ascribed to the latter part of the 8th century or the early years of 9th century AD.

The eigth Century inscription mentions a renovation of the cave temple and an endowment by the mother of Sattan Maran, a Muttaraiyar chief. It also speaks of the perumbidugu Perundevi, mother of local chieftain Chattan Maran giving the town of Andangudi for the temple while repairing it. This Sattan Maran is said to be a contemporary vassal of the Pallava Nandi-varman II and Danti-varman.

An inscription (No. 402) on a stone set up in the Satyagirinatha temple at Tirumaiyam engraved in characters of about the 9th century A.D. belongs to a Muttraiyar chief. It registers a grant probably of some land and village Andakaudi with the Karanmai-miyatchchi for the renovation of Paudukkuppuram and for the maintenance of the central shrine and as unnaligaippuram, respectively, by perumbiduguperundevi the mother of Videlvidugu Vilupperadiaraisan alias Sattan Maran. He was member of the Mutturaiyar family, who got the title Videlvidugu after Pallava Nandivaraman, probably as a subordinate. Shri K.G. Krishnan has identified Perumbidugu Perundevi as the queen of Cattan, the earliest known member of this Muttaraiyar family and has said that these chiefs had added to their official or dynastic designations the titles like Videlvidugu and Perdumbiduga.

Videlvidugu Vilupperadiaraisan = Sattan Maran.
Perumbiduguperundevi = Mother of Sattan Maran
Perumbidugu Perundevi = Queen of Sattan

Inscription No. 402 - (A. R. No. 402 of 1906) - Tiruchiraplli District, Pudukkottai State, Tirumayyam - Satyagirinatha-Perumal Temple � On A Stone Set Up Inside The Premises - This is in characters of about the 9th century A.D. It is incomplete. It seems to record a gift of land for the renovation of some structure (temple?) and worship therein by Perumpidugu Perundevi, the mother of (a chief by name) Videlvidugu-Araisan alias Sattan Maran. It is possible that this chief was related to the Muttaraiyars of Sendalai.

Videlvidugu Vilupperadiaraisan = Sattan Maran
Perumbiduguperundevi = Mother of Videlvidugu Vilupperadiaraisan

Sendalai : The Sendalai records attribute a victory at Kodumbalur to Perumbidugu Suvaran-Maran (first half of 8th century), a Muttaraiyar chief, who is mentioned as having defeated the Pandya-s and the Chera-s. The Sundaresvara temple at Sendalai near Tanjore is well known to students of Tamil arts. It carries inscriptions of Pallava, Pandya and Muttaraiya rulers and refers to a great Maha-kali temple at Niyamam, a village nearby.

Pallava No. 103 - (A. R. No. 174 of 1912) - Tiruvorriyur, Saidapet Taluk, Chingleput District - On a slab built into the floor of the verandah - round the central shrine in the Adhipurisvara temple - This date of this record of Vijaya-Kampavarman is not clear. It might be 11, 13 or 16. The inscription records an agreement made by the assembly (ur) of Vaikkattur ro provide offerings to the god Mahadeva at Tiruvorriyur, on the day of sankranti, for the interest on 27 kalanju of gold received by them from Pudi Arindigai, wife of Videlvidugu[Ilankove]lar of Kodumbalur in Ko-nadu. The chiefs of Kodumbalur (in the Pudukkottai state) figure largely in inscriptions as subordinates of the Cholas, but their connection with the Pallavas is not so well known. A chief of this family is also mentioned in a mutilated record from Kilur, dated in the 11th year of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman, where the donor is stated to be the wife of Sattan maravan and the daughter of Vikrama-Pudi who is probably identical with Videlvidugu Ilanko-Adiaraiyan mentioned in the same record.

Sattan Maran = Sattan Maravan
Wife of Sattan Maran = Daughter of Vikrama-Pudi
Pudi Arindigai = Wife of Videlvidugu[Ilankove]lar of Kodumbalur

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
26/06/2007
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


32. VIDELVIDUGU KADUPATTI MUTTARASAR ALIAS KUVAVAN SATTAN :
Kadupatti Muttarasar was active from the 16th year of Dantivarman to that of Nrpatunga, for over sixty years from 810 to 870. It is said that he belonged to a branch of Bana family who assumed / took the title of Muttarasa. It is also said that he belonged to konadu. A careful study of information available from different sources is made and tried to provide a summary of information about this Muttarayan king.

This Muttarayan king belonged to a bana family who assumed the title MUTTARASA. He ruled the Pudukottai region of Tamilnadu. He is known by many titles such as Kadupatti, Videlvidugu, Kuvavan, Sattan, Vijnapati, Paranjaya, Videlvidugu Ilangovelan, Ilango Muttaraiyar etc. The following are the various names by which the kning is normally identified by historians:

  • Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan
  • Videl-vidugu Muttaraiyan
  • Kadupatti Muttaraiyan
  • Kadupatti Muttaraiya
  • Kadupatti Muttarasar
  • Kadupatti Muttaraiyar
  • Kaduvetti Muttaraiya
  • Kuvavan Sattan
  • Videlvidugu Ilangovelan
  • Videlvidugu Ilankovelar
  • Marpidugu Ilangovelan Sattan
  • Vijnapti.
  • Paranjaya
  • Agatrayesa
  • Saila trayendra
This Muttarayar king was aligned with Nrpatunga Pallava and was in the opposition with Kampavarman Pallava. Nrpatunga and Kampa were brothers from different queens of Nandi III. Kadupatti Muttarayan was conquerred by Aparajita, the son of Pallava Kampavarman.

The king had a daughter whose name is not known. The daughter was married to a Pandya king and he had a grandson by name Pandya Varaguna through his daughter. He had a son by name Arikanta Perumal or Ariganda Perumanar. He had also a son by name Sattan pazhiyili or Sattam Paliyili. Whether the king had two sons or the two different names belonged to one son is not clear. The king had a grand daughter by name Pazhiyili Siriya-nangai through his son Sattan pazhiyili. This grandaughter Paliyili Siriya-Nangai was married to one Minavan Tamiladiyaraiyan alias Pallan Anantan.

Bana kings were the descendants of Mahabali chakravarty and these people are now known as mavalis and mahabalis in Kerala and Tamilnadu. For more details about Bana kings, please see section - "Kalabhra Origins" under page "Origins" in this website.

DETAILED STUDY & ANALYSIS OF INSCRIPTIONS :
A per the information available from Valenjeri Plates of Aparajita, Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan was identical with Kadupatti Muttaraiyan. Kaduvetti Muttaraiya's son Arikanta Perumal, is mentioned in the 15th year of Nrpatunga in an inscription of Thiruvalangadu. Arikanta continued to hold power and influence upto the 24th year of Nrpatunga. In this record he is mentioned as the son of Kadupatti Muttaraiya. This Bana also had the title Kadupatti Muttarasar. Muttarasars were closely related to Pandya Varaguna. Kadupatti Muttaraiya passed away before the 15th year of Nrpatunga.

Kaduvetti : The Kadava name with Tondaiyar and Kaduvetti, is found in Tamil literature to refer to the Pallavas. The title Kaduvetti is also used in some inscriptions to denote the Pallavas. The kings of the collateral line of the Pallavas who were descended from Bhimavarman, the brother of Simhavishnu, are called the Kadavas. Kadavas were related to the Pallava dynasty and ruled from Kudalur near Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu. The subordinate kings of Pallavas also used title kaduvetti. Mutharayar kings were subordinate kings some times to pallavas and some other times to pandyas. They used to switch over their loyalties from time to time as per changing political situations. There are people among Tamil Muthurajas and Telugu Mudiraj who are having surnames associated with Kaduvtti and kadu and they are as given below :

Kadu
Kaduvelirayar
Kaduvettimutharayar
Kaduvizhirayar

From the Pallava inscriptions No. 66 & 75 and Thiruttani and Velanjeri Copper Plates given at the bottom of this article, it can be seen that Kadupatti Muttaraiyar had a son by name Ariganda Perumanar and Ariganda perhaps lived during 15th & 24th year of Vijaya Nriptungavikramavarman.

Kadupatti Muttaraiyan = Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan
Arikanta Perumal = Son of Kaduvetti Muttaraya
Arikanta Perumal = Ariganda Perumanar

The cave temple at Malaiyadipatti, in Pudukkottai district, was excavated by one Kadupatti Muttaraiyar alias Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan in the 16th year of Dantivarman. It is not known whether this Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan is identical with Kadupatti Muttaraiyan. A Kadupatti Muttariya figures in an inscription of Dantivarman (the date is lost) from Pallipalayam village in Kanchipuram taluk. He appears as a Vijnapti. This would suggest that Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan was identical with Kadupatti Muttaraiyan. Kadupatti Muttaraiya raided Koyattur in the reign of Bana Vijayaditta Virachulamani Prabhumeru as mentioned in the Punganur record. This Bana Vijayaditta Prabhumeru, was a contemporary of Nrpatunga and it is evident that this Kadupatti Muttaraiyan is identical with the Kadupatti Muttaraiya mentioned in the Chirrur plates as Vijnapti.

An inscription dated in the 16th year of the Pallava King Danti-varman (775 � 826 AD) mentions that Videl-vidugu Muttaraiyar also called Kuvavan Sattan cut this Shiva temple at Malayadipatti out of the Thiru-valattur-malai, and installed a lingam. The Siva temple is adjoining to the Vishnu shrine, in the eastern side. It is considered to be older than the Vishnu temple. It is ascribed to the 8th century on the basis of epigraphical and architectural evidences.

Videl-vidugu Muttaraiyan = Kuvavan Sattan
Kadupatti Muttaraiyan = Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan

It is another rock-cut cave temple at Pazhiyili-isvaram in Narttamalai, dedicated to Siva, opposite to the Vijayalaya Chozhisvaram temple, about 30 feet south of Samanar-kudagu. This Siva cave temple was excavated in the seventh year of the Pallava king Nripatunga (862 AD.) by a Muttaraiyar chief, Sattan-pazhiyili, son of Videl-vidugu Muttaraiyan, whence the temple gets the name. An inscription on the basement, states that the temple was excavated by Pazhiyili. It also states that his son built the front mandapam and installed a nandi, while his daughter Pazhiyili Siriya-nangai made a gift of land to the temple.

During the 7th to 9th centuries Narttamalai was part of the Pallava Empire, but was directly administrated by Muttaraiyar-s. The cave temple known as Pazhiyili Isvaram appears to have been excavated during the time of the Pallava Nandi-varman III (about 826-849 AD) by a Muttaraiyar chief Sattan-pazhiyili, son of Videl-vidugu Muttaraiyan as stated in the inscription on this temple dated in the seventh year of the Pallava emperor Nripatunga Varman (about 849-875 AD). This region was apparently been disputed by the Pandya-s and the Chozha-s till about the middle of the 9th century when Vijayalaya Chozha incorporated it in the Chozha empire after defeating the Muttaraiyar.

From the Pallava inscriptions No. 63 given at the bottom of this article, it can be seen that Videlvidugu-Muttaraiyan had a son by name Sattam Paliyili. Paliyili Siriya-Nangai was the daughter of Sattam Paliyili and wife of Minavan Tamiladiyaraiyan alias Pallan Anantan br>
Vignapati = Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan = Kuvavan Sattan
Sattan-pazhiyili = Son of Videl-vidugu Muttaraiyan
Sattan pazhiyili = Sattam Paliyili
Pazhiyili Siriya-nangai = Daughter of pazhiyili & Grand daughter of Videlvidugu
Paliyili Siriya-Nangai = Wife of Minavan Tamiladiyaraiyan alias Pallan Anantan

Who were Minavans ? : Minavans were subordinate chiefs to Pandyas similar to Mutharayars. The Paravars were the chiefs of the coastal region and they ruled their areas as subordinates of the Pandyas of the Sangam age. There are many historic reasons for the closer relations with the Pandiyan kingdom of Madurai. Tuticorin the port city of the Pandiyan kingdom, has always been a stronghold of the Paravars.

The Paravars were a section of the Minas. Father Heras says that during the time when it was a fashion to claim Aryan descent, the Paravars started to call themselves Bharathas (also Bharathars, Parathars, Parathavars) identifying themselves with the Bharathas of the Vedic period. The Mohenjo Daro inscriptions clearly show that their ancient and real name was Paravar. Their main city was called Paravarpalli, the city of the Paravas. The king of the Paravas always received the title of Minavan and his banner had two fishes on it. Parava or Paravas, also known as Bharathar, Paravar is one of the oldest Tamil castes.

Parava => Paravar
Parvars = Bharathars = Minas

For centuries the Paravas had been pearl divers. . Tuticorin city in Tamilnadu, India which is still a stronghold of the Parava community was the centre of the pearl trade. The Paravas later diversified into fishing, salt-making and other maritime professions. Paravar also refers to the people living on the coast of the Indian state of Tamilnadu and in parts of northern and western Sri Lanka (Ceylon). In Tamil language and literature, the coastal areas where they lived were called 'Neythal Thinai.' The other old Tamil castes, the Maravars (Devars) and Kuravars live in the neighbourhood and in ancient times were believed to be akin to the Paravas. The Portuguese called the area where the Paravas lived as "La Pescaria" - or Land of the Pearls.

Traditionally the Paravars had sea based professions including pearl diving, fishing, navigating, and salt making. They were excellent ship-builders. The Paravars have a long tradition of learning and are one of the earliest communities to have a high literacy rate. This is attributed to their traditional profession of navigator.

Pearl = Muthu

The minas were from North India and they were natives of Rajastan also. The main tribes of Rajasthan are the Bhils and the Minas that were the original inhabitants of the area now called Rajasthan. But they were forced into the Aravalli Range by the Aryan invasion. Smaller tribes include the Sahariyas, Garasias and the Gaduliya lohars. Minas seems to be either kolis or a branch of kolis and closely related to bhil tribe.

As per pallava inscription:103, Pudi Arindigai was the wife of Videlvidugu[Ilankove]lar of Kodumbalur in Ko-nadu.

Pudi Arindigai = Wife of Videlvidugu[Ilankove]lar.

There is one Pallava Inscription no 48 which refers to ione Marpidugu Ilangovelan Sattan who was subordinate king to Dantivarman. This king seems to be Videlvidugu Ilangovelan alias Ilango Muttaraiyar alias Sattan.

Marpidugu Ilangovelan Sattan = Videlvidugu Ilangovelan = Ilango Muttaraiyar = Sattan.

The inscription seems to record the praise of a certain Sellikkoman Mallavan who is described as the nephew of Parasiraman and the uncle of Marpidugu Ilangovelan Sattan. The record is stated to have ben composed by a certain Perungavidi Sadaiyanpalli.

The Pundarikaksha Perumal temple in Thiruvellarai :ONLY A handful of temples have been dedicated to Lord Varaha, the most important of them being those at Thiruvidaventhai (Thiruvidanthai), on way to Kadalmallai (Mahabalipuram) and Srimushnam, where the Lord is hailed as `Gnanapiran.' But one place, which bears the name of this incarnation is Swedha Varaha Kshethram or Thiruvellarai, 17 km from Tiruchi on the road to Thuraiyur, and it is one of the 108 holy places. But the Lord standing tall and facing east is known as Pundarikakshan or the `Lotus-eyed God.' . The Swasthik tank in the temple finds mention in one of the inscriptions, which calls it `Maarpidugu Perunkinaru' and it was believed to have been dug up by Maarpidugu Ilangovelan Sathan, a feudal lord under Pallava kings. The Pallava Kings have carved out two cave temples in the rocks in this place, and there are many inscriptions throwing light on the history of the Cholas and Pallavas. Historians consider one of them to belong to the period of `Pallava Malla' Nandivarman II and another belongs to the period of Rajaraja I.

Muttarayan was called Paranjaya : The Vijnapti of the Chirrur plates issued in the sixth year of Nrpatunga was Muttaraiyan, who also had the title Paranjaya. He was a Bana and is called a descendent of Balikula. He is also called Agatrayesa and Saila trayendra. These are names of the Trikuta mountain, considered to the the highest peak of the Himalayas. Rulers of eminence assumed the title Trikutachalapati to mark their valour. The Cholas a little later assumed the little "Mummudi" which in all probability refers to Trikuta.

Vijnapati = Paranjaya = Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan

Vijayaditta, Vikramaditta and others called themselves Mavalivanadhiraya. They probably belonged to a colateral branch of the Bana family. The other Bana family took the title Mutarasa. Kadupatti Muttarasa was active from the 16th year of Dantivarman to that of Nrpatunga, for over sixty years from 810 to 870. Kaduvetti Muttaraiya's son Arikanta Perumal, is mentioned in the 15th year of Nrpatunga in an inscription of Thiruvalangadu. Arikanta continued to hold power and influence upto the 24th year of Nrpatunga. In this record he is mentioned as the son of Kadupatti Muttaraiya. In all probability Kadupatti Muttaraiya passed away before the 15th year of Nrpatunga.

A Pandya, said to have been a grandson of the Bana through a daughter, was also defeated by Aparajita. Pandya Varaguna received help from Nrpatunga. It is not known who the mother of Varaguna was. If Varaguna was the adversary of Aparajita, in all probability he was, we get here the information that he was the son of this Bana's daughter. This Bana also had the title Kadupatti Muttarasar. So the fact that the Muttarasar were closely related to Pandya Varaguna is also thus attested. That may also attest to the presence of Varaguna at Sendalai.

The Vijnapti of the Chirrur plates issued in the sixth year of Nrpatunga was Muttaraiyan, who also had the title Paranjaya. He was a Bana and is called a descendent of Balikula. He is also called Agatrayesa and Saila trayendra.* (* These are names of the Trikuta mountain, considered to the the highest peak of the Himalayas. Rulers of eminence assumed the title Trikutachalapati to mark their valour. The Cholas a little later assumed the little "Mummudi" which in all probability refers to Trikuta).

As per the Valenjeri Plates / grant issued by the Pallava ruler, Aparajita, in his ninth regnal year, the following information is available :

The grant begins with Kampavarman and says that he seized the throne from Pallava Nrpatunga with glory. A certain Vijaya of matchless virtues and born of the Ganga family, was Kampavarman's queen. Aparajita was their son. Aparajita destroyed the elepants of the Bana ruler, captured Karanai, the Pandya city, and won a great battle against the Chola at Chirrarrur.

The poetic version describe the explooits of Kampavarman, and Aparajita and extols the greatness of Vijaya, the mother of Aparajita. It specifically mentions Aparajita as the son of Kampavarman, through Vijaya, a Ganga princess. This passage further shows that Kampa and Aparajita had the able support of the Ganga chieftains. Further, this plate states that Kampavarman captured the Pallava throne forcibly from Nrpatunga. Another point of great interest furnished by this plates is the conquests of Aparajita. Aparajita conquered the Bana, captured Karanai the city of the Pandya and defeated the Chola at Chirrarrur.

Bana king = Videlvidugu Muttataiyan = One who was conquered by Aparajita

The two pallava brothers Kampavarman and Nrpatunga were sons of Nandi III. Nrpatunga was younger to kampa but Nrpatunga was made king under the pressure from Rastrakutas as Nrpatunga was born to a Rastrakuta princes and Nandi. But Kampa removed Nrpatunga from the throne at a later time and became the king for himself. Aparajita was Kampa's son born to a Ganga princes. Videlvidugu takes the side of Nrpatunga.

Kampavarman and Nrpatunga were two pallava brothers. The fight between the Pallava brothers needs explanation. It is obvious that Nrpatunga was installed on the throne by his father Nandi III. From this it is clear, that Nrpatunga was a boy in his eighth regnal year. He should still have been in his teens. It suggests that Kampavarman, father of Aparajita, should have been elder to Nrpatunga. While Kampavarman the elder was alive, the younger, Nrpatunga, though a boy, ascended the throne. This obviously led to enmity between the brothers. Nrpatunga should have been chosen by Nandi II in preference to Kampa, probably because of Rashtrakuta influence. Nrpatunga's mother, Sankha was a Rashtrakuta princess.

It is not known whether Nrpatunga ascended the throne even when Nandi was alive or after his demise. Probably during his last years, Nandi installed Nrpatunga. Kampavarman, immediately after the demise of his father, should have struck the blow and dislodged his brother. Though Kampa removed his brother from the throne, he treated him with considerable moderation and even allowed him to issue charters. He also installed his son Aparajita very early as his co-regent, as Aparajita was known for his valour.

The power alignment during this period also needs consideration. The Banas were clearly on the side of Narpatunga. Bana Paranjaya, who had the title Kadupatti Muttariyan, requested Nrpatunga to grant the Chirrur plates. Aparajita defeated a Bana ruler who was in all probability this Paranjaya, kadupatti Muttaraiya. A Pandya, said to have been a grandson of the Bana through a daughter, was also defeated by Aparajita. Pandya Varaguna received help from Nrpatunga. It is not known who the mother of Varaguna was. If Varaguna was the adversary of Aparajita, in all probability he was, we get here the information that he was the son of this Bana's daughter. This Bana also had the title Kadupatti Muttarasar. So the fact that the Muttarasar were closely related to Pandya Varaguna is also thus attested. That may also attest to the presence of Varaguna at Sendalai.

Bana king = Kadupatti Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan
Pandya Varaguna = Son of a Pandya king to Bana's daughter
Pandya Varaguna = Grandson of Kadupatti Muttaraiyan

The third adversary of Aprajita was a Chola defeated at Chirrarrur. In all probability the Chola adversary was Aditya. We know that subsquently Aditya killed Aparajita in the battle. This shows that Varaguna, Aditya, Bana and Muttarasa were on the side of Nrpatunga while Aparajita and Kampa, were aided by the Ganga ruler Prithivipati on the other. It was mentioned earlier that Aparajita's mother was a Ganga princess. That Aparajita was aided in the Sripurambiyam battle by Ganga Prithivipati is well known Prithvipati obtained victory for his over lord Aparajita, but lost his life in that battle. The role of chieftains during this period requires carefull study. Banas, Gangas, Muttaraiyars, Irukkuvels, Viluppariyars, Tamil Peraraiyar, Pallavaraiyar etc. are found during this period. It is noteworthy that a number of chieftains bore the title Videlvidugu. All these chieftains lived in the middle and later half of the ninth century. Vedilvidugu is a significant title of Dantivarman.

Summary of Valenjeri Plates of Aparajita : Pallava Kampavarma of splendid glory conquered the mighty Pallava Nrpatunga in battle, and forcibly seized his country that has the ocean as its girdle, along with glory. Vijaya of matchless virtues, and born of the pure and Ganga family, became the queen of Kampavarma as if competing with his conquests and wealth. Thus Nrpatunga Kampavarma were brothers but born to different queens. Aparajita, a possessor of varied wealth and beauty, was born as her first child. Even as a boy, Aparajita destroyed the elephants of the Bana ruler in no time, inflicting wounds with the ankusa. He razed to the ground Karanai encircled by turrets, the city of the Pandya ruler, who was a dauhitra (the grandson through a daughter, probably of the Bana) and conquered the Chola king at the great battle of Chirrarrur with the help of elephants. His opponents, driven out of their territories, enter, as if entering their own palace, the forests which are the most eminently suited abodes for them. He was resplendent sun to the sky of the Kalabhra Kula.

In Nartamalai, we have an inscription dated in the reign of Nrpatunga, which refers to Videlvidugu Ilangovelan and his son Sattan Paliyili (who excavated the cave shrine to Siva). Evidently the surname of Videlvidugu Ilangovelan was Sattan, while that of Tennavan Ilangovelan was Puti. It is evident that Videlvidugu Ilangovelan is different from, but an elder contemporary of, Tennavan Ilangovel the builder of the Kodumbalur temple.

Videlvidugu Ilangovelan = Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan

From the Pallava inscriptions No. 63 given below, it can be seen that Videlvidugu-Muttaraiyan had a son by name Sattam Paliyili and paliyili perhaps lived during 7th year of Nriptungavikramavarman.

From the Pallava inscriptions No. 74 given below, it can be seen that there lived one Ilango Muttaraiyar during the time of Vira-Mahadeviyar, the queen of Nripatunga-Maharaja.

Sattan Phaziyili & Pazhiyili-isvaram:
It is another rock-cut cave temple, dedicated to Siva, opposite to the Vijayalaya Chozhisvaram temple, about 30 feet south of Samanar-kudagu. During the 7th to 9th centuries Narttamalai was part of the Pallava Empire, but was directly administrated by Muttaraiyar-s. The cave temple known as Pazhiyili Isvaram appears to have been excavated during the time of the Pallava Nandi-varman III (about 826-849 AD) by a Muttaraiyar chief Sattan-pazhiyili, son of Videl-vidugu Muttaraiyan as stated in the inscription on this temple dated in the seventh year of the Pallava emperor Nripatunga Varman (about 849-875 AD). This region was apparently been disputed by the Pandya-s and the Chozha-s till about the middle of the 9th century when Vijayalaya Chozha incorporated it in the Chozha empire after defeating the Muttaraiyar.

This Siva cave temple was excavated in the seventh year of the Pallava king Nripatunga (862 AD.) by a Muttaraiyar chief, Sattan-pazhiyili, son of Videl-vidugu Muttaraiyan, whence the temple gets the name. An inscription on the basement, states that the temple was excavated by Pazhiyili. It also states that his son built the front mandapam and installed a nandi, while his daughter Pazhiyili Siriya-nangai made a gift of land to the temple. It has a garbha-griham, measuring 8 feet x 7� feet, and about 7 feet in height, cut out of the rock. There is a lingam inside with a cylindrical yoni-pitham Two dvara-palaka-s, belonging to this temple, have been excavated from the site and now placed on the platform. In front of the garbha-griham is a moulded basement of a mandapam referred to in the foundation inscription. On the basement, above the kumudam, is a frieze of dancing bhutha-gana-s. There is a fine sculpture of Nandi placed on the basement.

Pazhiyileeswaram is another rock-cut cave temple with a Siva linga inside a small sanctum sanctorum with two beautiful dwarapalakas. The inscription at the base of the temple is an extremely interesting piece that belongs to the period of the Pallava king (Nirupatunga Varman 855-896 A.D). The inscription says that the cave temple was built by the Mutharaya king. Mutharayar and his son Sathan had built the Mukha Mandapam, Nandimandapam and Balipeetam at the temple. This inscription helps to read the lineage of the Mutharayar kings, who were the vassals of the Pallava kings.

The two rock-cut temples atop Melamalai besides the Vijayaleeswara Choleeswaram temples tucked under idyllic settings are extremely informative and also a classic example of the fusion of different styles of temple architecture prevailing in different parts of the country. One cannot but marvel how in that distant past the Mutharayar s, whose contribution to the temple architecture and local government were not given due recognition and importance, had become master builders.

Narthamalai came under the sway of the Mutharayars from 7th to 9th century who were the vassals of the Pallava kings of Kanchi and Pandya kings of Madurai and was later conquered by the Cholas of Thanjavur. The earliest structural stone temple circular in shape built by Mutharaiyars are worth a visit in this place. The Mutharayars according to the available information had their headquarters at Nemam near Tirukattupalli and held their sway over Tiruchi, Thanjavur and Pudukottai regions until the emergence of the mighty Cholas of Thanjavur.

Pallava Transistion : Some of the important temples in Tanjore-Pudukkottai region are Thirumeyyam, Kudumiyamalai, Malayadipatti, Kunnandar Koil etc. In Thirumeyyam an early inscription is that of a Pallava feudatory Videlvidugu Vilupperadiarasan also known as Sattan Maran. In Kudimiyamalai, an inscription of Aditya, dated in 20th year (890 A.D.) mentions Perumbidugu Muttarayar's wife Nangai making gifts. The connection of this Perumbidugu Muttarasa with the Pallavas is obvious from the title. In Kunnandar Koil we have an inscription of Pallava Nandi. The Malayadipatti cave temple was excavated by Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan in the reign of Pallava Dantivarman. The Muttaraiyars mentioned in Sendalai Pillar were feudatories of the Pallavas is also known. It is clear that in all these important places in Tanjore-Pudukkottai, the Pallava power and impact were very much effective in the 9th cent. A.D. It has been shown that these Muttaraiya chieftains were active both in the Kanchipuram and Tanjore-Pudukkottai regions. It would show that the Pallava art of the Tondaimandalam region, very much influenced the Muttaraiya foundations.

Conclusions :

Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan = (Kuvavan) Sattan
Videl-vidugu Muttaraiyan = Kuvavan Sattan
Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan = Kadupatti Muttaraiyan
Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan = Paranjaya
Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan = Vignapati = Vignapati
Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan = Videlvidugu Ilangovelan
Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan = Videlvidugu Ilankovelar
Videlvidugu Ilangovelan = Ilango Muttaraiyar = Sattan
Videlvidugu Ilangovelan = Marpidugu Ilangovelan Sattan

Pudi Arindigai = Wife of Videlvidugu[Ilankove]lar.

Sattan Paliyili = Son of Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan
Sattan Paliyili = Sattam Paliyili = Sattan-pazhiyili
Arikanta Perumal = Son of Kaduvetti Muttaraya
Arikanta Perumal = Ariganda Perumanar

Pazhiyili Siriya-nangai = Daughter of pazhiyili
Pazhiyili Siriya-nangai =Grand daughter of Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan through his son Sattan pazhiyili
Paliyili Siriya-Nangai = Wife of Minavan Tamiladiyaraiyan alias Pallan Anantan
Pandya Varaguna = Grandson of Kadupatti Muttaraiyan through his daughter whose name is not known

Various Inscriptions :

Pallava Inscription No. 44 - (A. R. No. 89 of 1921) - Pillaipalayam, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District - On a slab built into the floor at the entrance into the Tirumerrali temple - This is a fragmentary record of Dantivikramavarman. It mentions a certain [Ka]duvetti-Muttaraiyan at whose request an endowment of 4 patti of land was made to the old temple of Vishnu called Tirumerrali at Iraiyancheri and to a matha, probably attached to it. Reference to a Kaduvetti-Muttarasan who made a raid on Koyattur in the reign of the Bana king Vijayaditya Virachulamani Prabhumeru is noticed in a record from Punganur (No. 542 of 1906). This chief was probably identical with the Kaduvetti-Muttaraiyan mentioned in the present inscription as he lived about this period Nandivarman III.

Pallava Inscription No. 48 - (A. R. Nos. 88 of 1910 and 529 of 1905) - Tiruvellarai, Lalgudi Taluk, Trichinopoly District - On a rock in front of the Jambunathasvamin Temple. - This inscription was partially copied in 1905 and then completely in 1910 after removing a wall obstructing a portion of the record. The middle portion of the inscription is damaged being chiseled away right through to construct a drain. It appears to be dated in the 6th year of Pallava-Maharaja alias Danti-Nandivarman of the Bhara[dvaja-gotra] and Brahmakshatra family. The king's name, in the form given here, implies that Nandivarman was the son of Dantivarman. The inscription seems to record the praise of a certain Sellikkoman Mallavan who is described as the nephew of Parasiraman and the uncle of Marpidugu Ilangovelan Sattan. The record is stated to have ben composed by a certain Perungavidi Sadaiyanpalli. Pullis are marked in the record in some cases.

Pallava Inscription 63 - (A.R. No. 365 of 1904) - Narttamalai, Pudukkottai State - On the north base of the ruined mandapa in front of the rock-cut Siva temple -This inscription is dated in the 7th year of Nripatungavikramavarman. It states that Sattam Paliyili, son of Videlvidugu-Muttaraiyan, excavated the (rock-cut) temple and that his daughter Paliyili Siriya-Nangai, the wife of Minavan Tamiladiyaraiyan alias Pallan Anantan enlarged it by adding a mukha-mandapa, bali-pitha etc., and also made provision for worship and offerings to the god therein.

Pallava Inscription No. 66 - (A. R. No. 461 of 1905) - Tiruvalangadu, Tiruttani Taluk, Chittoor District - On the east wall of the first prakara of the Nataraja shrine in the Vataranyesvara temple - This inscription is engraved below No. 64 and therefore, may also be likewise taken to be a later copy. It is dated in the 15th year of Nripatungadeva, and it states that the assembly of Pulvelur in Eyir-kottam agreed to supply one uri of oil daily, by the measure Pirudimanikkam for burning two perpetual lamps in the temple of Tiruvalangadu-Udaiyar for the amount of 30 kalanju of gold received by them from one Ariganda-Perumal. This person may be identified with the donor of the same name mentioned as the son of Kadupatti-Muttaraiyar in a record of the 24th year of Nripatunga from Tirumukkudal. It may be mentioned that Kadupatti-Muttaraiyar figures in a record from Pillaipalaiyam near Conjeeveram in the reign of Dantivarman.

Nripatunga's queen, according to No. 64 above from the same place, was Kadavan- Madeviyar, also known as Prithivimanikkam, and the liquid measure of the temple was called Pirudimanikkam evidently after her name. It was probably after this queen that the Vishnu temple at Ukkal in the North Arcot district was called Bhuvanimanikka-Vishnugriham.

Pallava Inscription No.. 74 - (A.R. No. 38 of 1930-31) - Tirukkodikkaval, Kumbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District - On the South wall of the central shrine in the Tirukkodisvara temple - This record of the 22nd year, like No. 55 above, is prefaced by the remark that 'this is also a copy of an old stone inscription'. It is preceded by a record of the Pandya king Maran Sadaiyan (A. R. No. 37 of 1930-31) and followed by an epigraph of the Muttaraiyar chief Ilango-Muttaraiyar (A.R. No. 39 of 1903-31), all of which are engraved in continuation of one another. It has been pointed out above (No. 55) that the temple at Tirukkodikkaval was renovated by Sembiyan-Madeviyar, the mother of the Chola king Uttama-Chola and that she took care to re-engrave on the new walls of the old inscriptions found in the temple.

The present record does not give the king's name, but from the mention therein of Vira-Mahadeviyar, the queen of Nripatunga-Maharaja, it may be ascribed to Nripatunga himself. It gives the interesting information that this queen performed the hiranyagarbha and tulabhara ceremonies, evidently at Tirukkodikka and presented 50 kalanju of gold from the wealth so weighted, to the temple of Mahadeva in the village for offerings and lamp. The assembly of Tirukkodikkavu alias Kannamangalam received the money and undertook to conduct the endowment. Queen Vira-Mahadeviyar is known to epigraphy for the first time only from this record.

Pallava Inscription No. 75 - (A. R. No. 179 of 1915) - Tirumukkudal, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District - On a slab supporting a beam set up in the inner enclosure of the Venkatesa-Perumal temple - This record states that, in the 24th year of Vijaya-Nripatungavikramavarman, the assembly of Siyapuram in Urrukkattuk-kottam agreed to maintain a perpetual lamp in the temple of Vishnu-Bhatara at Tirumukkudal for the interest on 30 kalanju of gold received by them from Ariganda-Perumanar, son of Kadupatti-Muttaraiyar. The interest on 30 kalanju came to 4� kalanju, calculating at the rate of 3 manjadi per kalanju. For this 4� kalanju, the assembly of Siyapuram agreed to supply oil at a uniform rate of 40 nali per kalanju for maintaining the lamp. Palaiyasivaram near Tirumukkudal is called Siyapuram in inscriptions.

Pallava No. 103 - (A. R. No. 174 of 1912) - Tiruvorriyur, Saidapet Taluk, Chingleput District - On a slab built into the floor of the verandah - round the central shrine in the Adhipurisvara temple - This date of this record of Vijaya-Kampavarman is not clear. It might be 11, 13 or 16. The inscription records an agreement made by the assembly (ur) of Vaikkattur ro provide offerings to the god Mahadeva at Tiruvorriyur, on the day of sankranti, for the interest on 27 kalanju of gold received by them from Pudi Arindigai, wife of Videlvidugu[Ilankove]lar of Kodumbalur in Ko-nadu. The chiefs of Kodumbalur (in the Pudukkottai state) figure largely in inscriptions as subordinates of the Cholas, but their connection with the Pallavas is not so well known. A chief of this family is also mentioned in a mutilated record from Kilur, dated in the 11th year of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman, where the donor is stated to be the wife of Sattan maravan and the daughter of Vikrama-Pudi who is probably identical with Videlvidugu Ilanko-Adiaraiyan mentioned in the same record.

INSCRIPTIONS OF RAJAKESARIVARMAN No. 222 - (A.R. No. 712 of 1909.) - Alambakkam, Lalgudi Taluk, Trichinopoly District - On the south wall of the central shrine, Varadaraja-Perumal Temple - This inscription is mutilated and is incomplete. It registers a gift of land tax-free, after purchasing it from the sabha of Dantivarmamangalam, by a resident of the village called Mutta Bhavasena-[Krama]vittan, for providing for offerings and a perpetual lamp in the temple of Tiruvisalur-Perumanadigal in the village. The land is stated to have been irrigated from the tank called Marpidugeri. Marpidugu might have been a surname of the Pallava king Dantivarman. Mr. Krishna Sastri thinks that the tank probably owed its origin to Marpidugu-Ilangovelan, a subordinate of king Dantivaran (M.E.R. for 1910, II, 7)

Bana Inscription No. 5 - (A.R. No. 542 of 1906.) - ON A SLAB SET UP OUTSIDE THE SOMESVARA TEMPLE AT PUNGANURU, SAME ZAMINDARI AND DISTRICT - This undated inscription records the gift of a wet land of a Kanduga os spwomg capacity, (to the family of ) Kalianiga Kandanarayana who died after slaying nine thieves when the Bana king Vijayaditya Prabhumeru was ruling over Vadugavali twelve-thousand province and east of Manne and Kaduvatti-Muttarasa had come to raid Koyatur.

Bana Inscription No. 6 -(A.R. No. 327 of 1912.) - ON A SLAB SET UP IN A FIELD AT KARSHNAPALLE, SAME SAMINDARI AND DISTRICT- This is not dated and refers itself to the reign of the Bana king Banarasa, who was also in charge of the Ganga six-thousand province when Ballaha i.e., the Rashtrakuta king led a campaign against Kaduvetti, for not paying tribute. On this occasion a certain servant of Banatattaran, himself a servant of Vijayitta, while returning on a horse near Kuntiala, died after slaying Ganamurti. Since the characters of the record are of the 9th century A.D. it may be assigned to the time of Vijayaditya II.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Place - Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


33. SRIPURUSHA � A GANGA MUTTARASA KING :
It is understood that the famous Ganga king Sripurusha, who was an alloy of Chalukyas assumed the title Muttarasa. Dr. Nagaswamy, in his Mutharayar - defines Mutharays as Ganga Kings of Kongani belonging to Tamil Mudhu Velir kudi. Most of the ganga kings in his line were known as Muttarasa. This indicates that gangas became part and parcel of mudiraj people today. The Mudiraj people are also known as Mutharachas.

Mutharacha = Mutharasa => Muttarasa

Sripurusha : Sripurusha was a Western Ganga Dynasty king and ruled from 726 - 788 C.E. Sri-purusha also called Mutt-arasa succeeded Sivamara-I of Western gangas of Talakkad and greatly extende the power of the dynasty. As per the Javali inscription, it is said that Sripurusha ruled for 62 years. He had good relations with Chalukyas. He had marital relations with the Chalukyas. He was a warrior and used titles Rajakesari, Bhimakopa and Ranabhajana. The rule of Sripurusha seems to have been filled with conflicts with the Pallavas of Kanchi, Pandyas, and later the Rashtrakutas who overthrew the Vatapi Chalukyas. From the year 725 onwards, the Gangavadi territories came to be called as the "Gangavadi-96000" (Shannavati Sahasra Vishaya) comprising the eastern and western provinces of modern south Karnataka.

The Gangas started their rule from 350 AD from Kolar and later from Talakad and their reign lasted a long time till the 10th century. Shivamara II was the son of Sripurusha and one of the famous kings of Ganga dynasty. A veeragallu of Begur speaks of the battle of Bengaluru and of the Ganga victory dating to 890 AD.

Ancestry of Sripurusha : The founder king of the Ganga dynasty was Konganivarman who made Kolar his capital around 350 and ruled for about twenty years. There is a controversy whether they were an independent kingdom or a feudatory to the Pallavas during the early decades of their rule from Kolar. By the time of Harivarman in 390, the Gangas had consolidated their kingdom with Talakad as their capital. By the time of Madhava III (430), the collateral Ganga branches ruling from Kolar and Ananthapur regions (proposed) had been consolidated as proven by his inscriptions. During the reign of King Avinita in 469, they had gained control over the Kongu region in modern Tamil Nadu, Sendraka region (comprising the Chikkamagaluru and Belur tract) and Punnata and Pannada regions (comprising Heggadadevanakote and Nanjangud).

Durvinita was succeeded by his son Mushkara (BC.535-585 A. D.). Mushkara was followed by Srivikrama ( C. 585-635 A. D.) and Bhuvikarma (C.635-679 A. D.). Bhuvikarma was succeeded by his younger brother Shivamara I (C.679-725 A. D.), who was followed by his grandson Sripurusha (C.725-788 A.D.), who fought against the Pallavas with distinction and collaborated with the Chalukya Vikramaditya II. However, he had to bear the brunt of the Rashtrakuta invasions under the leadership of Krishna I. In fact, a number of encounters took place between the two armies, and Sripurusha was even forced to shift his capital to Manne for a while. He was ably assisted in war and administration by his son Siyagella. Despite his military preoccupation, Sripurusha must have looked well after his Kingdom, and in fact, it carried the title of Srirajya or wealthy Kingdom. Sripurusha's son and successor, Shivamara II (C.788-816 A. D.) was unlucky to face the full fury of the Rashtrakuta aggression.

Shivamara II successor, Rajamalla I (C.817-853 A. D) too fought against the Rashtrakutas; but it was during the reign of his successor, Nitimarga Ereganga (C.853-869 A. D) that the relation between the two dynasties was normalised. Nitimarga was succeeded by Rajamalla II (C. 870-907 A. D), who was followed by Ereyappa Nitimarga II (C.907-919 A. D), after whom Narasimhadeva (C.919-925 A. D) ruled. His successor was Rajamalla III (C.925-935 A. D) who was overthrown by his ambitious brother Butuga II (C.935-960 A. D). He had the advantage of being the brother-in-law of the powerful Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna III. Butuga's successor was Maruladeva (C. 960-963 A. D) and he was succeeded by Marasimha III (C. 963-974 A. D), who remained an active ally of the Rashtrakutas. The death of Marasimha was a prelude to the decline and fall of the Ganga Kingdom. The rule of Rajamalla IV (C. 974-985 A. D) which began with a discordant note of a civil war, was noted only for the distinguished services of the minister Chavundaraya, who in fact wielded the real political authority. Rajamalla's brother Rakkasa Ganga (C.985-1024 A. D), despite his formidable name, ended up as a feudatory of the Cholas, and with it, the political sovereignty of the Gangas was lost.

Some of the Ganga queens also exercised considerable influence in administration, gave grants, participated in public functions and even dared to go to the battlefield.

Shivamara II, the son of Sripurusha : Shivamara II was the son of Sripurusha Muttarasa and ruled the Western Ganga Dynasty from 788 - 816 C.E. He is considered as one of the famous kings of the dynasty. He succeded the Ganga throne during a time when the Rashtrakuta were the empire on the rise in South India and the Deccan. The first to revolt against Rastrakuta monarch was the Western Ganga feudatory led by King Shivamara II. In the series of battles that followed, Shivamara II was killed in 816.

Govinda III, the son and successor of Dhruva, proved to be a still greater conqueror. After obtaining an easy victory over the Ganga king Muttarasa ( Shivamara II) ruling in Gangavadi, he led victorious campaigns in Central and Northern India.

The Rashtrakuta monarch Dhruva Dharavarsha defeated Shivamara in Mudagunduru and took the Ganga king captive. The Rashtrakuta then took direct control of the Gangavadi with the appointment of Kambharasa, son of Dhruva Dharavarsha as its governor. He was later released, only to be imprisoned again during the rule of Govinda III when he refused to pay the Rashtrakuta tribute. Shivamara II again was released only to defy the Rashtrakuta yoke by waging wars. He died fighting them in 816.

Manne near Bangalore was one of his capitals during this time. In spite of being imprisoned on multile occasions and being at constant war he found the time to write famous literary works. Gajashtaka in Kannada, Gajamathakalpana in Sanskrit and Sethubandha in Prakrit attest to his inclination towards arts.

Rashtrakuta Dhruva Dharavarsha defeated King Shivamara II and installed his son Kambharasa to govern major regions of Gangavadi. King Shivamara II is mostly known for his wars with the Rashtrakutas, his subsequent defeat, imprisonment and death on the battle field. The Ganga resistance continued through the reign of Rashtrakuta Govinda III. By 819, a Ganga resurgence gained them partial control over Gangavadi under King Rachamalla.

Though Govinda III became the emperor it was not before having to face some internal family fueds. His elder brother Kambarasa (also known as Stambha) who coveted the throne went to war having formed an alliance of twelve cheifs as written in the Navasari record. Other records like the Sisvayi and Sanjan records mention support to Govinda III from brother Indra and victory against the combined forces of Kambarasa.

Shivamara II of Ganga Dynasty of Talakad had joined Kambarasa but after the defeat was improsoned for a second time while Kambarasa was pardoned.

An attempt by Rashtrakuta Amoghavarsha I's general, Bankesa to regain Gangavadi was successful but internal revolts in the Rashtrakuta kingdom paved the way for an independent Gangavadi. With the intention of making peace with the Gangas, Amoghavarsha I gave his daughter Chandrabbalabbe in marraige to Ganga prince Butuga I, son of King Ereganga Neetimarga. The Gangas thereafter became staunch allies of the Rashtrakutas, a position they maintained till the end of the Rashtrakuta dynasty of Manyakheta.

Fought with Pallavas : Sripurusha had helped chalukyas fight the Pallavas during the rule of Vikramaditya II . Around 730, as the Chalukya crown prince Vikramaditya II , assisted by the Western Ganga Dynasty prince Ereyappa, he attacked the Pallava Paramesvaravarman II. The Pallava king had to sue for peace at a great financial loss to his kingdom. The Pallava subsequently tried to mount a counter-attack at the Ganga ally King Sripurusha in 731 AD , but was killed in the battle of Vilande. Sripurusha siezed the kings insiginia, the royal umbrella and earned the title Permanadi. He assumed a title Permanadi after his victory over the Pallava Nandivarman and this is attested by Dr. N.L. Rao. Though this victory to the Chalukyas happened during the rule of King Vijayaditya, the records of Chalukya monarch give full credit to Vikramaditya II.

Siyagalla, Sree Purusha's son and general and governor of Kesumannunad distinguished himself in the war and inflicted a crushing defeat on the Pallavas at Vilardi. Sripurusha slew the valiant Kaduvetti and took away from him the title Permanadi which was afterwards assumed by the Gangas, and used alone to designate them. Sreepurusha practically during the whole of his reign was the contemporary of Nandivarman and which Kaduvetti was killed by him, is not known. This victory won for him a great reputation and also the title of Bheemakopa. The Narasimharajapura plates and Keregodi Rangapura plates describe him as a terror to enemies, an undisputed master of the whole area, in whose battles 1 the Goddess of victory was bathed in the blood of the elephants cut with his sharp sword.

Some Pallava territories including Penkulikottai in north Arcot (modern Tamil Nadu) came under gangas control till the middle of eighth century.

In ancient times Asandi was a place of considerable importance. Under the Gangas and the Hoysalas it was the chief city of a principality, which in the eighth century was governed by Vijayaditya, son of the king Sripurusha, and in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries by a line of Ganga chiefs.

Vikramaditya again invaded the Pallava kingdom after 735, aided by the faithful ally, the Western Ganga King Sripurusha who joined the Chalukyas in this expedition. The earliest mention of this invasion are in the Narwan plates issued on 21st December 741 or 742. The Pallava King Nandivarman was a mere boy who never-the-less made a valiant but futile attempt to face the invasion. The Pallava king fled Kanchipuram into exile leaving behind all his regal attributes which included among other things, a prestigious musical drum (Katumukha), a musical instrument (Samudraghosa) and a mace. Many of his war elephants, a large quantity of precious stones and gold fell into the hands of the victorious Chalukya monarch.

He then overran these kingdoms and defeated a Kalabhra ruler as well. These victories were inscribed in his inscription on the shores of the Indian ocean. The final invasion of Kanchipuram happened in the final years of the the reign of Vikramaditya II, under the leadership of his son Kirtivarman II.

From this it can be understood that the kings of kalabra clans also existed along with Muttarasa kings during this periods.

Fought with Pandyas : Later Sripurusha fought the Pandyas during the rule of Chalukya Kirtivarman II but suffered reversal at Venbai.

Kirtivarmana and his Ganga feudatory Sripurusha came into conflict with the Pandya ruler Maravarman Rajasimha I who was extending the Pandya empire on to the Kongu country which was adjacent to the Gangan kingdom. Rajasimha crossed the Kaveri and engaged Kirtivarman and Sripurusha in a big battle at Venbai on the banks of the river Kaveri. The Chalukya king was defeated.

A contest with the Pandyas of Madurai over control of Kongu region ended in a Ganga defeat, but a matrimony between a Ganga princess and Rajasimha Pandya's son brought peace helping the Gangas retain control over the contested region.

Kirtivarman II (746 � 753 C.E.) was the last ruler in the Badami Chalukya dynasty. He succeeded his father Vikramaditya II. His reign was continuously troubled by the growing power of the Rashtrakutas and finally succumbed to them.

Fought with Rastrakutas : When the Rashtrakutas rose to power, though betrayed by the Nolamba-pallavas, Sripurusha had many victories against Krishna I and occupied some Ratta territories. This resistance to Rashtrakutas continued for some time before the Gangas normalised their relationship with martial alliances.

Dantidurga was succeeded by his uncle Krishna I (C. 756-774) who completed the conquest over the Chalukyas. Rastrakuta king Dantidurga invaded the Ganga Kingdom and snatched away a few slices of territory from its ruler, Sripurusha.

Kirtivarman was steadily undermined by the activities of Rashtrakuta Dantidurga who was establishing the Rashtrakuta Empire. Dantidurga was a feudatory of the Chalukyas and was beginning to establish an independent kingdom around Ellora. Dantidurga also went into an alliance with the Pallava Nandivarman.

The Gangas offered stiff resistance for about a century. King Shivamara II is mostly known for his wars with the Rashtrakuta Dhruva Dharavarsha, his subsequent defeat and imprisonment, his release from prison and eventually his death on the battle field. The Ganga resistance continued through the reign of Rashtrakuta Govinda III and by 819, a Ganga resurgence gained them partial control over Gangavadi under King Rachamalla. Seeing the futility of waging war with the Western Ganga, Rashtrakuta Amoghavarsha I gave his daughter Chandrabbalabbe in marriage to Ganga prince Butuga I, son of King Ereganga Neetimarga. The Gangas thereafter became staunch allies of the Rashtrakutas, a position they maintained till the end of the Rashtrakuta dynasty of Manyakheta.

Literature : Sripurusha was an accomplished Sanskrit scholar. While Sripurusha wrote treatise on elephants in the name "Gajasastra", his son King Shivamar II wrote "Sethubandha" in Prakrit. Shivamara II was also a noted scholar in Kannada, Sanskrit and Prakrit. In spite of being imprisoned on multiple occasions and being at constant war he found the time to write famous literary works. Gajashtaka in Kannada, Gajamathakalpana in Sanskrit and Sethubandha in Prakrit attest to his inclination towards arts. Gajashtaka was a work on elephant management by King Shivamara II around 800 CE and it is now considered extinct.

: The Gangas are unique in the history of Karnataka. Perhaps few dynasties ruled longer than the Gangas. The whole of southern Karnataka were united under them for many centuries. They also controlled the fortunes of the Deccan for many decades. The dynasty produced some of the ablest military rulers and distinguished men of culture. The Ganga Monarchs called themselves as Dharmamaharajas and this is reflected in their administration. They followed the tenets of Manu and Kautalya in revenue, military and judicial departments. The Gangas patronized Shaiva, Vaishnava and Jaina religion. They also patronized Kannada and Samskrita literature. References have already been made to Madhava, Sripurusha, Pujyapada, Durvinta, Chavundaraya and other literary men. The Gangas also contributed to the development of art and architecture. They followed the Dravida style of Temple architecture and built many Temples and basadis. Their best specimens of architecture are seen at Shravanbelogola. In the field of sculpture the monolithic statue of Gommateshvara at Shravanbelogola is alone sufficient to immortalise the Gangas. This tallest freestanding image has been considered as a unique sculpture in the art history of the world. The Gangas erected large number of hero-stones of high artistic merit.

The 1300-year-old Sri Pancha Lingaeshwara or Begur Temple : Sri Kulutunga Raja the First of Chola Dynasty, and Sri Rajasimhanandi of Talakad Ganga Dynasty built this Temple in 8th century A D. They built about 108 Temples in South India, and this Temple is 18th in hierarchy. Built in granite the Temple reflects simplicity and grandeur, and truly has an ambience that is spiritual and sanctified.

The religion of Gangas :There are multiple opinions about the religion followed by the western Gangas. Scholars like Lewis Rice, S. R. Sharma or M. V. Krishna Rao, believed that the Ganga rulers were Jains. However inscriptional evidence suggests otherwise. There is evidence to the effect that early Ganga kings performed vedic sacrifices. Dr. S. Srikanta Sastri opines that Durvinita was a hindu and was either a Vishnavite or a Shaivite. However later Ganga records reveal a strong Jaina influence taking effect due to Jain saints and scholars such as Toranacharya, Pushpanandi, Pujyapada, Jinasena, Ajitasena, Akalanka or Nemichandrasiddanta. However irrespective of their faith, they remained tolerant to all faiths.

From Shivamara II onwards the Ganga kings distinguishing themselves as the real followers of Jainism. The entire Gangavadi refashioned itself to look like Kopana. The place Kopana had been the earliest 'teertha' of Jainism in Karnataka. Sravanabelagola followed the suit. Today only Sravanbelagola has remained as the pride monument of Gangavadi.

In the several inscriptions and writing we get various reference to the royal patronage extened to Sravana-Belagola by Ganga monarchs. The earliest of the Ganga records refer to the erection of a Basti or Jaina temple by King Sivamara II, the son of Sripurusha ( 726 � 776 A.D.). Many inscriptions also refer to king Marashimha ( 961-974 A.D.,) the doyen of the Ganga family.

Sravana-Belagola came into prominence under the Ganga dynasty, which made Jainism as its " state religion" and whose period is regarded as the "golden age of Jainism". In fact the very foundation of the Ganga Kingdom is attributed to the great Jaina sanit Acharya Simhananda who also acted in the capacity of an adviser to Kongunivarman I, the first Ganga King. Obviously, the Ganga dynasty, which owed its origin to the help of a Jaina Acharya, remained staunch to the Jaina religion. As a result, numerous inscriptions dating from the 4th to the 12th century A.D. testify to the building of the Jaina temples, consecration of Jaina images of worship, hollowing out caves for Jaina ascetics and grants to Jaina Acharyas by the rulers of the Ganga dynasty. Bahubali or Gomateswara was erected by chamundaraya, the general of Gangaraya Rachamalla-II.

The Chandraprabha basadi which is to the west of Shasanabasadi consists of an open Garbagriha, a sukhanasi, a navaranga and a porch and enshrines a seated figure of Chandraprabha, the eighth tirthankara. The inscription on the rock close to the outer wall of the navaranga states that a basadi was built by Shivamara and it may be concluded from its paleography that it refers to the Ganga king Shivamara II. If the basadi referred to in the Chandraprabha basadi, this temple would be one of the oldest on the hill and its date would be about 800 A.D. But the temple appears to have been rebuilt at a much later date with brick and mortar probably over the original plinth.

Nishidhis: Nishidhis are memorials raised for a Jaina who died after observance of the rituals sallekhana and samadhi. They marked such places where the ascetic breathed his last or where his body is cremated or bone relic was buried. Nisidis (its variants nisadhi, nistinge) were held in high respect.

The most illustrative and distinct type among the nisidis of the Ganga period in karnataka is the stele sculputed and inscribed which depicts King Nitimarge-1(869) dying. This is form doddahundi, now in Bangalore museum. however, the earliest nisidi comes from belvatte (My sore) raised at the instance of Ganga king sripurusa Muttarasa (Mudiraj) for one mahaprabhu gopayya who died observing samdhi. Several nisidis of jaina asscetics and acaryas who performed sanyasana and samdhi-marana were know right from seventh century A.D.

Ganga marasimha is stated to be the patron of several mana-stambhas and bastis but the record does not mention the word specifically nisidi, so we can safely conclude that the kuge-brahmadeva pillar was erected at chikkabetta after his death which took place at bankapuara in the dharwar district. So samadhi-marana at a holy place was not a precondition for the erection of a nisidi. According to an estimate, nearly a hundred nisidies were fount a sravanbegola, the establishment of nisidis was more frequent between sixth sixth-seventh century A.D. nearly 21 belong to this period. Ninteen12 more example belong to the late ganga phase, the rest extending right upto 16th century A.D.

Another version is that gommateshwara was caused after the sallekhana of rajamalla-4 at that very place to commemorate his death. Chanundaraya caused Gullakayaji and erected it in front of gommatesvara, as his patron diety Kushmandini Yakshi appeared before him in the garb of an old woman and blessed the successful performance of the abhishek.

Grants & Inscriptions of Sripurusha : An 8th century AD copper-plate Grant issued by the Ganga emperor Sripurusha mentions Gudalur and environs as containing lands fit for cultivation of rice and grains, garden lands and forest lands fit for the cultivation of drugs or pepper and as including fourteen villages.

There is an ebode of Sri Arunagirinathar's Thiruppugazh (nephew of Rama!) in Sripurusha mangai town now known as NangunEri, situated 24 miles from Tirunelveli on the route to Nagerkovil

Salem copper plates of Sripurusha and a few other plates of these rulers were very useful in reconstructing the history of medieval Kongu. It is known that Kongu Gounders are related to gangas.

An incomplete Rastrakuta inscription (No. 12) from Gudigeri, which is not dated but assigned to about the 8th or 9th century A.D. on palaeographical grounds, was published by Fleet. It refers itself to the reign of a certain Marassalba-maharaja and mentions one Dadigarasa as governing the nadu, evidently as a feudatory of the king. Fleet was inclined to identify Marassalba or Marasarva might have been a member of the Western Ganga family, possible the Ganga king Sripurusha-Muttarasa.

Pallava Inscription No. 107 -(A. R. No. 227 of 1915) - Brahmadesam, Cheyyar Taluk, North Arcot District - It is stated in this record of Vijaya-Kampavarman, dated in the 20th year, that a member of the alum-ganattar of Kavadippakkam in Paduvur-kottam made a gift of 11 kalanju of gold for supplying, from the interest on this amount, water to the village may be identified with Brahmadesam itself where the present inscription is found. Since we find an inscription of the Ganga king Rajamalla, the grandson of Sripurusha at Vallimalai not very far from Brahmadesam, Rajamalla- chaturvedimangalam, may have been called so after this Ganga king. It may be mentioned that in the region surrounding Brahmadesam there are villages called Sripurushamangalam and Ranavikrama chaturvedimangalam which must have been named after the Ganga kings Sripurusha and Ranavikrama, the grandfather and father respectively of Rajamalla. The name of the god at Brahmadesam viz., Tiruppondai-Perumanadigal is uncommon in the Tamil country and it is probably to be traced to some Ganga or Western Chalukya princess.

Under the Gangas and the Hoysalas Asandi was the chief city of a principality, which in the eighth century was governed by Vijayaditya, son of the king Sripurusha, and in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries by a line of Ganga chiefs. Asandi is a village in the Kadur taluk of Kadur District, Mysore about 5 miles from Ajjampur railway station. In ancient times it was a place of considerable importance.

Dundamma another son of Sripurisha ?
The Hindu Newspaper Publication : CHIKMAGALUR: Friday, Aug 17, 2007

H.M. Nagaraja Rao, epigraphist, and Hareesh Singategere, advocate, have deciphered an eighth century stone inscription that throws new light on the genealogy of the Ganga kings.

The unpublished broken hero stone inscription belonging to the period of Ganga king Sripurusha, about 725-788 A.D., was unearthed during the renovation of Mallikarjuna temple in Hirenallur in Kadur taluk.

According to Mr. Singategere, the inscription mentions that king Sripurusha seized a place. Nirgunda Muttarasa who was ruling Asandinadu and his son Dundamma participated in a fight. Dundamma and his son Paramagula were so far considered feudatories of the Ganga kings.

If Sripurusha who was also known as Mutturasa and Nirgunda Muttarasa named in the inscription were the same person, then Dundamma was the son of Sripurusha. The inscription reveals for the first time that Sripurusha had other titles like Arivallabha and Vallavarasa.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date � 21/07/2007
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


34. VAIDUMBA MUTTURAJA & GANDARA MUTRAJA :
From the following Telugu inscriptions, it appears that Mudiraja kings were friendly with Vaidumba kings and exercised their ruling powers forming close political alliances in the Renadu (Rayalaseema) region.


Vaidumba Telugu Inscription No. 638 - (A. R. No. 347 of 1922.) - On a slab in a field to the west of Rangasamudramu, Madanapalle Taluk, Chittoor District. Undated - Incomplete. Seems to record a grant made on the occasion of a Lunar eclipse. Mentions Vaidumba Mutturaja

Muthuraja => Mutthuraja => Mutturaja


Vaidumba Telugu Inscription No. 640 - (A. R. No. 309 of 1922.) - On one of the three slabs in a field near a tank in Mudivedu, Madanapalle Taluk, Chittoor District. Undated - States that Gandara Mutraja who had been crowned by the Vaidumbas fell in the battle of Kumulu (?) Mentions the Lonkulas.

Muthuraja => Muthraja => Mutraja


A transition from tribe to state was gradually on its way; the rise of local chieftaincies controlling territorial pockets, like the Renandu Colas, the Banas, and the Vaidumbas, is in evidence in the inscriptions of the sixth to ninth centuries. Tribal chieftains of hunting community perhaps drawn from the upper lineages with their traditional command over close-knit bands should have naturally gained greater political importance. The present day Rayalaseema can be treated as Renadu. It was the region which was ruled the famous Raya kings of Vijayanagar empire.

Rayalaseema = Rayalunadu
Rayalunadu => Raynadu => Renadu

Renandu witnessed the rule of several dynasties like the Telugu Cholas, Renandu Cholas, Vaidumbas, Rastrakutas, Kakatiyas (?), Kayasthas and Vijayanagara kings. Rastrakutas and other minor ruling families like Telugu Cholas, Renandu Cholas, Vaidumbas, Kayasthas etc. also did contributed their share in the temple building activity. Renandu was the geographical area of the present Cuddapah, Chittor and parts of Anantapur districts of Andhra Pradesh in India. The core region of Renandu is the present Cuddapah district.

The Vaidumbas also appear in a few inscriptions in the north Kolar district. The earliest rulers of whom there is an authentic account were the Mahavalis or Banas, who held the east of the kolar District. They claim descent from Maha Bali, or Bali the Great,' a Daitya. Some Bana kings assumed the title of Muttarasan.

The earliest extant epigraphical record at Pushpagiri is datable to the time of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna II (A.D. 878-914) or III (A.D. 939-967). Therein, it is clearly stated that the place is the southern gateway of Srisailam. Inscriptions of other dynasties like the Western Chalukyas, the Kakatiyas, the later Vaidumbas and the Vijayanagara are noticeable here. Pushpagiri is also on the bank of the river Pinakini. It is about 12km. from Cuddapah, its district headquarters. The presiding deity here is Vaidyanathasvami. Indranathasvami and Chennakesava are also popularly worshipped here. The antiquity of the place seems to be early as the Ikshvaku period. An inscription at Nagarjunakonda refers to Pushpagiri, where certain Bodhisri is said to have built here a stone pavilion, i.e. silamandapa.

In B, C. 827 the Aandhras lost their power in the Magadha state, the Paramount power In Bharat at the time. Their empire came to an end; but not the saatavahana dynasty of Aandhra princes. The princes of the dynasty indulged in mutual quarrels, cut up the empire into bits, each declared himself independent and all reduced themselves to the position and status of rules of petty principalities. The royal dynasty split up into 12 branches according to the Puranas. Thereafter the princes of the Agni dynasty (a branch of the Saatavahana dynasty) might have branched off into various further subdivisions. Pallava, Cheta, Sena. Kadamba, Rashtrakuta, Vishnlu Ku.ndina. Brihatphalayana, Baana. Gaanga, Hosala, Rajaputra, Saalamkayana, Vakataka. Vallabhi. Vaidumba, Nolamba dynasties were all connected with the AandhraSaatavahana dynasty'.

Parantaka II was also known by the name Sundara Chola. He was the son of Arinjaya. His mother�s name was Kalyani, a princes from the clan of Vaidumbas. Parantaka chola waged battles against some of his smaller neighbours such as Vaidumbas and Sitpuli kings in the region of Andhra Pradesh. When Parantaka became the king after the death of Aditya I and his grandson Kannara did not, Krishna II invaded the Chola kingdom with the help of the Banas and Vaidumbas, hoping to force the issue. He failed to consolidate his influence on the Cholas. The Rashtrakutas suffered a defeat in the battle of Vallala at the hands of Cholas under Parantaka.

Pushpagiri is also on the bank of the river Pinakini. It is about 12km. from Cuddapah, its district headquarters. The presiding deity here is Vaidyanathasvami. Indranathasvami and Chennakesava are also popularly worshipped here. The antiquity of the place seems to be early as the Ikshvaku period. An inscription at Nagarjunakonda refers to Pushpagiri, where certain Bodhisri is said to have built here a stone pavilion, i.e. silamandapa. The earliest extant epigraphical record at Pushpagiri is datable to the time of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna II (A.D. 878-914) or III (A.D. 939-967). Therein, it is clearly stated that the place is the southern gateway of Srisailam. Inscriptions of other dynasties like the Western Chalukyas, the Kakatiyas, the later Vaidumbas and the Vijayanagara are noticeable here.

A record of the feudatory Vaidumba king from southern deccan says the king had to purchase three veils of land from a local assembly in order to assign it to a temple in a village.

From a copper plate issued by Vajrahasta Deva son of Madhukamarnava Deva, a Ganga king, it is known that he had brought a number of families adept in dance from Baidumba kingdom, which was the home of the maternal uncle of Vajrahasta Deva.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date - 10/ 08/2007
Place - Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


35. TONDEMANA MUTTARASA :
There is a reference to one Tondemana Muttarasa in the inscriptions of Badami Chalukyas. He could be a Muttarasa chieftain in Bellary Region. Bellary areas fall under ancient kingdom of Vanaras, who are believed to be ancestors of bants (mudiraj) / bunts (kurubas). Ballery was originally a Telugu speaking region and today the Telugu speaking people became minorities. Further study reveals than he cound be the descendant of thondaman chiefs of thondamandalam (Thirupathi)

MISCELLANEOUS INSCRIPTIONS IN KANNADA - VOLUME IX ( Part - I ) -CHALUKYAS OF BADAMI - No. 52 - (A.R. No. 734 of 1919.) - ON A SLAB SET UP NEAR THE ISVARA TEMPLE AT NAGARURU, ALUR TALUK, BELLARY DISTRICT - This is not dated and is little damaged. It refers itself to the reign of the Chalukya king . . . ditya and records the grant of some land by Nagamangala. Mention is also made of Tondemana Muttarasa.


Alur is located near to Davangere and Chitradurga towns in bellery district of Karnataka. Bellary was a part of the erstwhile Madras State. It became the part of Andhra state after first reorganisation of Indian states based on language. On the 1st of October, 1953, Andhra State came into existence. It consisted of the districts of Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Nellore, Chittoor, Cuddapah, Anantapur and Kurnool, and the taluks of Rayadurg, Adoni and Alur of the Bellary district. On the question of Bellary taluk, it was included in the Mysore State on the recommendation of L.S.Mishra Commission. Thousands of Kannadigas have been studying in various Kannada medium schools in Mehaboob Nagar, Kurnool, Ananthpur, Adoni, Alur and other places of Andhra Pradesh, which attached to the Bellary district, says the Kannadigas of Andhra Pradesh.

There were independent kingdoms of Naagas in South India also. These kingdoms came together and formed a federal republic. This federal republic of Naagas was termed as Fanimandal or Naagamandal. This Cheromandal republic of Naagas of South India was very powerful and indivisible at the time of Periplus, i.e. in 80 A.D. Later during Ptolemy's times, i.e. 150 A.D., north eastern part of Tondemandalam became separate. (J.P.Jain, 'bharatiya itihas', p. 239). This Cheromandal or Fanimandal was a federation of separate kingdoms of Naagas coming together to form a united national federation. In reality, it was a united Naaga Nation of South India. [Kosare:1989:179]

Tondamana : Tondemana could be a modified or corrupted version for the name - Tondamana. The Pallava kings at several places are called Tondamans or Tondaiyarkon. Some say that pallavas were Telugu speaking people from Palnadu. There is also a reference to one Tondamana who was a Tamil Chieftain and an ally of Kulasekhara.

Tondamana => Tondemana

Tondamana -A Damila chieftain, ally of Kulasekhara. He had a mountain fortress where Kulasekhara once lay in hiding, and his wife had three brothers, all of whom helped him. He owned the villages of Tirimalakka and Kattala. Cv.lxxvi.137, 315; lxxvii.1, 32, 39, 51, 74.

Tirimalakka : Parakkama, a Pandu (Pandyan) king of Madhura. When attacked by Kulasekhara, he appealed for assistance to Parakkamabahu 1. of Ceylon. Parakkamabahu sent an army under Lankapura to help him, but by the time the Sinhalese forces arrived, Kulasekhara had slain the king and his family and seized Madhura. Parakkama's youngest son, who escaped death, was Virapandu (Cv.lxxvi.76ff., 142, 193, 200). Parakkama was killed in the village of Tirimalakka. Ibid., lxxvii.52.

Kulasekhara : The Tirumittakkode temple epigraphs are one of the most important documents as far as the political and cultural situation of Nila river valley is concerned. This erigraph is the ol1ly evidence tv prove the Chola supremacy in lOth Centt.;ry AD in Kerala, which in turn accelerated the fall of Kulasekharas of Cranganore. The Alwar Tirumo?;hi itself reveal that Kulasekhara, the Chera king came over to the temple and prayed the diety for a helping hand. It is suspected that an idol in the form of a 'Sanyasin' seen in the temple complex worshipped as Dharmaputra, the eldest Pandava, is none other than the idol of Kulasekhara, placed by some devotees in commemoration of the visit of the royal king. However, the epigraph says that Cholamuttarayan with his army came over to Tirumittakkode (Tiruvittuvakkode - a place were Vittuva or Vishnu is worshipped) and the Vaishnava temple was brought to his custody. The 'Cholasenapati' was the army chief of RajendraChola of the 10-11th Century AD. He came aver to Tirumittakode, conquered the area where Valluvanadu Utaiyavar had their 'original ancestoral house at Arangot, a neighboring village and the temple com�plex. The Chola muttarayan constructed a temple of Siva in front of the Vittuva temple itself so that the front part of the Vittuva temple is barred from visionof the devotees.

Nila River Valley in Kerala : . It is noted that by eight or ninth century AD. on the western part of the valley. there arose very powerful original Brahmin settlements like Panniyur Sukapuram.The evidences show that there were Jainas or Budhist groups spread over the valley as a whole. This might have happened in 7th or 8th century AD. because we notice strong Jaina centres at Cranganore. By 10th century AD we note migration of Muttaraya groups, a group of Jaina converted Saivas on the banks of river Ni1a, on eastern half.

Tondamana semms to a modification of the name Thondaman. Once there was a Raja Thondaman who ruled Thonda Nadu in present day Tamilnadu.

Thondaman => Thondamana => Tondamana =>Tondemana

Raja Thondaman of Thondanadu : The history of ancient southern India is replete with the glory of Thonda Nadu and its enlightened rulers. Perhaps the most well known of the kings of Thonda Nadu, was Thondaman. Thondaman being a ruler keen on the establishment of a righteous society, viewed the activities of small chieftains in the neighbourhood of his kingdom with disapproval. The chieftains were sheer lumpen who indulged in loot and arson and had built up large fortresses to hoard their ill-gotten wealth. Ensconced in their jungle fortresses, they repulsed all attacks with ease.

Raja Thondaman decided to put an end to this terror that was greatly harming his subjects, who were afflicted with the periodic raids of these chieftains. He proceeded northwards to meet these chieftains, mainly Vanan, Onan and Kanthan, in battle. When dusk fell, the king decided to rest for the night. During the night, the king heard the clanging of bells and to him it sounded like the night puja in a Shiva temple. In the morning, the king mentioned this to his commanders and wondered whether there was a temple of Lord Shiva in the neighbourhood. The commanders told the king that the noise must have emanated from the fortress of the chieftains.

The following morning, fierce battle ensued between the forces of the king and those of the chieftains. Though initially the king's army could achieve success, the powers of the enemy seemed to increase with the use of a certain black magic. Raja Thondaman decided that his army needed a break and began a retreat to his jungle barrack.

On the way, the king's elephant got entangled in a jungle jasmine vine. Seeing his elephant thus trapped the king drew his sword and cut the vine in one swift stroke. Immediately the king saw blood on his elephant and wondered whether the vine had caused the wound. An inspection of the pachyderm revealed that it was unhurt. Thereupon the king removed the vine to see a strange sight of a Shiva Lingam that was spouting blood. Seeing this the king swooned thinking of what a heinous crime he had committed; of hurting the Lord Himself. When he awoke, he reasoned that being a king no human could impose a punishment on him for his offence; therefore he decided to punish himself with death. As he drew his sword to cut his throat, Lord Shiva appeared and said "son , stop. Don't feel bad about the bleeding of the Lingam. I can never be blemished. I am forever Masilamani"(Masilamani means one who has no blemishes}.To his right was Parvathy and the lord was accompanied by Nandi. The lord told the king to wage battle again and said Nandi would assist him.

Thondaman won easily and set upon thereafter to build a temple for the lord he had seen- Masilamaneeswarar. The temple associated with this fascinating legend, is just on the outskirts of Chennai; at Thirumullaivayil. The name is indicative of the jasmine vine.This historic temple is over 1000 years old and is said to have been the moksha sthalam for many a devotee. Lord Shiva Himself is said to have been so loving of this place that He called it the Sthira nagaram; a place which was beyond destruction.

The main deity Masilamaneeswara is in Linga form. His consort is Kodiidai Nayaki. An unusual feature in this temple, is the way Nandi faces the same direction as the Lord. This is because he was bid by Shiva to fight the enemies and so he faces the temple door ready to take on the enemy.

Thirupathi Region was the country of Tondamans : Vengadam (Tirupati ) is generally described as belonging to Tiruvengadakottam of the Tondamandalam...In classical Tamil literature, however, the division called Tondamandalam is described generally as Aruvanadu indicating Tondamandalam proper; and the country beyond and still dependent upon Tondamandalam and having intimate connection with it, is described as Aruvavadatalai, that is northern Aruva. Taking the two together the whole territory would be territory occupied by the people to whom belongs the Aruvanadu..." [Aiyangar:103]. That these people were none but what we understand as Nagas. It is well known that the Nagas were the followers and supporters of Buddhism. Several tribes mentioned in early literature are known with more or less certainty to have belonged to the Nagas, among them being the Aruvalar (in the Aruva-nadu and Aruva-vadatalai around Conjeeveram), Ennar, Maravar, Oliyar, and Paradavar (a fisher tribe)..." [Barnet, L.D., Camb.Hist. I, 539].

The people of Arauvanadu could be the Arayas (Indo-aryans) who came down to South India and settled in the region of Aruvanadu. Arayars of South India are basically North Indian Koliyan fishermen belonging to warrior community of Bhagavan Gautam Buddha and they are now recognised as a subcaste of Tamil Muthurajas .

Araya + Nadu => Arava + Nadu => Aravanadu
Aravanadu => Aruvanadu => Arauvanadu

The contention of Aiyangar, seen in Chapter 8, is that the Tondaman Chakravarthy of Puranas was a historical person and that he installed the Murthi and built a small temple for the Lord, and this was in the times around beginning of Christian era. He identifies this Puranic Tondaman with Tondaman Tiraiyan of Pavattiri and has averred that he is different from Tondaman Ilam Tiraiyan of Kanchi. There seems to be three Tondamans - the Tondaman or the Tondaman Chakravarthi referred to in the Puranas, the Tiraiyan of Pavattiri or northern Tondamandalam and Tondaman Ilam Tiraiyan of Kanchi. Tiraiyan means men of sea. The people having surname Peivettirayar are among Tamil Muthurajas today.

Pavattiri => Pavettiri = Peivettiri
Pavattirayar = Peivettirayar

Akasha Raja of Thirupathi was a Thondaman : Shri Venkatesha granted the boons to Aakasha Raajan , the king of Thondaimanaalam. Aakasa Raajan is the father of Padhmavathi Thayar and hence the father-in-law of Lord Venkatesan. He was the king of Thonaaimandalam and his queen was Dharani devi. They performed Kanya dhanam to Lord SrInivasan at Naarayaaa puram and recieved boons and blessings from the Lord of Thiruvenkatam. The brother of AakAsa Raajan was ThondaimAn chakravarthy , another blessed bhakthA of Lord VenkatEsa.

The Thondaimans of Pudukkottai were Telugu warriors : They came to rule with full sovereignty over the Pudukkottai area from the middle of the 17th century till its amalgamation with the rest of India after Indian Independence in 1947. The ancestors of the Pudukkottai ruling line of Thondaimans, are migrants from Thirupathi ( Part of Rayalaseema ) region in the Thondaimandalam, the northern stretch of the ancient Tamil Kingdom, along with the Vijaynagar army, which was in engagement in this part of territory in the early 17th century. It is probable that one among them got some lands assigned to him by the local Pallavarayar chieftain and settled down at Karambakudi and Ambukovil area, and became the chieftain of the area, later came to be called as the progenitor of Thondaimans of Pudukkottai ruling house. According to the legendary account found in a Telugu poem, Thondaiman Vamasavali, the Thondaimans belonged to Indravamsa and the first ruler was Pachai Thondaiman.

Avadi Raya Thondaiman, the successor of Pachai Thondaiman, with the favour of Venkata Raya III, the king of Vijayanagar got extended the land in his possession in the region and he was also conferred the title Raya. The Avadi Raya Thondaiman inherited Vijayanagar tradition and the Thondaimans of later period adopted it. His son Ragunatha Raya Thondaiman came close to the Nayak of Thanjavur and Rangakrishna Muthuvirappa Nayak of Tiruchirappalli. He was appointed as the arasu kavalar of Tiruchirappalli. About the time that Raghunatha Raya Thondaiman became the ruler of Pudukkottai, Namana Thondaiman, his brother became the chief of Kulathur Palayam (present Kulathur taluk area) with the blessings of the Nayak king Ranga Krishna Muthuvirappa of Tiruchirappalli (1682-1689) and Kulathur continued as separate "principality - with its ruler known as Kulathur Thondaiman " till about 1750 when it was annexed to Pudukkottai.

Vijaya Raghunatha Raya Thondaiman (1730-1769) was the second in the line of Thondaiman dynasty. During his period the whole of India come under the umbrella of the Mughals. The famous war of succession to the office of Nawab of Carnatic between Mohamad Ali and Chanda Sahib, became in due course a war of supermacy between the English and the French in South India which resulted in the Carnatic wars. The Thondaiman was firmly on the side of the English at his time while the rulers like Thanjavur Marathas wavered. At last the English emerged as the masters of this land. The Thondaiman's act of friendship towards English was continued by the next ruler Raya Raghunatha Thondaiman (1769-1789). Vijaya Raghunatha Thondaiman (1789 - 1807) helped the English and the Nawab. The Nawab Mohamed Ali conferred up on the Thondaiman the title Raja Bahadur. The political wind was in favour of the English. The entire Carnatic region was taken over by the English by 1800. Pudukkottai was treated as a State and the Raja was quasi-independent ruler with full powers of administration.

It was during the time of this ruler Vijaya Raghunatha Thondaiman, the Poligar war took place between the English and the rebellious palayakars of Thirunelveli, the most significant of whom was Veerapandia Kattabomman or Kattabommu Nayak. At the request of the English administration Kattabomman was captured near Thirumayam by the soldiers of Thondaiman and handed over to the English at Madurai. While Kattabomman has risen in general estimation as a hero, the image of Thondaiman as reflected in the events of the time, has suffered a fall because capturing and handing over of Kattabomman and come to be regarded as betrayal and as an unpatriotic act.

The next ruler Raja Vijaya Reghunatha Raya Thondaiman (1807-1825) was crowned when he was a minor and the British Government appointed Major John Blackburn, to undertake the management of the province of Pudukkottai. Raghunatha Thondaiman (1825 - 1839) was conferred with the title His Excellency by the British Government. Raghunatha Thondaiman was succeeded by his son Ramachandra Thondaiman (1839 - 1886) whose long tenure of office was marked by extravagance and gross mismanagement. Ramachandra Thondaiman has renovated many temples in the State. He was succeeded by Marathanda Bhairava Thondaiman. Marthanda Bhairava Thondaiman (1886-1928) became the ruler of the state at the age of 11. The administration was looked after by a council with the approval of the British Government. Raja Rajagopala Thondaiman (1928 -1948) the last and ninth in the line of Thondaiman rulers, was selected by the British Government and was crowned when he was six years old. The administration was looked after by English administrators, among them Alexandar Totenham was noteworthy.

An inscribed granite pillar, giving details of the hitherto little known Aranthangi Thondaimans, and also of the establishment of a `Thannerpandal' (drinking water centre) for pilgrims proceeding to Rameswaram, has been discovered by Mr. Raja Mohamed, curator of the Pudukottai Museum, and secretary of the Pudukottai History Forum. The pillar refers to a drinking water centre for the pilgrims in the year 1683 by Muthu Vanangamudi Thondaiman, son of Chidambara Vanangamudi Thondaiman of Aranthangi, and the gifts made by the Thondaiman for the maintenance of the drinking water centre. The inscriptions also refer to the donation of land for the presiding deity, Lord Thyagaraja (Telugu saint poet), of Tiruvarur.

There are references 60 Thondaimans as ruling chiefs, administrative and military chiefs, royal personages etc., in quite a few places, at different points of time, it was very difficult to bring them all under a single clan, or connect one another ethnically or politically. The Aranthangi Thondaimans were an independent line of chieftains, ruling from Aranthangi, and their reign flourished even about 200 years before the rule of the Thondaimans of Pudukottai (which started in about 1640). Aranthangi Thondaimans were the chief patrons of the Avudayarkovil temple, and had liberally donated to the maintenance of the temple, as indicated by copper plates in the possession of the Tiruvavaduthurai Adheenam. Though there are references to the Aranthangi Thondaimans in the inscriptions in the temples in Avudayarkovil, Alappiranathan, Pillaivayal, Aranthangi, Kovilur, Paramandur, Palankarai, Piranmalai, Thiruvarankulam, Kurumbur, details of these rulers are rather sketchy.

In the 18th century the Shanmuganathan Murugan Temple located in Viralimalai was under the control of Pudukottai Thondaiman.

Viralimalai Sri Shanmuganathan Murugan Temple : During the reign of Ramachandra Thondaiman of Pudukottai the Lord is believed to have appeared in his dream and requested the offering of cigars for the Kalasandhi and Sayaratchai puja. The king is said to have been cured of his diseases after the offer of cigars to the Lord according to history. Viralimalai temple is situated in the heart of the town of Viralimalai. Hence the town takes the name of the hill. Buses, which ply from Tiruchy to Madurai and from Pudukottai to Illupur go via Viralimalai. Devotees can reach Tiruchy by road, rail or air and hence proceed to Viralimalai.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
17/08/2007
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


36. TANAJI RAO MALUSARE - GENERAL OF SHIVAJI'S ARMY :
Tanaji Rao Malusare was a great Maratha Mahadev koli (more details about Mahadev koli are given at the bottom of this article) warrior and brave General in the army of Chatrapathi Shivaji. The kolis are a well known fishing community in Maharastra and Gujarat. They are also spread all over other states in North India with the same community name. These koli people who migrated and expanded into South India came to be known as Mudiraj / Muthuraj. Kolis believe that the emperor Mandhata was a koli king and descendant of Manu, the progenitor of human race on the earth. The kolis being a warrior community, they became chieftains, ministers and administrators in different kingdoms and even they established their own dynasty rule in some parts of North as well as South India.

Tanaji was the Commander-in-chief of the army of Chatrapathi Shivaji, who established his Maratha kingdom in Maharastra region and expanded it to far down South India. Shivaji was a great devout Hindu king who took inspiration from his mother and owed to protect the Hindus from the on slaught of invading muslim rulers from North India. Shivaji had several koli Generals in his army along with Tanaji. Shivaji's early intimacy with the hillmen of the Maval community along the Western Ghats was of immense value to him in his subsequent years. Maratha soldiers were known as Mavlas. Through his mother he was descended from the Yadava rulers of Devagiri, and on his father's side he claimed descent from the brave soldiers of Mewar. Thus, the sentiment of glorious heredity and the influence of early training and environment, combined to rouse.

Mavali => Mavala => Mavla => Maval

Tanaji was a lion hearted warrior man and master's confidant companion :
Tanaji Malsure has also achieved legendary fame; this man from the Konkan was among Shivaji's earliest companions. He was not a military genius but was a lion-hearted man. He was his master's inseparable companion and confidant. His personal courage, his integrity and resourcefulness in the face of danger were in themselves the best recommendation for his close companionship with Shivaji. Tanaji's name has become memorable not because of his closeness to Shivaji, but because he gave his life in circumstances which were both tragic and grand. Even today the Ballad of Sinhagad is sung in every home in Maharashtra.

Some of Shivaji's close associates were also his primary army chieftains, and have entered folklore along with him. These include Tanaji Malusare, Baji Pasalkar, Bajiprabhu, Firangoji Narsala, Murarbaji, Haider Ali Kohari, Prataprao Gujar, Kanhoji Jedhe, Kondaji Farjand, Balaji Avji Chitnis, Netaji Palkar and Lay Patil Koli, and Khando Ballal Under Shivaji, many men of talent and enterprise rose into prominence. Tanaji also known as Sinha ("the Lion"), was a renowned warrior and military leader in the army of Shivaji, a maharaja of Maharashtra in 17th century India. Shivaji called his childhood friend, and one of his ablest men, Tanaji Malusare, for the mission of recapturing Sinhagad. Shivaji had the faith in Tanaji, a giant of a man, and a fiercely loyal general. On February 4, 1670 Shivaji deputed Tanaji, one of his most senior and trusted generals to head a mission to capture Kondana.

Chhatrapati Shivaji had Hindus of all castes and tribes in his army. There were many Kolis, many of them Mahadev Kolis, who are descendants of Maharishi Valmiki. Tanaji Rao Malusare was always referred to as "my lion" by Shivaji Raje and he was the general of the army of Shivaji ( reference : The Story of Historic People of India-The Kolis). The Rani of Jhansi also had several kolis in her army and hence, a number of them were trying to save her life; amongst them was Jalkari Bai who duped the British army by dressing herself as Rani Laxmi Bai and misled the chasing British army in a wrong direction ( reference : The Story of Historic People of India-The Kolis).

'A History of the Marathas' note with pride the bravery of Sivaji's army consisting mainly of Mavalis and Kolis. His General, Tanaji Rao Malusare, who was always referred to by Sivaji as 'My Lion' was a koli. Tanaji was truly a lion and he recaptured the fort of Sinhagad for his master and friend Shivaji by paying his life as price for the fort. When Tanaji fell fighting for and winning the 'Kodana Fort', Sivaji renamed the fort as 'Sinhghadh' in his memory.

Mavalis were the Mahabalis. Mahabalis were the bana warrior people who spread cross Central, Deccan and South India. They are believed to be the descendants of Chakravarty Mahabali and hence they came to be known as Mahabalis. Kaduvetti Muttarasa (Muthuraja) is said to be a Bana king who assumed the title of "Muttarasa". The Mudiraj people are the kolis who spread into South India. Mudiraj community have the descendants of both Mavalis and Kolis in its fold today.

Mahabalis => Mahavalis <=> Mavalis
Mavalis => Mavlis => Mavalas

Imortance of Sinhagad Fort for Maratha kingdom :
Sinhagad or Kondhana, as it was originally called, is situated on the eastern side of the great Sahayadri range and is twelve miles from Poona. It communicates with the Purandhar hill on the east and west by very high, narrow ridges, while on the north and south it presents a huge rugged mountain with a very steep ascent of nearly half a mile. From the slope rises a great wall of black rock more than forty feet high, crowned by fortifications of Sinhagad. The fortifications consist of a strong stonewall flanked with towers and enclose a nearly triangular space about two miles round. The exterior presents on all sides a stupendous barrier so that, except by the gates, access to the fort is almost impossible.

It was this fort of singular strength that Tanaji was commissioned to capture. It had been surrendered to the Moghuls and was now under the command of a very able Rajput soldier, Udai Bhan, who guarded it with a picked body of troops. The loss of Sinhagad, the pride of Maharashtra, had made Shivaji's spirited mother disconsolate. She feared that the tender plant of Swaraj reared by her son would not grow in safety unless the fort was wrested from the Moghuls.

Sinhagad is the most prominant and popular fort in Pune. Sinhagad was once known as " Kondhana ". It is 25 km away from Pune. It is on a high hill 1290 m high. Tanaji Malusare - Shivaji's trusted and one of the brave generals fought a battle here all alone with the Mughal army. He fell dead while fighting in this place and after his death Shivaji renamed this Kondana fort as "Sinhagad ". Sinhagad means fort of the Lion i.e. it was named so because Tanaji fought like a lion.

The Sinhagad Fort looks hardly like a fort today. Broken walls, two ornate gates and a few other structures stand as testimony to what was once a much sought-after place. Its record is marked by tales of bravery and derring-do. How Shivaji's general, Tanaji Malusare, captured the fort, and how the Koli chieftain, Nag Naik, defended it for nine months, are part of the lore. The monument was named so after Tanaji's valiant struggle as he took on the Bijapur monarch's forces successfully. Legend has it that about three centuries ago in 1670 A.D, Shivaji's general Tanaji Malusre, led a force of men who scaled the fort on steep hillside in the dark armed with ropes with the help of giant lizards and defeated the unprepared forces of Bijapur. Tanaji valiantly fought and captured the fort but lost his life in the process. When heard the news, a grieving Shivaji is known to have said, "Gad aala pan sinh gela" (The fort is won but the lion has gone). And this is how the fort got its name, 'Sinh' (lion's) 'Gad' (fort). He means that "We won the fort but lost the lion". This was how it came to be called Sinhagad - the Fort of the Lion. The fort has a memorial inside with a statue of Tanaji. There is also the tomb of Rajaram, the son of Shivaji.

From the time when a Koli chieftain, Nag Naik stoutly defended this fort (AD 1328) against the might of the Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq for nine months to Jaswant Singh, Aurangzeb's commander, who dragged his guns up the fort's steep shoulders to avenge the insult to Shaista Khan, who was rebuffed by Shivaji, this fort has been infused by tales of bravery. It was here that Shivaji's general, Tanaji Malusare launched an attack to recapture the fort. In the ensuing battle, Tanaji valiantly laid down his life, but captured the fort. A grieving Shivaji is known to have said,"Gad ala pan sinh gela" (The fort is won but the lion has gone). And this is how the fort got its name: sinh (lion's) gad (fort).

Tanaji was an eminent assult planner and a valiant fighter :
After Shivaji was crowned, the Kondana fort on the outskirts of Pune, , was stil under the control of a Mughal general. An order was accordingly sent to Umrathe in Konkan, where Tanaji lived, asking him to hasten to Rajgad with his armed retainers. Although he was preparing for the wedding of his son Rayaba, he hastened to go and his men rode post-haste to Rajgad and presented themselves before the great chief. Shivaji cordially received him and took him to his mother by whom the summons had been sent. She famously told Tanaji "If you free Simhagad from the enemies you will be like Shivaji's younger brother to me." Tanaji went forth, for what others advised to be an impossible mission. Tanaji who got his mission from Jijabai set off for his prey.

Shivaji requested his most senior and trusted general Tanaji to head a mission to recapture Kondana. Tanaji Malusare was already occupied with his son's marriage. But for him duty came first, and he chose to go for the mission although Shivaji tried to convince him to attend his son's marriage. Kondana was heavily guarded by the Mughals, and there was only one way to gain access: an almost impossible to climb, steep edge of the fort. Tanaji's soldiers braved all odds and climbed the steepest side of the fort. In the bloody battle that followed, Tanaji led from the front but was seriously wounded. Two pieces of news arrived in quick succession at Shivaji's palace: first that Kondana fort had been captured by Shivaji's soldiers; and second that General Tanaji had gone down fighting. Shivaji quipped "Gadh ala, pan Sinha gela" (paraphrased and translated): "The fort is captured but the Lion is dead !" In Tanaji's honour, Kondana was renamed Sinhagad = "the fort of the lion".

Shivaji Raje realised that to regain control over the Deccan and further the cause of Hindavi Swarajya, the capture of Kondana fort was a must because it was strategically located between Rajgad, Purandar and Torna. Shivaji Raje had several meetings with his top generals, including Tanaji and Suryaji Malusare (Tanaji's brother) and Shelar mama (Tanaji's uncle). Tanaji also gained clandestine entry into the main fort precinct, incognito of course. He went dressed as a Gondhali (devotee of the Goddess Bhavani of Tuljapur) and was allowed free access to the villages surrounding Kondana. He had won the trust of Mahadev Koli who was in the service of Udai Bhan. It was also rumored that Koli presented Tanaji (as a Gondhali) to Udai Bhan, who was suitably impressed by this "devotee" and allowed him free access to the fort.

Tanaji felt that it will be foolhardy to attack the fort from the three sides where the well fortified and continuously manned turrets are. The fourth side had a turret overhanging a sheer cliff. Because of the sheet un-scalability of this cliff, the overhanging turret is very lightly guarded. Tanaji also came to know that Udai Bhan had nightly parties with nearly all his 5000 troops, where alcohol is freely consumed. The attack was planned on a moonless night from the cliff-side.

Tanaji carried out a careful surveillance of the fort and at that very night when he was told that at the overhanging cliff Udai Bhan and all his senior commanders would be celebrating a usual party with an alcohol and dance orgy; Tanaji decided that he should seize this opportunity. With almost all his troops, Udai Bhan had a roaring party on top of the overhanging cliff. Unknown to them after midnight, Tanaji and his brave followers who numbered 300 scaled the cliff using ropes tied to a reptile called Ghorpad. The Ghorpad can stick fast to any surface and a number of adults can use this force to scale a vertical cliff with the help of a rope, one end of which is tied to the Ghorpad. Silently Tanaji and his comrades slunk up to the top of the cliff.

On the other side his uncle Shelar Mama and his brother Suryaji had moved close to the other gates of the forts with another 300 Mavalas (Maratha Soldiers). On a signal from Tanaji, all his comrades who has taken up strategic position all round the celebrating Mughal army, broke into the party and mercilessly fell upon their enemies. They started slaughtering the surprised and ill-prepared and drunken Muslim soldiers. When Udai Bhan saw that Tanaji - the leader of this invading band of Marathas was no other than the devotee whom he had given permission to visit the fort, he flew into a mad rage. On seeing Tanaji, Udai Bhan rushed at him and we are told that for a few fatal seconds, Tanaji started dancing in the same fashion as he had done as a Gondhali (devotee) when he had met Udai Bhan earlier in the day. The enraged Udai Bhan lunged at dancing Tanaji and cut off the arm with which Tanaji was holding his shield. But undaunted Tanaji used his turban to ward off further thrusts from the blade of Udai Bhan's sword and continued fighting him for 2 hours in this state with his wristless left arm bleeding profusely. It is for this feat of Tanaji, that he is called Narvir - Brave amongst Men.At the end of this ordeal, the exhausted Tanaji fell to a fatal swish of Udai Bhan's sword. But Udai Bhan too was throttled by Shelar Mama and thus lost his life. Shivaji Maharaj is said to have said on this occasion "Gad aala, paan Simha gela" (We have won the fort but have lost the Lion - Tanaji). The fort of Kondana was renamed as "Sinhagad" in honour of Tanaji's brave deed.

Shivaji's most conspicuous success was the capture of kondana from Udai-Bhan, its Rajaput Qiladdar (4th Feb 1670). One of the outstanding qualities of Shivaji was in making a correct estimation of men. He seldom made mistakes in the choice of his lieutenants. Among the men whom he selected as his lieutenants, two stand out; they were Baji Prabhu and Tanaji Malsure. Tanaji was accompanied by one thousand seasoned Mavlis. They secretly assembled at the foot of the fort for the escalade. It was a clear, moonless night, the ninth of the dark fortnight of the month of Magh, and it was cold and still. Assisted by some koli guides who knew the place well, in the dark winter night Tanaji Malasure, with 300 picked Mavle infantry men, scalled the less abrupt hill side near the kalian gate by means of rope-ladders and advanced into the fort, slaying the sentinels. The alarm was given; the rajaputs, stupefied with opium, took some time to arm and come out; but in the mean time the Marathas had made their footing secure. The garrison fought desperately, but the mavles with their war cry of Hara ! Hara ! Mahadev ! Carried havoc into their ranks. The two chiefs challenged each other and both fell down dead, after a single combat. The Marathas disheartened by the fall of their leader, was rallied by his brother Suryaji Malusare, opened the kalian gate to their supporting columns, and took complete possession of the fort. The rest was butchery. Twelve hundred Rajaputs were slain, and many others perished in trying to escape down the hill side, The victors set fire to the thatched huts of the cavalry lines and the signal blaze informed Shivaji at Raigarh, nine mils Southwards, that the fort had been taken. He mourned the death of Tanaji as too high a price for the fort, and named it Singh-Garh (Sinhagad) after the lion heart that had won it.

Mahadev Kolis:
Tanaji Rao Malusare was a Mahadev Koli warrior from Western Ghat region which was controlled by koli chiefs for several centuries till Peswas established their rule. The primitive Mahadev kolis are also called Bhills. A Bahamani record dated to the middle of the 14th century gives a convincing proof of the existence of fifty-two Koli chiefs with their Sarnaik (Sar Nayak = head chief), stationed at Junner. Peshwa Balajirao Bajirao in 1741-42 AD took the possession of the fort of Kurag that was under Kolis. After a decade, (1750-51 AD) he annexed fourteen Mahals- areas under the possession of Mahadev Kolis. Thus, all the Mahadev Koli forts in Prant Surgana fell to Peshwas.

Mahadev Kolis, primarily hunter-gatherers, and secondarily pastoralists and agriculturists, have been forest dwellers over many generations and their life revolves around this evergreen forest. Their name may be derived from the Mahadeo or Pachmarhi hills located in Madhya Pradesh. The Mahadeo Kolis occupy the mountainous parts of the Ghats, are skilled and settled agriculturists, and are the most well off among the three tribes.

Mahadev kolis are a sect of Indian koli community and they are the main profession is fishing community in Maharastra and Gujarat states in India. Mahadev Kolis, a part of the larger community 'Kolis', according to Ghurye "the largest and the most well known of the non-Brahmanic and non-dominant ethnic groups in Deccan". Ghurye traces the historicity of Mahadev Kolis back to the period of Ramayana by linking Mahadev Kolis of the tradition of Valmiki, the author of the epic Ramayana. This assumption primarily shoots out of the character of antisocial and tainted militancy among Mahadev Kolis. Mahadev Koli sources claim their descent from the first Sanskrit poet Valmiki, who wrote the famous epic Ramayana. It is not difficult to guess the source of such a popular belief, as one finds corroboratory depictions in the historical records. Some of the eighteenth century commentators on the Puranic texts identify Kolis with Nishadas, a forest living community often mentioned in the Puranic sources. One even today notices a strong sentimental attachment of the Kolis and others inhabiting the high peaks of the Sahyadri to the places, which according to them are attached to Rama, or other popular characters of epic Ramayana. Mahadev kolis worship Shiva and Hanuman besides their own dieties Hirva, Chavta and others.

Mahadev Kolis opposed the British due to its interference in their territories. Finally, before they could put the British administration into any trouble, in 1914 AD. under the criminal tribes act Mahadev Kolis were notified as a criminal tribe. The Maravars and Bedars who are related to Muthuraja community were also notified as criminal tribes by British.

The colonial Gazetteers of Bombay and Hyderabad Presidency bears several reference to Mahadev Kolis along with other segments of Koli population. S. S. Ul-Hassan in 1920 indicates the presence of the Mahadev Kolis in Hyderabad state but Ghurye in 1957 reports that despite his sincere effort, he could not find any Mahadev Kolis group there. Interestingly, captain Macintosh felt that the "Kolis" from the Mahadev Hills (north-west of Berar or modern Vidharbha, which was a part of the Hyderabad state) precipitated into Poona, Ahmednagar and Nasik districts of Maharashtra and therefore known as Mahadev Kolis. The presence of kolis in Telugu speaking lands in 1920s and their subsequent absence in 1950s is a proof that some of them gradually merged into Mudiaj / other fishing communities. It is seen that there are some Marathi kolis ( chunukwad gotram) in Hyderabad today who claim their subcaste as Mudiraj. There are also some Mudiraj people who clain their subcaste as Mudiraj koli. It could also be possible that these Hyderabad Mudiraj / kolis realised that the Mudiraj people of Hyderabad are same as that of Maratha kolis.

The Mahadev kolis have a record of militancy. The British while conquering Maratha dominions had to fight an army in North Konkan in 1818 which had Mahadev soldiers. Around 1830, Capt. Mackintosh was deputed to quell the rebellious Mahadev kolis. Mahadev kolis are also known for their skill in lezim, a jingling rod instrument. The Mahadev kolis are a sceduled tribe in Maharastra today.

In Surgana area Mahadev Kolis admit that most of them were originally Malhar Kolis. Mahadev Kolis assumed a superior position of farmer where as Malhar Kolis figured mainly as village servants. In Maharashtra 'Kolis' in general means fisherman, but it is the Son Kolis who are exclusively fishermen.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Place - Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


37. MAHA RANA PRATAP SINGH - KING OF UDAIPUR :
MAHA RANA PRATAP SINGH :
We know that Mudiraj people are the kolis extended into South India. Some Kolis having Rane surname are seen claiming their gotra as Sisodia. Maha Rana Pratap (1540-1597) , the ruler of Mewar, state in north-western India belonged to the Sisodia clan of Suryavanshi Rajputs.

Raneya < => Rane <=> Rana

Maharanas were the Rajputs related to Chowda clans of Gujarat. And these Chowdas are traced to be related to Chowtas ( Bunts) of Karnataka. Chowta and Chowti surnames belong to Balija and Mudiraj people of Andhrapradesh. Chowta surname also belongs to Tuluva Bunts.

The Sisodias claim their descent from Lord Rama, the hero of the famous Hindu epic Ramayana. Its rulers claim descent from Rama tracing their line to his firstborn, Lav founder of Lahore (Lavpur). It is also said that the group descended from the Sun God and is thus known as the Suryavanshi or Children of Sun.

Lavha <=> Lavh <=> Lav
Lavha + Pura => Lavhapura => Lavhapur
Lavhapur => Lavhpur => Lavpur
Lavhapur => Lavhpur => Lahvur => Lahvoor => Lahoor => Lahore

Foremost amongst the Rajputs is the House of Mewar. Mewar ( Udaipur ) was the last state to succumb to Muslim rule. As the senior clan, the rulers were given the title of Maharana while all others were called Maharaja.The prince of Mewar is treated as the legitimate heir to the throne of Rama. It appears that these Rajputs to belong koli community.

Powerful new kingdoms like Mewar, Marwar, and Vijaynagar kingdoms were established by the people of same king race to carry the torch of Hindu independence for the next two centuries by defying Muslim rule in India. The bant kings of Vijayanagar in Rayalaseema regionof Andhra - Karnataka and the Rajaput kings of Rajastan were of the same race.

Sri Rama was a koli descent. The great emperor Mandhata, who was an ancestor to Sri Rama was a koli who valour was found in the inscriptions of ruined Mahenjodaro remains. We all know that Harappa and Mahenjodaro now got worldwide recognition to the early dravidian cities on the banks of river Sindhu and interacted with other ddravidian civilizations of Sumeria and Babylonia. Kaikeye, the 3rd wife of Dasharatha is said to be the daughter of Khatri ( Matsya = koli) king. A section of kolis even today that believe that they are the descendants of the emperor Mandhata of great fame

The Sisodia (also known as Shishodia or Shishodya or Sisodya or Sisodhya) are a Rajput clan who ruled the kingdom of Mewar in Rajasthan. The Sisodias of the Suryavansa Race, originally from Gujarat, migrated to Rajasthan in the mid-7th century and reigned over Mewar, which encompassed Udaipur and Chittorgarh. Before Rana Hamir the clan was known as Gehlot or Guhilot. In 1303 CE Alla-ud-din Khilji attacked Chittor.In the war all Rajputs in the fort were killed and Rani Padmini committed Jauhar. Some of their kinsmen survived, who were outside the fort. Amongst the survivors was Hamir who hailed from Sisoda village. He reestablished rule over Chittor after 23 years Muslim rule over Chittor. His clan was renamed Sisodia after the name of their village "Sisoda".

The Sisodias claim their descent from Lord Rama, the hero of the famous Hindu epic The Ramayana through Lava. They continued with the flag of Lava that the insignia of 'Sun' that embossed on a crimson back ground. They are thus are known as Suryavanshi. The rulers of Mewar are obviously the legitimate decedents of Lord Rama. The earliest history of the clan calims that they had moved from Lahore that was also known as 'Lohkot' or 'Lavasthali' to Shiv Desh, or Chitor.

The greatest Rajput hero of all time, Rana Pratap (b.1540-d.1597) is Mewar's most illustrious ruler. Rana Pratap led the Rajputs against the Mughal army to preserve the independence of Mewar. He had to face not only Akbar's army but also had to fight against other Rajput kings like Raja Todar Mal and Raja Man Singh who aligned with the Mughals. In the Battle of Haldighati (1576), Maharana Pratap was badly hurt and was saved by his famous horse Chetak, who took him in an unconscious state away from the battle scene. Immediately after Rana Pratap's death, the Sisodias became vassals of the Mughals, and served them faithfully for nearly two centuries. When the Mughal empire went into terminal decline in the 18th century, the Sisodias ventured a measure of autonomy, but were subdued by the Marathas, who exacted crippling tributes from them annually.

Mewad, a place of historical significance in Rajastan, is known for its valiant Rajput ruler Maha Rana Pratap. Maharana Udai Singh (Period of rule 1522-1572 A.D.), the fouder of Udaipur was the father and Jaiwant Bai (Jeevat kanwar) Sonagari was the mother of Maha Rana Pratap. Maha Rana Pratap had 25 brothers and 3 sisters through his father, mother and step mothers. At around age of 17 years Pratap was married to Ajabade, the daughter of Rao Ram Rakh Panwar. Amar Singh was born to her in the month of Chaitra Sudi 7, Thursday of Vikram Era 1613 (i.e. 16 March, 1559). Maharana Pratap had 11 wives and 17 sons. There were times when he and his family and children ate bread made of grass. A couplet of one of the bards says that Maharana Pratap was so busy fighting for freedom that he had no time for his children.

Akbar annexed Malwa and brought a major part of Rajasthan under his control. Most of the Rajputs recognised his suzerainty, except Mewar, which continued to resist under Rana Pratap and his son Amar Singh. Akbar sent a total of six diplomatic missions to Pratap, seeking to negotiate the same sort of peaceful alliance that he had concluded with the other Rajput chiefs. Pratap roundly rebuffed every such attempt.

Born on 9 May, 1540 Maharana Pratap possess an excellent physique,character and sagacity along with high morality. He was enthroned in 1572 and struggled for the independence of his motherland and the preservation of Indian moral values till he breathed his last. Maharana Pratap was the 52nd ruler but 51 rulers before him had done the same thing.There is a graphic description of Maharana Pratap's battles against the Mughals, showing the greatness of the man, unique in the history of the Rajputs.

He died fighting for his nation, for his people, and most importantly for his honor. On June 21, 1576 (June 18 by other calculations), the two armies met at Haldighati, near the town of Gogunda in present-day Rajasthan. The battle of Haldighati, a historic event in the annals of Rajputana, lasted only four hours. Folklore has it that Pratap personally attacked Man Singh: his horse Chetak placed its front feet on the trunk of Man Singh's elephant and Pratap threw his lance; Man Singh ducked, and the elephant driver was killed.The famous battle of Haldighati was fought with 20,000 Rajputs against a Mughal army of 80,000 men commanded by Raja Man Singh (Rajaput who sided with Akbar). The battle was fierce though indecisive, to the Mughal army's astonishment. Haldighati lies 27 kms north of Udaipur.

To facilitate Pratap's escape, one of his lieutenants, a member of the Jhala clan, donned Pratap's distinctive garments and took his place in the battlefield. He was soon killed. Meanwhile, riding his trusty steed Chetak, Pratap made good his escape to the hills. Chetak was bleeding heavily and he collapsed after jumping over a small brook few kilometers away from the battle field.

Rana Pratap, a present-day Rajput icon, rebuffed every such overtures of friendship from Akbar, and rallied an army to meet the mughal forces. He was defeated at the battle of Haldighati on June 21, 1576 and was forced to withdraw to the Aravalli ranges. However, he carried out a relentless guerilla struggle from his hideout in those hills, and never gave in to the mughal power. By the time of his death, Rana Pratap Singh had reconquered nearly all of his kingdom from the Mughals, except for the fortress of Chittor. After Pratap's death, his son Amar Singh continued the struggle for some time, but finally entered into alliance with the mughals. He thus regained control of his state as a vassal of the mughals. The Sisodias rulers of Mewar were famously the last Rajput dynasty to enter into alliance with the Mughals. The Rajput states thereafter remained loyal to the mughal empire for over two centuries, until it was supplanted by the British Raj.

Marwar is western part, and Mewad is southern part of Rajastan. Rajasthan's western part is desert area. Places to visit: Jaipur, Udaipur, Jodhpur, Mt. Abu (Hill station), Puskar (Hindu sacred place, Bharma's temple), Ajmer.

The Sisodiya-Mahers originate from the State of Rajistan and had various Kingdoms some of which being Ajmer, Mewad, Udaipur and Chittorgarh. One very famous Sisodiya Rana was the Great Maha-Rana-Pratap Sisodiya, who fought endlessly against the might of the Mogul empire.

Seven times the Ranas defeated the Mogul armies. But the eighth time the Mighty Rana-Pratap was finally defeated. This was due to renegade Rajputs helping the Mogul armies. After the defeat, a fraction of the Sisodiya-Mahers emigrated into Sauvrashtra and villages such as Modhwada, Godhana and Khistry, around the Porbander district, were born, and thus the surnames Modhwadia, Godhania and Kistria were inherrited by those Sisodiyas who settled in them. Another fraction of the Sisodiyas took a vow that they would never settle until the Kingdom of Maha Rana-Pratap Sisodiya was regained. As to this date they remain nomads, maintaining their livelihoods by selling fine bullocks and doing general handiwork from one village to another, but never accepting charity from anyone.

The Sisodiya-Mahers were the mountaineers of Rajputana(Rajistan) and the country was inhabited was Merwara. Merwara was that portion of the Aravali chain between Khumbhalmer and Ajmer, a space of about ninety miles in length and varying in breadth from six to twenty miles. The Mers of Sauvrashtra are tall , physically strong, attractive and their history in Sauvrashtra is stamped with individual acts of bravery. Todd observed that the Sisodiya-Mers appear to have been in the twelfth century what are they in the nineteenth, bold and licentious marauders.

Sword of Rana Pratap
The Well Known Rajput King of Mewar, Maha Rana Pratap was a true devotee of Arasuri Amba Bhawani at Gabbar. He was once saved by Mata Ambaji, so he had gifted and dedicated his famous sword to the holy feet of Mata Arasuri Ambaji. This famous Sword of Maha Rana Pratap is also kept and seen in the Nij Mandir of Shri. Arasuri Ambaji Devastan Temple during the festive events. and this great sword is traditionally worshiped by the devotees and by rajput dynasty of Mewar and Idar and surrounding areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat.

According to the Indian Scriptures Gabbar Tirth, situated on the bank of the origin of the Vedic virgin river SARASWATI, in the hills of Arasur in Ambica forest, towards south-west side to old hills of Arvalli. It is one of the Fifty One (51) famous Ancient Pauranik Shakti Pithas in India. It is a known fact that River Sarswati was the home land of koli fishermen and their royal clans. Many of them are believed to migrate to South India after it was vanished due to geographical disturbances in Himalayan mountain ranges.

Kolis and their variants Mudirajas in South India also worship Mother Goddess. Goddess Ankamma (Angamma) is worshipped by the people of Mudiraj during Ankamma kolupu on auspecious and some special occassions. During Ankamma kolupu, they clean the swords stored in hanging wooden box from roof and perform puja to the swords. Mother Ankamma is Royal Goddess of Mudiraj ( Mutharaya = Mutharacha ) and Chola clans of South India.

Koteshwar :
Just 8 km away from Ambaji near the Origin of the Vedic Vargin River Saraswati, there is an ancient temple of Shri Koteshwar Mahadev, attached with a Holy Kund and the flows of river Saraswati from the Mouth of Cow Gaumukh , incurved in a rock. As per a legend there was an Ashram of Rushi Valmiki, the author of Ramayana, near Valmiki Mahadev temple and the King of Mevad, Maha Rana Pratap had renovated this holy temple, It is said that during the Mutiny of Independence in 1857, Nana Saheb Peshwa had taken his abode in the cave of this temple. This Place is a beautiful & peaceful in forest.

Koteswar, Kotappa, Kotaih and Kotamma are the well known names among Telugu people in Prakasham and Guntur districts of Andhra Pradesh. There is one famous temple of Koteswar on the hill of Kotappa Konda near Narasaraopet. Kotappa is known as an Avatar (Incarnation) of Shiva. There is a great gathering (Thirunala) of people every year on the day of Shivarathri near Kotappa Konda.

Udaipur - The last capital of Mewar
Udaipur is a land of lakes and palaces and is the last capital of Mewar. Udaipur's history is replete with the bravery of Maha Rana Pratap. This palace city was built by Maharana Udai Singh in 1559. Udaipur was a totally walled city at that time, and could only be accessed through 11 high doors. Tucked away in the high and mighty Aravallis, Udaipur became an important landmark during the rule of the Maharanas of Rajasthan. A bronze idol of Rana Pratap Singh mounted on his favourite horse- the Chetak, graces the adorned garden here. 40 kms from here is Haldighati, famous for the war fought between Maharana Pratap Singh and Emperor Akbar in 1576. This place comprises the memorial of Maharana Pratap Singh's favourite horse Chetak. He was defeated by Akbar in the war at this place.

Rana Pratap was popular among Dravidian Bhils :
Maha Rana Pratap Singh seems to belong Bhil - Koli - Rajput clan. Tharus, who are identified to be dravidian in North India, claim to be the descendants of Maha Rana. Maha Rana lived among Bhils and might have married Bhil women too.

Prior to occupying the throne, prince Pratap used be addressed as 'Keeka' in Mewar. This name was very popular. After coronation, he used to be popularly adressed as Rana Keeka. It makes us believe that a major part of Pratap's early life was spent amidst the Bheel populated area of Mewar. By his noble behaviour he became very popular among the Bheels, and he endeared himself to them. Therefore they started addressing him as 'Keeka', affectionately. During this period Pratap took up the task of organizing the Bheels. Rana Pratap had won the respect, love and confidence of the Bhils who later proved a greater help to Pratap. Bhils were behind him with their support to win back chittor from Akbar.

Bhils were the tribe that stood loyal to Maharana Pratap. When Maharana Pratap, after surrender of Chittod to Mughal, was taken shelter in thick Jungle of Mewad to protect his family, at that critical state, Bhil people gave every support to Maharana Pratap to survive. The Bhils supported the Maharana and formed most of his army. Together, they were able to defeat the Moghuls. Punja and his Bhil tribesmen fought alongside Maharana Pratap Singh I in the famous Battle of Haldighati (1576). Thereafter, Bhils have been renowned for assisting the Maharanas in maintaining the freedom of Mewar. The Bhil warriors in the battle of Haldi Ghati, participated under the leadership of Rana Poonja. The enthusiastic Bhils worked as secret informers and running messengers. The Bhils were highly regarded as warriors and the Rajput rulers relied on them. Rana Punja, the Bhil leader, was thus rewarded with half the throne of Maharana Pratap. On one side is the Bhilu Rana and on the other side of the throne sits Maharana Pratap. Both have one hand on the throne. Babri Mandi has a photo of Bhilu Raja.

Tharus claim their descendancy to Maha Rana :
Followers of Theravada Buddhism among Tharu claim to be descandants of Maha Rana Pratap of Rajasthan, India, but such claims were dismissed. Tharus are of dravidian blood, but their traditions seem to justify the belief that they were once a ruling race in plains. Tharus are originally a Dravidian race,. who by alliance with Nepalese and other. races have acquired some degree of Mon-. golian physiognomy. The Tharu generally have Dravidian or Caucasoid features. Many Tharu have mixed features that corresponds to the Tibetan people. Anthropologists suggest that the Tharu are of Tibetan and Indo-European origin, based on their physical features, but this debated by many. According to Doctor Fuhrer and his followers , who discovered the Lumbini in 1896, Tharus are believed to be the descandants of the Ancient Sakya and Koliya Tribes to whom the Lord Buddha belong, but this was dismissed by other anthropologists as a myth. Koliyas are also dravidians.

This claim of Tharus regarding their descendancy to Maha Rana may not be a myth. There seems to be some truth in their claim as Maha Rana Pratap also belonged to suryavamsi lineage down the lane of Sri Rama and Sri Rama was either a Dravidian (Koli) or Indo-Aryan in descent. Maha Rana Pratap could be a koli Suryavamsi Rajaput and an ancestor of Tharus. Tharus celebrate the birth anniversiry of Maharana Pratap with much pomp and fair. A lot of cultural activities and competitions are held on this occassion.

The Tharus are a tribal Tibetan-related people that originally inhabited the eastern zone of the Terai(South part of Kumaon), along the border with Nepal. They were mostly living around the eastern fringe of Nainital region and are subdivided into two main clans Pradhan and Apradhan, primarily sustaining themselves on agriculture. Most of the Tharus have mongoloid features with dark and semi- dark colors. The Tharus believe in Animism (that every object has a soul) but they also follow some hindu traditions celebrate Hindu festivals. There are divided into two main clans Pradhan and Apradhan. The Tharus have their indigenous dialect, known as 'Naja'. But they speak a mixture of local dialects. Most of the Tharu cremate their deceased but bury them. There is a strange custom of keeping men face down and women face up during the burial. Some believe that some Tharu women descend from Rajput Ranis of Chittor, as they enjoy a high position in their society and play a dominant role in families.

Tharu are indigenious people living in the Terai plains of South Nepal and India. Tharu living in Nepal are concentrated in the jungles of the southern Terai lowlands of Nepal in Bardia, Kailali, Kanchanpur, Morang, Saptari and Jhapa districts, as well as in the inner Terai valleys of Chitwan, Dang, Deukhuri Surkhet and Udaipur. Culturally and linguistically Tharus are divided into subgroups. Culturally the Tharus of Jhapa, Morang and Sunsari are known as Morang Kochila, the Tharus living in Udayapur, Saptari and the area west to it are called Western Kochila, those living in central and midwestern Terai are called Katharia, Dangaha (Dangoura, Dangaura) and Desauri and those living in the far western region are known as the Rana Tharus of Kailali- Kanchanpur.

Tharu living in India live near the Nepali border, mainly in Naini Tal in Uttaranchal, Kheri and Gonda Districts of Uttar Pradesh State and Champaran district of Bihar State. These tribes are found in the northwest of Bihar and speak Tharu, a dialect of Bhojpuri.The Tharu population in Nepal is estimated to be at 1.2 million.

The Tharu are adherents of Hinduism, but also held Animist and Buddhist beliefs. Small numbers have converted to Buddhism in the recent years. Such syncretic practices have led Tharu to practice folk Hinduism. Tharu worship various animals in the form of monkeys, snakes and cows as gods. Such gods are seen in Hinduism. Every village has their own deity, commonly known as Bhuinyar. Tharu in East Nepal call their deity Gor-raja.

Tharus could be the descendants of the children of Bhil wives of Maha Rana Pratap. Rajputs were matrimonially aligned with bhils for socio-political reasons. The Adivasi Girasia tribes inhabit the Banaskantha and Sabarkantha districts of Gujarat and are believed to be the descendants of the Rajputs who married Bhil women. The name "Girasia" refers to the Rajput and other landholders living in the Gujarat and Rajasthan regions. Their language, also known as Adivasi Girasia, is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Bhil subgroup.

BHIL - KOLI ORIGIN OF SOME RAJPUTS :
The Rajputs were functional equivalent of the previous Kshatrias, but Ratput was a caste and Kshatria was a class. People have traced the ancestry of the various Rajput families and clans to pre-caste eras.

Large number of soldiers died defending the motherland and more soldiers were needed to continue the struggle. The country quickly responded. People from all sources joined the rank of worriers. This period would be from tenth century to a few centuries later. During this period, more and more people join the warrior profession. All these people are called Rajputs. It is interesting to note that there are many Sisodias who are not Rajputs but they are an OBC.

According to Sanskrit rajput means "son of a king". About 12,000,000 landowners organized in patrilineal clans and located mainly in central and northern India, especially in former Rajputana ("Land of the Rajputs"). The Rajputs regard themselves as descendants or members of the Kshattriya (warrior ruling) class, but they actually vary greatly in status.

There are more than a hundred clans of Rajputs. The clans are strictly exogamous, and marriage within the clan amounts to incest and is punished by excommunication. Some of the clans are Huna, Rathor, Gonda, Kushwaha, Koli ( or Kole), Bais (vaishya?), Sisodia, Chauhan, Guhilaut, Tomar, Chandel ete. Some of the clans of Rajputs, like Gond and Koli or Kole, sound similar to the central Indian tribes with the same name.

The largest caste is Koli or Koli Patel which makes up 20% of the population in Gujarat. Gujarat has a very long seacoast and has a large Koli community which constitutes 20% of the state population whose main profession is fishing and agriculture. Sothern Gujarat --- In districts of Valsad and Navsari which are an extension of Khandesh region of Maharashtra�Mali caste is one of the dominant caste along Koli caste. Their culture is reflection of Maharashtrian Malis. Main occupation is cultivation.

The tribes living in the hilly areas of eastern border of Gujarat are spread in comparatively a larger part of the state. Koli is among those communities who live a semi-tribal life. The Kolis living in parts of Gujarat-Saurashtra are divided into five sub-castes, such as (1) Talpada, (2) Chumvalia, and (3) Ghedia, (4) Valankia and (5) khant. The number of other minor sub castes is very big. Some of the Kolis from South Gujarat call themselves 'Patels' and others introduce themselves as 'Thakors'. According to a reference, the mariners living in the coastal area are basically from the Koli community. The Bhils of the Aravalli hills live with the kolis. The people of this community residing in the ravines of rivers and desert areas have more or less merged with other local communities.

Agriculture is one of the main occupations of the Kolis. Some of them work as labourers on daily wages. Their surnames are similar to those of the Rajputs. Occasionally intermarriage between two castes takes place on a hypergamous basis; thus Rajputs are said to take daughters from the highest clans of the cultivating caste of Dangis. Other agricultural castes have probably been formed through mixed descent from Rajputs and the indigenous races. The Agharias of Sambalpur say they are sprung from a clan of Rajputs near Agra, who refused to bend their heads before the king of Delhi. The Bhilalas are a caste formed of the offspring of mixed alliances between Rajputs and Bhils. In many cases in Nimar Rajput immigrants appear to have married the daughters of Bhil chieftains and landholders, and succeeded to their estates. Thus the Bhilalas include a number of landed proprietors, and the caste ranks as a good agricultural caste, from whom Brahmans will take water.

Many kolis are involved in criminal activities too. Kolis were known for theft, robbery and stealing of crops. They are idle and extravagant by nature. They are frequently lured by easy money instead of hard work or labour. That is why most kolis resorted to criminal acts. They created a sense of terror in north Gujarat once upon a time. The Kolis are robusts built medium in looks and black in complexion.

Mahi Kantha was a political agency or collection of princely states in British India, within the Gujarat Division of Bombay Presidency. There were eleven other states (notably Pol, Danta, Malpur and Mohanpur), and a large number of estates belonging to Rajput or Koli thakurs, formerly feudatories of Baroda; several of the states paid tribute to Baroda, and some, being classed as non-jurisdictional thalukdars, were under British administration. After India's Independence in 1947, the rulers of the Mahi Kantha states acceded to the Government of India, and the area was reorganized into districts of Bombay State. In 1960, Bombay State was split along linguistic lines, and the area of Mahi Kantha became part of the new state of Gujarat.

Kolis = Koli Patels (Gujarat)
Koli Thakurs = Rajputs
Kolis = Koli Patels - Koli Thakurs = Rajputs

Large caste living in the central and western mountain area of India, numbering about 650,000 in the late 20th century.The largest group of Koli live in Maharashtra and Gujarat states. Although identified as cultivators and labourers, many Koli survive only by gathering firewood and hiring out as labourers, subsisting on berries and mangoes in summer when food is scarce. Although identified as cultivators and labourers, many Koli survive only by gathering firewood and hiring out as labourers, subsisting on berries and mangoes in summer when food is scarce.

The Berus of Himachal Pradesh are made up of four artist castes -- the Lohar, the Badhi, the Koli and the Nangalu.

The Adivasi Girasia tribes inhabit the Banaskantha and Sabarkantha districts of Gujarat and are believed to be the descendants of the Rajputs who married Bhil women. The name "Girasia" refers to the Rajput and other landholders living in the Gujarat and Rajasthan regions. Their language, also known as Adivasi Girasia, is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Bhil subgroup.

The Gracias tribes, known by different names like Garasia, Rajput Girasia, Dungri Grasia and Dhungri Bhili are found in Gujarat and Rajasthan. Their language is known as Garasia.

There are two divisions of Bhils: the Central or "pure" Bhils, and the Eastern or Rajput Bhils. The Central Bhils live in the mountain regions in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan. They are known as the connecting link between the Gujaratis and the Rajasthanis and are one of the largest tribal communities of India. They speak Bhili, which is an Indo-Aryan ( Dravidian ) language. The Bhils are known to have fought against the Mughals, Marathas and the British.

By the end of the tenth century, most of Rewakantha was under the rule of either Bhil or Koli (a neighboring tribal group) chieftains. Between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries, the Bhil were supplanted by chiefs of Rajput or mixed descent. In recognition of the Bhil's prior occupation of the land, many Rajput ascensions of the throne in recent times necessitated validation by the performance of a tika or consecration ceremony, by representatives of the Bhil chiefs of the area.

Chowda Rajput connection with Chowtas (Bunts) of Konkan :
During the beginning of this millennium, the region in and around Daman was ruled by the Kushana Emperor. From the 8th to 13th century, Daman and Diu, which was a part of Goa was a stronghold of the Chowda Rajputs who were banished by the Waghalas who in turn were expelled by Muslims in 1330. History of Daman is quite fascinating for every historian across the world.

The Chavdas ruled over the Somnath patan & Diu under the Chalukya as local chieftains. In 1020 A.D., Sultan Mohammed Ghazni attacked the chalukyas and came up to Diu and rocked them. On the return of Mohammed to Ghazni, his native place, Chavdas of Diu seemed to have increased the power. But in 1064 A.D, the chalukyas came back again to power and Diu was successively under the sway of Chavda and Vaghela Rajputs, who build a fort here.

It appears that some of the Chowda clans banished by Waghalas shifted to South India. Chowtas were Tuluva bunts They became rulers of Western coast after gradually migrated to Western Coast from Bellary & Rayalaseema. These chowta bants who became part og bunt community seem to be related to Chowda rajputs of Gujarat.

By the middle of the 13th century, a Rajput prince Ramasingh alias Ramashah, who had lost his ancestral patrimony from Udaipur during the Muslim conquest of Rajasthan came down to seek his fortune in the south and seems to have defeated the Koli Chief Nathoart belonging to the Thorat tribe of Kolis and established himself in the hilly tract at Asheri or Asserseta near Daman about A. D. 1262. Ramasing was succeeded by his son Somashah in A. D. 1295 when Allauddin Kilji, Emperor of Delhi, had conquered the Gujarat from the Chalakyas of Anhilwas and also the Deccan the Yadavas of Devagiri. Chowdas are also seen related to MahaRana clans of Udaipur.

Ramsingh was succeded by his son Somanath in 1295 A.D. The newly founded Ramnagar at the foot of the ghats flourished under Somnath (1335-1360 A.D) and Daram shah (1360-1391 A.D.). Jagatshah succeeded Gopushah and ruled during 1432 A.D. to 1470 A.D. The Portuguese from Shah of Gujarat acquired Daman. They noticed the port of Daman for the first time in 1523.

Sakyas were Rajput clans :
Some of the most prominent of the Rajput clans are held to have been derived from the aboriginal tribes. Gautama's father was Suddhodan a prince of the royal family of the Sakyas, a Rajput clan, which lived and ruled in the valley of the Ganges about 130 miles N. of Benares. The son was born under some tall trees in the Lambini Grove by the town of Kapilavastu, and lost his mother May� or Maha-Maya a week later. When he grew up he married his cousin, the daughter of the raja of Koli. Sakyas and kolis were closely aligned through matrimonial relations. Rajputs are are mixed race of Aryans and / or Sythyans having koli & Bhil blood. At a later stage also, a lot of Rajputs migrated to Nepal and close to Nepal borders due to invasions of Muslim rulers.

Haihaivansi ( Chedi ) Rajputs :
Some sections of Mudiraj people are the descendants of Kalchuris (Kalabras). Kalchuris are non other than Haihai Rajputs of central India. The Tamera caste of coppersmiths trace their origin from the girls sent with the bride of Dharam-Pal, the Haihaya Rajput Raja of Ratanpur, through the progeny of these girls by the Raja.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date: 13/02/2008
Nagpur, M.S, India

go TOP


38. EKALAVYA - A KING OF BHIL - ERUKULA TRIBE

Ekalavya is one of the inspiring characters of the epic Mahabharata. Ekalavya is said to belong to Nishadha tribe of North India. The Nishadha caste is known as Erukula in Telugu speaking lands. This tribe is also known as Kiratas in some places of North India.

The Kiratas or Erukalas are expert hunters who hit can hit the running animals and the flying birds. It is widely accepted by historians that the Kakatiyas of Warangal and Bastar belonged to this Erukala caste to which the great archer Ekalavya belonged. The Erukalas are a variants or a branch of bhils of India.

In the Indian mythology, Eklavya occupies an important place as someone who exemplifies the nature of Guru-shishya tradition of teaching in India, showing extreme reverence for his guru. It is said that Ekalavya learned archery through the statue of Guru Dhronacharya and excelled Arjuna. .

There is no wonder in Ekalavya sacrifising his thumb as Guru Dakshina to his imaginary guru Dronacharya. After all, Ekalavya belonged to bhil races and they are highly loyal & faithful to their masters. Hanuman was a Rama bantu ( Faithful Servant to Sri Rama). Mudiraju Bantlu ( bants) who belong to vanara races are well known as members of suicide squads employed by their king masters. The very term Coolie was a modification of bhil tribe's name Koli. In Punjabi, Bande also means a faithful follower and they also belong to bhil - koli races. The Gypsy banjaras of Indian origin ( with roots of Vanaras ) are also known as Romanichal in Europe.

Koli => Cooli => Coolie
Bantu ( Telugu language ) = Faithful Servant
Bande( Punjabi language ) = Faithful follower
Ramoshi = Ram vashi = Controlled by Sri Rama
Romanichal (Romani ) = Faithful follower of Sri Rama

When Drona went to Ekalavya and demanded that Ekalavya turn over his right thumb as a teacher's fee ( Guru Dakshina ), the loyal Ekalavya crippled himself and thereby ruined his prospects as an archer by severing his thumb and giving it to Drona.This act of Ekalavya is nothing short of a suicide tendancy which can be seen hidden in dravidian bhil races. For this reason, it is said that the bhil descendants of Ekalavya of Madhya Pradesh shoot their arrows using their middle finger instead of their thumbs. They are highly revengeful and can kill their enemy by secretly following them like a wild cates. Because of this ferocious behaviour of Erukalas, they were declared as criminal tribes by British

The Nishadhas are a branch of Dravidian Bhil races of North India. In the days of Ramayana and Mahabharata, the land from Sindhu ro Sri Lanka was infested with dravidians and they spoke a language which was a mixure of present day Telugu & Tamil languages. This language was spoken from the country of Sumeria, Babylonia, Israel to India. In Telugu, the Ekalavya's caste is known as Erukala or Yerukula. In Telugu, Erukala means sooth sayer or fortune teller. In Telugu language, Bhil means bow. .

Bil = Bhil = Vhil = Vhillu = Bow
Eruka = Fortune telling or Sooth saying
Erukala = One who does the job of a fortune teller

The Bhils form an important group, which inhabits mainly the southern districts of Rajasthan and the surrounding regions of Udaipur and Chittaurgarh. The generic term, which describes their tribe apparently, derives its name from bil, meaning bow, which describes their original talent and strength.

History corroborates the legends, which tells about their superiority in archery. From the Mahabharata emerges Eklavya, a Bhil who surpassed the skill of Arjuna only to be repressed by the command of his guru. The Ramayana tells of Vail, the Bhil bandit who reformed with the blessings of the Saraswati, the goddess of learning, to become Valmiki, the renowned poet sage.

The Bhils gained in strength by intermingling with rebellious, outcast Rajputs who sought shelter with them. Most of the Rajaputs had their origins in the bhil - koli blood. Rajput rulers came to value the guerilla tactics of the Bhils, particularly since they were at ease in the hilly terrain. Various fierce invasions could not be repelled without their active support. Even today, the accepted head of all the Rajput clan of Rajasthan, the Maharana of Udaipur is crowned by anointing his forehead with blood drawn from the palm of a Bhil chieftain, affirming the alliance and loyalty of his tribe.

Ekalavya, belonged to the Nishadha clan, but Drona rejected him because he did not belong to the Kshatriya Varna. Prince Ekalavya was undaunted by this rebuff from Drona and practiced archery in front of a clay model of Dronacharya, his Manaseega Guru. By this application of mind, body and determination, Ekalavya became a warrior of exceptional prowess, at par with the young Arjuna.

Ekalavya was a young prince of the Nishadha tribes. The Mahabharata speaks of Nishaad (or Shabara) as forest hunters. The main profession of Nishaads were hunting the birds. . When A Nishaad killed one bird from a pair the other bird was crying and that inspired Valmiki to write the true story of Rama and Sita known as Ramayana. Ramayana the king of Nishaad named Guha was a very close friend of Rama. He helps Rama and Sita to cross Ganges river during exile to forests There were several Nishadha Dravidian kingdoms during Ramayana and Mahabharata periods. King Nala of Nala Damayanti was also a Nishadha king. King of Nishadha lost his kingdom in a game of dice and deserted his wife Damayanti because of a curse. They were all related to Mudiraj - koli - bhil people.

Ekalavya was born to Devashrava, who was the brother of Vasudeva. Since Vasudeva was the father of Krishna, Ekalavya was blood related brother to Sri Krishna. Ekalavya was raised by Hiranyadhanus, the leader (King) of the Nishadhas, who was a commander in the army of Jarasandha ,the king of Magadha. Ekalavya's mother could be a Dravidian Bhil Nishadha woman. Nishadhas were treated as low caste people, as they were mixed race people.

Ekalavya wanted to learn advanced skills of archery from Dronacharya, , the legendary weaponsmaster of and instructor of Arjuna and his brothers. Drona, however, rejected Ekalavya on account of the prince's humble origins and low caste.

After being rejected by Drona, Ekalavya embarks upon a program of self-study in the presence of a clay image of Drona. He achieves a level of skill equal to that of Arjuna, Drona's favorite and most accomplished pupil. Fearful that Ekalavya will excel him, Arjuna begs Drona to take action. Drona goes to Ekalavya and demands that Ekalavya turn over his right thumb as a teacher's fee. The loyal Ekalavya cripples himself, and thereby ruins his prospects as an archer, by severing his thumb and giving it to Drona.

According to some, Drona wanted to hamper Ekalavya's archery skills because he feared that Ekalavya would use them against Drona's employer, the King of Hastinapur (Ekalavya's father worked for Jarasandh, who was an adversary of the Hastinapur kingdom).

Others have alleged that Ekalavya learned all the archery skills by secretly observing the training sessions of Dronacharya. When Dronacharaya found out, he visited Ekalavya to verify his suspicions. Although Drona could have demanded an even greater punishment under the laws in effect at that time, he asked only for Ekalavya's right thumb, thus making useless the archery skills which he had learned secretly.

Others still have said that Dronacharya demanded Ekalavya's thumb because the latter was not a Kshatriya, and in those days only Kshatriyas were supposed to get a military education.

Later, Ekalavya worked as a confidant of King Jarasandh. At the time of Rukmini's Swayamvar, he acted as the messenger between Shishupala and Rukmini's father Bhishmaka, at Jarasandh's behest. Bhishmaka decides that Rukmini should marry Shishupala, but instead Rukmini elopes with Krishna. Ekalavya is later killed by Krishna, who hurls a rock against him, in a conflict against Jarasandh's army.

Various theories were propounded by various historians in respect of the origin and evolution of the 16 "ancient communities" or "Janapadas" in the Himalayan region. Saklani points out that there is strong evidence that they are in fact Raghuvanshi Rajputs, the descendants of the Bhill-Kirata tribe.

The people of Erukala or Nishadha tribes were also known as Kiratas in some places of North and North-East. Hidimbi was the sister of Hidimba. She later married Bhima and begot a son named Ghatotkaca. India. Hidamba and Hidimbi are said to belong to Kirata tribe.

Eklavya Archery Training Academy :
There is one Eklavya Archery Training Academy, in the tribal village of Naswadi. It is likely to take about two hours by road from Vadodara. Built on 3500 sq m of land, the academy is run by national archer Dinesh Bhil. Here 25 tribal archers are trying to revive their old tradition of using bows and arrows and trying to make it a profession. Eklavya, the great archer of the epics, was of the Bhil community. Mr. Dinesh has been promoting the sport in the village for past three years. The main target is to groom tribal children and take them to international levels.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 02/03/2008
Nagpur, M.S, India

go TOP


39. MUTTANIRAJA OF SRI KALAHASTI - A MUTTU RAJA KING

This Muttani Raja of Kalahasti seems to be the same as the Muttu Raja referred to in the traditions of the Ambalakkarans, the Muttiriyans, the Uralis and the valaiyans. All these sections are different subcastes of Tamil Muthuraja community.

Muttaniraja => Mutturaja

According to vettuva legend, Muttani Raja was a son of one Vijayan, born to him by a jungle girl, with whom he fell in love when hunting, and whose father he slew. Vijayan's father was kannappa nayanar was the eldest of ten brothers, sons of a vedar girl who contracted a gandharva marriage with a descending of yayathi, one of the heroes of the Mahabharata. NO historical evidence has been added to corroborate the migration legends of these castes, but the community of tradition probably points to a community of origin, and the legend of a vettuva Raja still clings to Sankaridrug (Sankaridurga), Salem district, Tamilnadu. Kannappa Nayanar was also known as Bedara Kannapa in Karnataka.

Veta = Hunt
Vetar => Vettuvar => Vettuva = Vettuvan
Vetar => Vedar => Vedara
Vetar => Betar => Bedar => Bedara

The Vettvans are to be found mostly in Tiruchengodu Taluk;in Salem Taluk they number about 1,000. The Vettuvans of the kongu country trace their descent from the followers of an ancient Raja of Kalahasti, by name Muttani Raja.

In the 2300 year of.the kali-yuga, or about 800 B.c., when South India was ruled by the Chera, Cholan and pandya kings, the king of the cheras, growing old, was seized with a desire to eschew the world, and with his consort to go to Heaven without dying. After searching long and fruitlessly for a teacher who would guide him in the right way, he at length heard of a Saint of great sanctity, residing at Tiruvur in Tanjore Distict. Him he consulted; the holy man suggested that the king, if he wanted to make a really great sacrifice, should hand over the kingdom to him. This the king consented to do; the Saint bade him enter a puspaka-vimanam, which had been brought to earth for his convenience, and the king and queen proceeded to Heaven, leaving the kingdom in the holy man's charge. The latter soon shifted his regal responsibilities by handing the kingdom over to Brahman administrators. These Brahmans ruled for some four centuries, towards the end of which period the kingdom suffered severely from the depredations of certain raiders called Ottiars and Salliars, who represented, it is said, the kallars and maravars of to-day. Kallars and Maravars are subcates of Tamil Muthuraja today.

The Brahmans in their trouble applied for advice to the holy man who had given them the kingdom, and who must have lived to a great age. The saint informed them that in the 2249th year of the kaliyuga, when the chera, chola and pandya kings were in like quandary, they had sought and obtained help from the then Raja of kalahasti and suggested that the Brahman rulers should do likewise. Envoys were accordingly sent, and, after some difficulty, the Raja of kalahasti, Muttani Rajan by names, after consultation with his Guru Umapathi Desikar, was prevailed on to assist.

On the 10th day after the new moon in the month of Tai in the year pramatha, 2700 years after the beginning of the kali-yuga, the Raja of kalahasti set out for the south. On the kaveri bank he settled his Guru at Nanjai-Edaiyar. The raja and his fighting men then crossed the kaveri and moved on karur, where he worshipped at the ancient shrine of pasupatisvara-swami. From Karur the Raja conducted a successful compaign against the raiders, and after crushing them, he repaired again to Nanjai Edaiyar. Raja and Guru then visited the Siddha kovil at the foot of the kanja-malai, to enjoy the society of the Rishis and yogis then living there. After their return to Nanjai-Edaiyar, the king was requested by the Brahman rulers to take over the kingdom as a reward for his services. The king consented, making karur his head-quarters, and posting a chief at kapila-malai and another at siva-malai(near the boundary between erode and Dharmapuram Taluks).

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 17/05/2008
Nagpur, M.S, India

go TOP


40. PULI DEVAR - ONE OF THE FIRST FREEDOM FIGHTERS OF INDIA

Puli Thevan or Puli Devan had continually opposed the British and was recognized as a freedom fighter of India. First general of Tamil origin to fight against the British and defeat them. His prominent exploits were his confrontations with Marudhanayagam. Puli is one of the surnames of Telugu Mudiraj as well as that of Tamil Muthuraj. Thevars are also known as Mukkulathors, the three warrior clans , who once rules Chola, Chera and Pandyan kingdoms. Kallars, Maravars and Agamudayars are three main warrior clans that makes Thevar community. Thevars Devars or or Mukkulathors are related clans of Tamil Muthuraja community. There are various sub-castes of Kallars amongst whom the Ambalakarar is the most important. They were a warklike people who strongly resisted every British attempt to subjugate them. Ambalakarars are also one of the sub sects of Tamil Muthuraja community

Pulithevan, Velunachiyar, Muthuramalinga Vijayaragunatha Sethupathy, Veerapandiya Kattabomman and the Maruthu Pandiar brothers fought against the British, a 100 years before the 1857 uprising. Pulithevan had raised the banner of revolt and carried on an "incessant war" for nearly 15 years. Puli Devan was one among the initial stages of Indian freedom fightings begins with at the year of 1741 at UKKIRAN KOTTAI. The Great PULI DEVAN was against the emperors ruling India and also he was fighting and or evoking peoples against British Rulers. Ondiveeran Pagadai, was the Commander of Pulithevan, Pioneer of Indian Liberation Movement. So the British once send their troops to kill or capture the KING OF UKKIRAN KOTTAI Mr.PULIDEVAN.Enormous troops were surrounded his fort of Ukkiran kottai but the great Pulidevan fought valiantly against the british troops by riding his white horse.

Surnames of Thevars : The surnames used by the Thevar people are Ambalakarar, Servai, Vandaiyar, Thalaivar, Nattaar (not Nadar), etc. Women use the title Nachiyaar and it is a general practice in Southern Tamil Nadhu to address a Thevar woman as "Nachchiyaar". The Kallars of Trichy, Thanjavur, Pudukottai and Ramnad Districts have very distinct surnames. Some of the most common names are Alathondamar, Aarsuthiyar, Kaadavaraayar, Kalingarayar, Vandaiyaar, Thanjaraayar, Chozhangaraayar, Kandiyar, Pursaar, Vaanavaraayar, Mazhavaraayar, Pallavaraayar, Ponnapoondar, Pullavaraayar, Servai, Karaimeendar, Vanavarayar,Vairayar,Ponpethiar, Gopalar, Thevar, Kandapillai, Vayaadiyar, Vanniar, Nattar, Alankara Priyar, Munaiyatriyar, Saaluvar, Manraayar, Kaadavaraayar, Madhavarayar, Onthiriyar, Serumadar, Vambaliar, Thenkondaar, Mankondaar, Kaaduvetiyaar, Sozhagar, Chozanga Nattar etc. There are over 700 surnames in use. There is a group of Agamudayars in Northern Tamil Nadhu (Thiruvannamalai, Vellor, Arani, Arcot).They migrated from Madurai in 17th century. They have other surnames like Udayar, Mudhaliyar, Arcot Mudhaliyar and Thuluva Vellalar. Not That much Marriages happen between people with the same surname.

Mutharayars were the first freedom fighters : There was a clash of interests between Mukkulathor Polygar chieftains seeking to recover their lands after 400 years of foreign rule and the British East India Company, an emerging power seeking to expand its influence and power into new territories and to arrest the growth of French influence in India ahead of the Seven Years War.

The notable Poligars who raised the banner of revolt deep south in the Madras Presidency were Puli Thevar, Veera Pandiya Kattabomman and the Marudu brothers of Sivaganga. There were two major campaigns undertaken by the British against the Poligars in the late 18th century.

The Nawab of Arcot finally gave the British the right to collect taxes and levies from the southern region in lieu of the money he had borrowed. The East India Company took advantage of the situation and plundered all the wealth of the people in the name of tax collection. They even leased the country in 1750`s to a savage warrior Muhammed Yusuf Khan (alias Marutha Nayagam), who killed many of the Polygars including Puli Thevar and later got himself killed by the Arcot British forces.

When Mohammed Ali, the Nawab of the Carnatic, supported by the Company, attempted to extend his control over the "Madura" and "Tinnevelly" districts, the poligars (palayakarar = local chieftains) rebelled. The eastern poligars of Telugu origin, led by Kattabomman Nayak of Panchalamkurichi, and the western poligars, led by Puli Thevar of Nelkattamsevval, forged local alliances and then a grand alliance as they revolted against Mohammed Ali

The first direct challenge was thrown by Puli Thevan in 1755. This was precipitated by the support the British East India Company lent to Puli Thevar's enemy, the Nawab of Arcot. Puli Thevar is remembered as the first king to have fought and defeated the British in India. His exploits have since become legendary. Resistance to British rule was also offered by Padal Vellaiya Devan who fought the British along with Kattabomman. His son Desakaval Senbaga Devar is also remembered for his exploits. Queen Velu Nachiyar, Queen of Sivaganga, is another noted personality who fought with the British during early British Era. The Maruthu Pandiyar brothers are notable for their role in the Polygar Wars. They were eventually captured by the British and hanged in 1801.

Later in a battle Puli Thevan was captured by Yusuf Khan, and was hanged to death by the British (Puli Thevan is today recognized by the Government of Tamil Nadu as a freedom fighter).

During Controversial wars with Palayakkars, Yusuf Khan battled with Puli Thevar, (pronounced Pooli Thevar) a polygar of Nerkattumseval, a small town to the south-west of Madurai. Puli Thevar was rebelling against the Nawab and the British. Yusuf Khan quickly separated Travancore Raja from Puli Thevar's group after entering into an agreement. Also to be remembered is that the Travancore Raja's were long time feudatories of the Madurai Nayak kings, naturally becoming a feudatory to Delhi.

Yusuf Khan captured several of Puli Thevar's forts which were earlier tried unsuccessfully by the British. Later in a battle Puli Thevar was captured by Yusuf Khan, however Puli Thevar escaped in Kalugu Malai where he was planned to be hanged. Puli Thevar remains a legend in the area and no further details about him is available. (Puli Thevan is today recognized by the Government of Tamil Nadu as a freedom fighter).

Earlier campaigns in 1755 by Mahfuz khan (mohammaed ali's brother; yusuf khan was a subordinate ) were unsuccessful in subduing the poligars' partly because of their sticking to each other and partly because british troops had to be withdrawn to raise the french siege of Madras (by Lally). Yusuf Khan quickly intimidated the eastern poligars (no major details of the capitulation of panchalamkurichi is known) and moved against Pooli thevan. A series of sieges of Pooli Thevan's forts followed and eventually Nerkattansevval fort was reduced by British artillery. Pooli thevan was captured and escaped / encountered on the way to incarceration.

The Polygars of Madurai Country were instrumental in establishing administrative reforms by building irrigation projects, forts and religious institutions. Their wars (Polygar Wars) with the British after the demise of Madurai Nayaks is often regarded as one the earliest Indian Independence struggles. Many were hanged and some banished forever to Andaman Islands by the British. Veerapandya Kattabomman and Puli Thevar were two notable Polygars.

In 1751 the Madurai kingdom smoothly passed into the British fold, when the Arcot Nawab ceded it to them in repayment of his huge loans from the British East India Company. Thus began the British rule, after many wars with "Mysore Hyder Ali", Tipu Sultan, and various other polygars, including Puli Thevan, Veerapandya Kattabomman and the Marudhu brothers. By the end of 18th Century the British comfortably had settled into the Madurai country, after extinguishing most of the rebellious Polygars of the former Madurai dynasty.

S. Muthiah talks about pre-1857 rebellions against the britis rule in india. "...the scale of the revolts by local powers in the South, the first being as early as 1757. When Mohammed Ali, the Nawab of the Carnatic, supported by the Company, attempted to extend his control over the "Madura" and "Tinnevelly" districts, the poligars (palayakarar = local chieftains) rebelled. The eastern poligars of Telugu origin, led by Kattabomman Nayak of Panchalamkurichi, and the western poligars, led by Puli Thevar of Nelkattamsevval, forged local alliances and then a grand alliance as they revolted against Mohammed Ali. Of necessity he had to seek John Company assistance, and, though battles were won and lost, the revolt was finally put down in 1761 by Yusuf Khan, who had been nominated the Governor of "Madura" and "Tinnevelly" in 1758 by the British, despite Nawab Mohammed Ali's objections... "

As Muthiah indicates, there were two confederacies of palayakarar's which resented the intrusion of mohammed ali into their dominions (they were more or less independent players since the end of nayak dynasty in 1736). The eastern confederacy (i use the word confederacy in a very liberal sense), was led by panchalankurichi and the western confederacy by nel kattum sevval. In effect by 1757, these paLayams had declared their independence.

Puli Thevar : One of the earliest to rebel against the British -Carnatic Nawab combine was Puli Thevar, a polygar of Nerkattumseval in mid 18th century. Nerkattumseval is Palaiyam near the Western Ghats of Madurai region. Nelkatumseval or Avudayapuram situated now in the Sankarankoil taluk of Tamil Nadu. Nelkatumseval was the headquarters of Puli Thevar, the first chieftain in Tamil Nadu to resist the British. Nelkatumseval is chiefly memorable as having been in the eighteenth Century stronghold of the redoubtable Puli Thevar, who figured for many years as the leader of the Marava Confederacy against the troops of the Nawab and the Company. He had a shrewd insight into the political situation of the time and was a veritable thorn against the side of the Nawab's agents.

Puli Thevar , initially a good ally of Carnatic Nawab, came into conflict with Muhammed Yusuf Khan, over payment of dues, erupting into a war. After a prolonged campaign of three years, Muhammed Yusuf Khan defeated and captured Puli Thevar and the later was hanged to death by the British.

He is recognised as one of the earliest opposers of the British rule in South India. He was involved in a vendetta with the Nawab of Arcot who in turn was supported by the British. His prominent exploits were his confrontations with Marudhanayagam, who later on rebelled against the British himself. All this happened in late 1750s and early 1760s, way before Kattabomman appeared on the scene. However little importance is given to these details.

Pulithevar remains one of the illustrious figures in the chequered history of palayakkars. The vivacity of his character gave him an ascendancy over the western palayakkars, while his determined resistance to the Nawab's overlordship made him a potential enemy of the Wallajahs. He was in fact the principal architect of the coalition of the palayakkars organised against the Nawab. The Nawab acknowledged his victory by presenting him with a gold plate and sword.

Puli Devar was known for his astute diplomacy, cunningness and war strategy though he was much maligned by the British historians as a deceitful person who never kept his word. He remained invincible. But he fell prey to the cunningness of the Nawab of Arcot. He was arrested by the British and led in a procession when he wanted to worship at the Sankaran kovil temple. So he was left alone in the Sanctum sanctorum. He sang lyrics praising the female deity. Then there was this sound of the handcuffs getting broken. When the troops rushed in, all they were able to find was the broken handcuffs and chains. The invincible hero turned invisible into the history.

Pulithevar is regarded as the first south Indian ruler, who sowed the seed, by his gallant resistance, to expel the foreigners from the soil. His services to the nation is honoured in many respects and the government of Tamilnadu has erected a memorial for him in Nelkattumsevval where there are the remnants of his palace.

Origins of Thevars : There are diverse theories with regard to the origin of Mukkulathors. Dr Spencer Wells and Dr. Pitchappan have found an ancient DNA marker in the blood of Kallar that links them to the very first modern humans who migrated out of Africa about 60,000 years ago and travelling through the southern coastline of Asia had eventually reached Australia. Based on this theory, it is assumed that the Piramala Kallars are the oldest human inhabitants of the subcontinent. Yet, this is an isolated case found only among the individuals of the Kallar caste.

The Nayak Period and the Polygars : The downfall of the Mukkulathors occurred in 1345 with the fall of Vira Pandyan IV and the subsequent conquest of Madurai by the Delhi Sultanate. However, the southern territories of the Sultanate soon asserted their independence and the Mukkulathors recovered under the Vijayanagar Empire and later under the Nayak dynasty during whose period they served as Polygars or chieftains. The Nayaks were actually governors appointed by Vijayanagar kings and were Naidus of Telugu origin. Later, after the fall of Vijayanagar, they established some measure of independence in the provinces which they governed and appointed individuals from the warrior Mukkulathor clans as their military chieftains and governors. After a century of peace and prosperity, the Nayak kingdom disintegrated and regional Polygar chieftains most of whom were from the Mukkulathor communities, making use of this opportunity, established their dominance and rule in the areas which they governed. However, just as their sun was in its ascendancy there arose a serious obstacle in the form of the British East India Company who desired to force the Polygars into submission and annex their territories to the Madras Presidency.

Religion of Thevars : They are traditionally Hindus although some have become Christians. Today they constitute a significant part of the Tamil community in India, Sri Lanka, and in other parts of the world.

In Inscriptions relating to Thevars : Inscription, from 1655, records an accord between the Sthanathar, the Chetti merchant community, and the Nattar to contribute fifty Kalanju of gold to the Elunattu Mutt at Chidambaram. Link.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 30/08/2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


go TOP


41. KHARAVELA - THE GREATEST KALCHURI EMPEROR FROM ORISSA
The Kalchuris are descendents of Kalchuri kings. This clan gave Kharvel, the great emperor. He was the third king of the Mahameghavahana dynasty. He ruled in 2nd century B.C. He killed Pushymitra Shung and dismissed the Shung dynasty in Tamil nadu. Pushyamitra was against Jains and Buddhists. Pushyamitra was a Vedic bramhin and he had founded Shung dynasty by killing Brihadrath, the last emperor of Mouryan dynasty. In the period of Kharvel, the Tamil kings also were persecuting Jains. Kharvel attacked Tamilnadu and taught them a lesson. Kharvel organised a convention of 3000 Jain monks at Kumari Parvat and Jain Agams were compiled there. The biography of Kharvel is inscripted at Hathigunfa in Orissa. This inscription begins with Namokar Mantra. The thirteen years lithic record of King Kharavela engraved in Hatigumpha (elephant cave) is a magnificent specimen of Pali records so far found in India.

The dastardly act of Pushyamitra in killing Brihadrath, the last emperor of Mouryan dynasty, might have prompted the Jain - Buddhist Kalchuris (Kalabhras) to invade the South Indian Hindu dynasties and ransacking them in retaliation.

The Mutharayars are believed to be the descendats of Kalabhras and inturn the descendats of Kalchuris (Kala Chedis or Kala Cheris or Kala Churis). The Muthurajas / Mudirajas seems to be the great warrior tribal people ( Pardhis, Korvas, Kaikadis, kolis, bhils, etc. ) Who once formed the pillars of Jain - Buddhist kingdoms of Central India and Orissa. Many surnames of Telugu - Mudiraj indicate that they are with Jain - Buddhist religious culture from Central India, Orissa, and Bihar. Even the Kakatiyas who ruled Andhra & Chattisgarh region are from Kaikadi -Pardhis relating to Mudiraj. Manne, Mannem & Mannemala surnames of Telugu Mudiraj had their origin from Kaikadis.

Hathigunfa = Hathi + Gunfa = Elephant Caves
Hathi => Hati = Elephant
Gunfa => Gufa = Cave

The Mahameghavahana dynasty continued to rule over Kalinga and Mahishaka up to the 1 st century A.D. as known from some recently discovered inscriptions of Guntupalli and Velpuru in Andhra Pradesh. The Velpuru inscription reveals the rule of one Airamaharaja Haritiputra Manasada who belonged to Mahameghavahana dynasty.

The fortunes of Kalinga's Chedi dynasty declined with the termination of brief but brilliant career of Kharavela. During the first two centuries of the Christian era it has many thriving ports from where merchants, priests and others sailed to Java, Sumatra, Bali and other places in South-East Asia. The colonies established by these people eventually grow into powerful kingdoms.

A Branch of Chedis found a royal dynasty in the kingdom of Kalinga according to the Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharvela. King Kharvela was a staunch Jain and a great patron of culture. Although he was tolerant of all faiths, Jainism was injected with a fresh vigour and made the state religion during his long tenure and it was he who got 117 caves excavated at a great cost on these hills during the 13th year of his reign for the Jain monks to meditate. However, except for some 40-0dd caves, most of the others were destroyed by large scale landslides. The Kharvela king was a fervent Jain, who extended his empire. Description of his capital and kingdom remain recorded for posterity in the Udayagiri caves near Bhubaneshwar, through inscriptions and carvings. Many of the Jain caves were built under his and his Queen's patronage. King Kharvela (born in the family of Rajarshi Vasu) declares himself in his inscription (approx 2nd cent. BCE). The Hathi Gumpha inscription states that in his third regal year King Kharvela entertained the people of capital city by organising programmes of dance and musical performances. On the basis of Kharvela's Hathigumpha inscription, the ruler of Kalinga at the time of the famous Kalinga war was Mahameghavarman.

The Hathi Gumpha ( Elephant cave) records the life chronicles of a king named Kharavela. The second sangam extended for 1300 years as mentioned in Kharvela inscription. With the death of Ashoka, Kharvela or Karavelan in Tamil, became the king of Kalinga and Kalinga became very powerful.

Under Kharvela, Orissa achieved new heights in art, culture, trade and business. Some of the vital spiritual destinations in Bhubaneshwar are Mukteswar, Siddeswar and Kedargauri temples and many other temples. Khandagiri and Udaygiri, the twin hill caves were built by King Kharvela for meditation purposes, they were initially called Kumarigiri as only unmarried girls would stay here, the panels on its walls depict their life styles. Interestingly, here caves are made as bed and slope for a natural pillow, inbuilt water and drainage system.

The Hathigumpha cave or the elephant cave here records the life chronicle of Kharvela in Pali language. The Hathigumpha inscription of king Kharavela refers to an image of Jina which was taken away to Magadha by king Nanda.Nanda attacked Kalinga and looted several parts of the state. He also took away the idol of Lord Rishabhdev to Magadha. But when Kharvela came in power he convulsed Nanda and brought back the idol of Lord Rishabdev, the symbol of pride for Kalinga. Jain texts have praised him as "Mahamegh Vahana Jain Raja Paramarhat Kharvela". These inscriptions are there in the jain caves of Udai Giri & Khanda Giri.

A 117-line inscription on the walls of the cave relates the exploits of the King Kharvela who ruled Orissa from 168 to 153 ad. Khandgiri, on the other hand, gives a hilltop view of the city of Bhubaneswar, and most of the caves inside have a definite Jain influence. Rani Gompa is adorned with splendid sculptures of elephants, monkeys, sword fights and abduction of women, all of them linked with King Kharvela.

Later on these caves were retouched and even reconstructed during the Kharvela dynasty. Probably all the caves now found were constructed in the 150 years preceding the birth of Christ. Most of these caves were chiseled in these sandstone hills for the Jain monks, who had renounced the world to meditate in peace and quiet and to do austere penance. The caves therefore inside one bore with no concessions to any form of comfort, other than to give basic dry shelter. They are just steeping compartments, which are cramped and low scoffed. Soon after Ashoka's death Buddhism in Orissa declined and Jainism had the sway under the mighty arm of Kharvela until Buddhism again became a popular faith.

It is interesting to know that the royal ceremonies of Ashoka & Kharvela were performed according to Vedic rites although there were Buddhist & Jain respectively. The thirteenth Ashokan edict shows that before the invasion of Kalinga by Ashoka & his conversion to Buddhism, Brahminism had spread swiftly to Orissa. It continued to hold its power till the reign of Kharvela who was a Jain king & had propagated that religion as is seen from the Hatigumpha inscription. Jainism seems to have reached its pinnacle during the reign of Emperor Kharvela who made it his state religion. he, after his conquest of Magadha, brought back the Kalinga Jinasana that had been carried away by Mahapadma after his conquest of Orissa three hundred years of prior to his rule.

The influence of Jainism on culture can be well imagined from the stress on such virtues as kindness & compassion, charity & service to humanity. This stress enlarged the humane aspects of religion in Kalinga. Jainism declined after the reign of Kharvela.The historical cum archeological evidence that is available from different parts of the State like Anandpur, Chhatia, Ratnagiri, Lalitgiri, Choudwar, Athagarh, Tigiria, Badamba, Banki, & Jajpur, Khiching & its environs Kupari, & Charmpa, Chumsur and Nawrangpur shows that Jainism had a wide influence in such areas. As a result of this interaction, the throne of Jagannatha is probably the one was been taken away by Mahapadmananda & later, restored by Kharvela.

Vidarbha at this time was invaded by Kharvela, the ruler of Kalinga, but he withdrew at the approach of the Satavahana forces who rushed to the aid of their feudatories. Krishna was followed by Satakarni I who seems to have extended his rule over the whole of the Deccan. He was probably the same ruler during whose reign, Kharvela of Kalinga sent an army against Vidarbha.

Kharvela was a great king who ruled Magadha kingdom twenty-one centuries ago. He was very loyal and just to his subjects. During his reign, Kalinga state was under the control of the Nandas. Kharvela succeeded in releasing Kalinga. It is believed that Kharvela was a follower of Jainism. The famous Udayagiri inscriptions indicate that he had built Jain temples and made gifts to the Jain priests.

The Prince was named Kharavela. He had a well-built sturdy body with a bright brown complexion and an attractive personality. Even as a boy, he exhibited great skill and ability in every game, all was always the first. His fame spread a over the state. Everyone praised his virtues and ability.

Mahameghavahana rejoiced at the lively activities of the young Prince during his reign the state had regained its freedom. But the king was not quite happy because he had not been able to improve the lot of the people. The storm had caused terrible destruction. The utter defeat suffered by Kalinga, the hands of Ashoka had sapped all their courage and confidence. They looked lifeless. They had lost the confidence to face enemies. The miserable plight of the people had mad the king sad and depressed. He naturally believed that the birth of the bright and promising son was a God-sent boon. He believed that the boy would raise the country from its misery and bring back its prosperity. He wanted to train the young boy for his later responsibilities. So eminent scholars were appointed to teach the boy the art of administration as well as economics and other subjects. At the same time expert teachers wereappointed to teach him the use of different weapons. As he grew older the use of different weapons became his study, his hobby and his recreation. Healthy, strong and sturdy, quick and active by nature, and greatly interested in the practice of arms, he soon came to be known as a great soldier. His teachers were also proud and happy that the Prince who was given to their care had shaped so well.

As Kharavela grew up to be manly and strong, the peoples' faces grew brighter. A new hope kindled in them. They decided to work for the progress of the country under his able leadership.

One auspicious day Kharavela was made the Crown Prince (Yuvaraja). He began to take active part in the administration. He was just fifteen or sixteen then. He continued as Yuvaraja for about nine years. After the death of his father, Mahameghavahana, he became the king of his country. According to Hathigumpha inscription, Khara vela is said to have married a princess of the Vajra royal family.

Kharavela, (?209 - after 170 BCE), was the greatest Oriya emperor of Kalinga, the ancient name of Orissa state of India. The Chedi dynasty of Kalinga under the kingship of Kharavela ascended to eminence and restored the lost power and glory of Kalinga, which was subdued since the devastating Kalinga war with Ashoka. All these happened within a century of Ashokan era. The Kalingan military might was reinstated by Kharavela. Under Kharavela's generalship, the Kalinga kingdom had a formidable maritime reach with trade routes linking it to the then Simhala (Sri Lanka), Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Borneo, Bali, Sumatra and Jabadwipa (Java). On religion side, though extremely liberal, Emperor Kharavela patronised Jainism. With the death of Kharvela, Orissa passed into obscurity.

Emperor Kharavela led many successful campaigns against Kingdoms of Magadha, Anga, Satavahanas and the then South Indian regions of Pandya kingdom, present Tamil Nadu state, and expanded Kalinga till the river Ganga in North and river Kaveri in South, with full West to East coverage. Kharavela was the third king of the Mahameghavahana dynasty. The main source of information about Kharavela is his famous seventeen line rock-cut Hathigumpha inscription in a cave in Udayagiri hills near Bhubaneswar in Orissa state.

This incident took place, long, long ago, about 2300 years ago. The king who had acted with such farsightedness and wisdom even in those early days was King Kharavela. Kalinga and Magadha were two powerful states. These neighboring states were at constant war with each other for nearly a century. Kalinga had suffered defeat and was waiting for the right time to teach Magadha a lesson. War had broken out again between them.Just at that time the King of Kalinga learnt disturbing news, a Greek King had come from beyond India and was marching towards Magadha.

The Magadha had defeated and humiliated the Kalingas a hundred years before. Suppose the King of Kalinga had welcomed this attack; suppose he had thought -'Let this new enemy defeat the King of Magadha, my desire for revenge will be satisfied' � that would have been natural. He could have thought: 'These people of Magadha insulted us a hundred years ago; let them suffer now.' But the King of Kalinga thought differently. 'This enemy who is now attacking Magadha is an outsider; he comes here to loot. He is as much my enemy as of Magadha.' Those who had been at war for over a century joined hands in this hour of great danger. The outsider who had come to plunder was driven away.

In the decadence that followed the death of Asoka, the Andhras seem to have had their own share, and they may possibly have helped Karavela of Kalinga, when he invaded Magadha in the middle of 2nd century B.C

If only the later kings of India had shown the foresight and wisdom which the King of Kalinga showed twenty-three centuries ago; if only they had sunk their differences when the Muslims and the British attacked our country ; if only they had fought unitedly shoulder to shoulder, considering themselves as sons of the same soil ; India need not have suffered in slavery.

The rocks of the Khandagiri and Udaygiri hills were carved and tunneled, to create this multi-storied ancient apartment residence for Jain monks. They were the work of the first known Orissan ruler, King Kharavela, and probably begun in the first century BC. Kharavela was a king of the Mahameghavahana dynasty or chedi. King Mahameghavahana--Kharavela of Kalinga and his Jaina Council held at Udayagiri in the 13th year of his reign (2nd Century B.C.). The rock cut caves at Khandagiri and Udayagiri date back to the 1st century BC when king Kharavela ruled the Kalinga Empire. Belonging to the Mahameghavahana dynasty, King Kharavela and his wife were patrons of art, religion and projects that lead to social welfare such as Orissa's water canal system.

In the period of Mahameghavahana Kharavela, the Kalinga Empire had spread from Kerala to Mathura and from the south of Vindhyas to the Kalinga Sea or modern Bay of Bengal. during the time of Kharavela of the Mahameghavahana dynasty the main centre of activities was near modern Bhubaneswar.

Kharavela's expansions into South India
Kharavela (?209 - after 170 BCE), was the king of Kalinga, in Orissa state of India. He was responsible for the propagation of Jainism in East India. He lead many successful campaigns against Magadha, Anga and what is today Tamil Nadu.

The Dravidian Kings had often disturbed Kalinga in the south. They often joined hands to inflict pinpricks on Kalinga. On hearing the news that the King of Kalinga had gone northwards on his conquests, they considered it the most favorable moment to attack Kalinga and started the attack.

This news reached Kharavela. Kharavela, who had for a long time been thinking of teaching these Dravida Kings a good lesson, returned to the south with lightning speed. The Dravidian forces used a seaport, Pithunda, as their headquarters. Kharavela made a sudden attack on this port. This was most unexpected. The Dravidian army had assumed that Kharavela was far away and therefore it was quite safe.

The counter attack was as severe as it was sudden. The Dravidan Kings were utterly defeated- Pithunda was totally destroyed. The King's anger was so great that he got the whole port town ploughed by donkeys. Not satisfied with this he attacked the Kings of Dravida themselves and shattered their confederation. They fled to their capitals to save their lives.

The period of 2nd Century A.D is very close to the invasion of South Indian Hindu dynasties of Chola, Chera & Pandyan by the Buddhist Kalabhras (Kalchuris) from Central India & Orissa in retaliation to uprooting of Buddhist kingdoms in the North India by Pushyamitra and his descendants.

According to the inscription Kharavela belonged to the Chedi clan, and was a descendant of the sage king Vasu.Kharavela who lived c.63 BC - c.23 BC, was one of the most famous kings of the Kolarian-Dravidian kingdom of Kalinga. Exact origin of Kharavela is not yet known to the historians. Some historians have tried to speculate the origin of Kharavela. Suniti Kumar Chatterji is of the opinion that Kharavela belonged to Dravidian stock. But how he came to the conclusion has not been explained.

It is possibly true as VEL & VELA popular names of dravidians in South today. Many dravidians moved from Sindhu to Central India and then to South India with invasions by Aryans and Scythians from North- western frontiers of Indian subcontinent. Otherwise also the Klachuris (Kala Chedis) were drvidian mix with aryans. Alivel or Alivelu Mangamma is wife of Lord Thirupathi Balaji.

Kharavela conspired broke the long existed treaty among Adhirajas of South India:
For over 1,300 years and 49 generations, the three ancient Tamil kingdoms had an agreement of understanding. The basis of this agreement was based upon the literary creation Tolkappiyam's Purathinai.

The ancient Hathikumba inscription, its message on the Tamils the great king of Kalinga Karavela tells in his Hathikumba inscription (Elephant cave): "All the Tamil kings were bound by an united alliance", when he had visited these parts of Tamil country during 165 BCE. and states that this alliance had been in force for 1,300 years, "and these kings acted cohesively". He feels that if this agreement continued to exist, it will be an impending danger even to his empire.

It was at this time the Cheraputra Anthuvan defeated the Kongu country king at Karuvur and captures it. As per the existing agreement, the King sows decayed seeds in the fertile paddy fields and ploughs them with asses. However, Karavela induces the Cheraputra King to expand his kingdom by not relieving his captured territory, thereby enticing him to break the treaty which had lived over the ages.

The inscription of Hathikumba was fully deciphered by J.P. Jayaswal MA Barister, Patna and Professor R.D. Banerjee, MA Banaras Hindu University. They were of a doubt whether this alliance or agreement of the three ancient Tamil kingdoms could have lasted 1,300 years. Hence, they had interpreted that the total number of years could not be 1300 years and decided it as 113 years.

The only region that was not under the Mauryan's was, the present days Tamil Nadu and Kerala (which was a Tamil kingdom then). There are references in one of the oldest Tamil literary,' Purananooru', that Mauryan, army was driven out by unified Tamil army under leadership of Ilanchetchenni, a Chola King. This unified Tamil force is supposed to be broken by King Karavela, Kalinga ruler, as per one of his inscriptions.

After the invasion of Aryans, they elevated themselves by means of their habits and created good relations with kings and big merchants. They were helpful to the influential class by helping them in creating contacts with foreign nations, language translations, understanding other languages and telling their meanings etc., Many Aryans also learnt Tamil and became scholars. It is understood that the word "Cheraputra" must have been introduced by the Aryans during Ashoka's invasion.

A group of descendants of Chera king (Cheraputra) became dominant over a period and captured important positions in trade and governance. It was these people who had crept into the Kongu country and captured the big trade center Karuvoor and its allied Chola country. By the wily advice of the Kalingathu Karavelan, these cheraputras had retained the captured country for themselves. These culprits were in hold of the captive regions for about 2 - � years.

It was only because of the deceitful king Kalingathu Karavelan that this treaty was broken in 165 BC. In this period, we can find evidences of one ruler capturing another's territory by Cheraputras and Sathyaputras. Even during this time, the Chola King Killivalavan spared the children of Malayan Kari when he ran away in fear, as advised by the Pulavar "Kovoor Kilaan". Also the king abandons the Malayan Kari's kingdom and does not take over it, but leaves the place.

Kharavrla's Vidarbha invasion
From the Hathigumpha inscription of Udayagiri near Bhuvaneshvara we learn that Kharavela, king of Kalinga, sent an army to the western region, not minding Satakarni. The latter evidently belonged to the Salavahana dynasty as the name occurs often in that family. Kharavela's army is said to have penetrated to the river Kanhabenna and struck terror in the hearts of the people of Rishika. The Kanhabenna is evidently the river Kanhan, which flows about 10 miles from Nagpur and not the river Krishna as supposed by some scholars; for the latter flows not west, but south-west of Udayagiri. Kharavela's army thus invaded Vidharbha.

The Hathigumpha inscription tells us that again in his fourth regnal year Kharavela directed his invasion against the Satavahana territory. In course of the campaign the army of Kalinga marched headlong against the Rathikas and Bhojakas who inhabited the western Deccan and whose chiefs might have been subordinates or vassals under Satavahana king Satakarni.

It is quite likely that the Rathikas are to be located in southern Maharashtra region and adjoining Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh where a large number of coins of some chiefs styled Maharathi have been found in excavations. Likewise , as regards the Bhojakas, it is not impossible that they flourished in the region of Goa and adjoining parts of Karnataka where the Bhoja Kings are found a few centuries later. As a result of this victory Kharavela's suzerainty spread over the land from the eastern sea to western sea.

Religious wars between Kharavela and Pushyamitra
There seems to be a Religious war between Jain king Kharavela in support of Jains and a brahmin king Pushyamitra in suppurt of Hindus. This religious war seems to have been continued even after Kharavel and Pushyamitra between 2nd B.c to 2nd A.D. This period of religious wars of Jain Kalachuris corresponds to that of Jain Kalabhra invasion of Chola, Chera and Pandyan Hindu kingdomsin in South India. Some historians believe that Kalabhras were either the Kalchuris or a branch of Kalchuris.

Pusyamitra may have been attacked by King Kharavela of Kalinga (modern Orissa). Kharavela's inscriptions claim that he forced a King of Magadha named "Bahasatimita", (thought to be the Sunga King Brhaspatimitra, or Pusyamitra himself) to bow at his feet. However, this has not been confirmed as dates for Kharavela range several centuries. Many renowned scholars equate Brhaspatimitra with Pushyamitra, the founder of Sunga dynasty.

The political and military performances of Kharavela have, in fact, no parallel in history and this great monarch fully justifies the epithet Chakravarti given to him in the inscription of his chief queen.

The glorious king of the Cheta or Chedi dynasty of Utkal Pradesh ( Orissa ) who after being victorious over some contemporary enemy kings, had just picked up a fight with no less than the emperor Pushyamitra Shung of Magadha that he came to know of and recognised the national calamity of the attack of the Greek king Demitrese on central India; he at once made peace-pact with Pushyamitra to defeat Demitrese. After defeating King Satavahana and also the alien invaders in northern India, he organised in his state a great Jain-conference and gained the degrees of Khemaraja ( the king who protects ) and Dharmaraja ( the king upholding the Dharma, the dutiful king ) as given to him by the Jain saints. The rock edicts of the Jain king Kharavela have been found in Udayagiri and Khandagiri complexes of caves near Bhuvaneshwara ( in Orissa ).

It has to do with a story of alleged Hindu persecution of Buddhism by Pushyamitra, a general in the service of the declining Maurya dynasty, who founded the Shunga dynasty after a coup d'�tat.

Divyavadana, in a text of about the second-third century AD, depicts Pushyamitra Shunga as a great persecutor of Buddhists. In a crusading march with a huge army he destroyed stupas, burnt monasteries and killed monks. This stretched up to Shakala, i.e. modern Sialkot, where he announced a reward of 100 gold coins to the person who would bring the head of a Buddhist monk

Pushyamitra Sunga destroyed 84,000 Buddhist stupas and slaughtered srameans, has no corroborative evidence. Interestingly, the sculptured stone gateway and the massive stone railing aroused Sanchi stupa were executed during the time of Pushyamitra Sunga Pusyamitra Sunga was the founder and first King of the Sunga Dynasty in Northern India. Pusyamitra Sunga was originally a Senapati (General) of the Mauryan empire. In 185 BCE he assassinated the last Mauryan Emperor (Brhadrata) during an army review, and proclaimed himself King. He then performed the Ashwamedha Yajna (horse sacrifice) and brought much of Northern India under his rule. Inscriptions of the Shungas have been found as far as the Jalandhar in the Punjab and even as far as Sagala (Sialkot).

The Sunga Empire (or Shunga Empire) is a Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India as well as parts of the northwest (now Pakistan) from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. The capital of the Sungas was Pataliputra.

Following the Mauryans, the first Brahmin king was Pusyamitra Sunga, who is frequently linked in tradition with the persecution of Buddhists and a resurgence of Brahmanism that forced Buddhism outwards to Kashmir, Gandhara and Bactria.

War and conflict characterized the Sunga period. They are known to have warred with the Kalingas, Satavahanas, the Indo-Greeks, and possibly the Panchalas and Mathuras.

The founder of the dynasty, Pushyamitra Sunga, overthrew the Mauryas; either in 187 B.C. or 184 B.C. After him there were nine other rulers. Among them, Agnimitra, Vasumitra, Bhagvata and Devabhumi were the prominent ones. The names of the first two were associated with some events in political history, whereas the latter two were known for their long rule, they being 32 and 10 years respectively.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 16/07/2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


go TOP


42. ALUGU BHUPATHI RAJU - THE KALACHURI KING OF PALNADU :

Alugu Bhupathi Raju was the king of Kalchuri clans of Palnadu located very close to Guntur. The great war of Palnadu was fought between the two sons of Alugu Bhupathi Raju. It was a war between two factions of the same family who were claiming their rights over the father�s kingdom. This story of Palnadu kalchuris very much comparable to that of kurus of Mahabharata. The war of Palnadu in the 12th century is marked in legend and literature as 'Andhra Kurukshetra War'.

According to Dr. Ayangar the Kalabhras were either a branch or a variant of Kalchuri clans. The Kalchuri clans were from Central India and they were the supporters of Jainism. It is a well established fact that a section of Tamil Mutharayars ( Mudiraj ) are said to be the descendants of Kalabras. The kalyani kalchuris who were related to palanati kalchuris were originally jains and supported veera shaiva religion in kalyana kingdom. The Palnati kalchuris seems to be hindus.

It is also to be noted that Palanadu is often reffered as Pallavanadu as it was ruled by pallavas. When pallavas ruled a large portion of South India, why only palnadu county gots name after pallavas ? But the fact seems to be the other way round. The early palanati kalachuris could be the pallavas, who migrated to Tamil country and established their rule there. One most important and interesting fact but not well publicised is that a section of the palli or pallava tribe is said to be known as muttarasar ( Telugu Muttaracha and they ruled the Chola country, first as feudataries of Pallavas and then of the pandya kings during the 8th century A.D.

These Pallis or Telugu Muttarachas were jains.The Jain Pallis had remained important educational centres during the Kalabhra rule. The Jain Palli (School) at Thirupathirippuliyur remained an important educational centre during this period. Sarva Nandi and Vajra Nandi were the two great Jain scholars, who lived in this period

These Telugu Kalachuris / Telugu Muttarachas could be the kalabhras who initially invaded Tamil chola country and established the kalabra rule there and later on a section of the same Telugu Muttarachas known as palli or pallava established pallava kingdom. These Pallavas might have become Hindus after the decline of Jainism and Buddhism. These Pallavas also maintained matrimonial relations with Mutharayar kings and this too indicates their close relation as one community.

Palanadu => Pallavanadu
Palli => Pallava

Alugu Bhupathi Raju was a Palnati Kalchuri king and the people having Alugu surname are among Telugu Mudiraj community of Andhra Pradesh. Further, the surnames -Elugu, Alugu and Alagan are all seems related to each other. While Alugu and Elugu are the surnames from Telugu Mudiraju community, the Alagan surname is from Tamil Muthuraja community today. Cholai Alagan surname is also being used by some Tamil Muthurajas. Elugu Rayudu who ruled parts of Rayalaseema was the last ruler of Saluva dynasty and belonged to Mudiraj community. For more details on the relation of these surnames, readers may like to see for the analysis of �ELUGU� under Telugu mudiraj surnames in this website.

Elugu => Alugu => Alagu => Alagan

Alugu people are now Telugu Mudiraj fishermen in Telangana
The Hindu News : Patancheru : Saturday, Feb 05, 2005 : Alugu Radhayya, along with three fishermen from the local Mudiraj Association, who secured the rights of fish culture in an open auction six months ago is in tears. The Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board (APPCB) has zeroed in on two big chemical and pharmaceutical firms allegedly involved in illegal dumping of poisonous chemicals into Peda Chervu of Isnapur in Medak district causing large-scale death of fish.

By the time they are mentioned in the Telugu epic "Battle of Palnadu", they referred to as the Haihaya family of the Kona region (Amalapuram and Razole taluqs of the present East Godavari District) and the Haihaya family of Palanadu and were modest feudatories of the Chalukyas.

Kalachuris were originally from Rajastan & Central India
Kalachuri Dynasty was originally from Rajasthan, ruled various parts of India including Karnataka, from the 6th century to 13th century. Even today there are Nadavaras with Kalachuri family names in Ankola Seeme(county) who worship ancient Kalachuri shrines and selectively observe the rituals of Jainism. Supposedly they are the descendents of Kalchuris of Rajasthan. The Kalachuri King Bijjala (1130-1167 A.D) was a close relative of Kalanayakas of Ankola. Nadavaras are bunts who are related people to Mudiraju bants. Balijas were once part of Mudiraju bantlu and the Alugu surname can also be seen among Balijas also today.

According to Colonel Todd, a tribe of Haihayas still exists "near the very top of the valley of Sohagpur, in Bhagelkhand, aware of their ancient lineage, and though few in number, still celebrated for their valor."

Alugu Nalagama Raju becale king after the death of Chagi Anugu Raju
The Palnadu Kings (Chagi Anugu Raju Family) told in inscriptions that they came from Jabalpur/MP. During this period they married some Kapu women (farmers) of Kamma Nadu. That is why they were called as (Kamma) Kapus in some inscriptions. Slowly after some time the Kamma Kapus became Kammas. According to Babu, Brahma Naidu migrated to Andhra Desha along with the king Anugu Raju in consequence of the invasion of their realm in the North by Muhammad Ghori.

After the death of Anuguraju of Palanadu, the Alugu Nalagamaraju was crowned. It is not clear whether Anugu Raju was the son of Alugu Bhupati Raju or not . After some time the minister Doddama Naidu died. Though by right Brahma Naidu shoild have succeeded him as minister, nayakuralu Nagamma usurped his position. Patriotic Brahmanaidu left Gurajala for Macharla to bring up Nalagama Raju's brothers.

Aluguraju was the king of palnadu when it was on it's zenith. This Anuguraju or Aluguraju seems to be non other than the Alugu Bhupathiraju.

Alugu => Anugu
Anuguraju = Aluguraju = Alugu bhupatirau

Anuguraju of the Hyheya dynasty while ruling over Palnadu visited old (Patha) Chirala along with the famous socio-religious reformer Brahma Naidu, during the twelfth century and left behind the idol of Chennakesava Swamy, his family deity with his consorts and weapons, used by Palnadu warriors. The ancient Adikesavaswamy temple, originally built by the Cholas during the eleventh century, and now in a dilapidated condition, is being rebuilt by Sri Arulananda Swamy, head of Sri Lalithananda Ashram of Vodarevu.

Nalagama and Malideva were two Kalchuri brothers of Palanadu
Nalagama Raju and Narasinga Raju were ruling at Gurajala, a small town near Macherla. Alugu Nalagama Raju was the son of Alugu Bhupathi Raju of the Palanati Kalachuris. Nalagama's mother was Mailama and Mailama was the daughter of Gonka-II of Chalukya Cholas. His step brother was Alugu Malideva Raju, who was married to a princess of the Kalyani branch of Kalachuris. The kalchuri princess was the daughter of Rayamurari Sovideva of Kalyani Kalachuris. The Nayaks / Naidoos were basically subordinate and feudal chiefs working under these Kalchuring kings of Palnadu. Brahma Naidu and Nayakuralu Nagamma were such feudal chiefs who were looking after the management of agricultural lands on behalf of thses kalchuri kings.

Alugu Bhupati was the son-inlaw of Gonka �II of Chola Chalukyas
Gonka -II gave his daughter Mailama ( Mailamma ? ) to Alugu Bhupathi after pardoning him for the sins committed by his father. . Nalagama, who became the chief of Gurizala about 1147 A.D was the son of Alugu Bhupati and Mailama.

Gonka II of chalukya cholas pardoned Alugu Bhupati, the Haihaya ( Kalchuri ) chieftain of palnad, who was repentant for the sins of his father and his grandfather earlier in betraying their chalukya - chola overlord and acknowledging the soverienity of the western chalukyas and even allowing their armies to invade vengi through their territory.

Casteless was proposed by Brahmanaidu : Dodda Naidu and Brahma Naidu intended to make some changes, one of which was to do away with caste distinctions. They tried to usher in a new era in which caste distinctions would be abolished.

However, Nalagama was very much opposed to what they intended to do. Nalagama tried to check their progress. One of Nalagama's supporters was a female administrator named Aravilli Nagamma. She became his chief adviser of Nalagama.

Malideva establishes a rival royal court at Macharla
The differences in ideology led to Brahma Naidu leaving with his supporters, including Nalagama's half brother Malideva and set up an independent court in Macherla. Feelings became very strong as the rivalry intensified.

Cock fight fuels the fire of cold war between Nalagama and Malideva Mutual suspicion and rivalry reached a high pitch between the two courts and Nagamma, under the pretext of Malideva's defeat in a cock-fight, exiled them for 7 years from Palnadu.

Brahmanna along with his troops lives in exile for six and half years after loosing Macherla to Nagamma in a cock fight. He is said to have lived first three years of his exile period along with his brothers and other warriors in and around Deverakonda region of Nalgonda district and said to have established a town called 'Mandadi' there. His two brothers are said to have founded two other towns in the region. Nagamma said to have sent some fierce Boya warriors from Palnadu region to set the new town Mandadi on fire but they failed to carry out her orders. Brahmanna decided to move from there and lived the the next three and half years of his exile period just south of his original Palnadu region border in Guntur district in a village called 'Medapi'.

Alaraja of Kalchuri clans was sent as a war diplomat :
This diplomatic negotiations between Nalagamaraju and Malidevaraju came to be known as Alarju Rayabharamu in a similar way to Sri Krishna Rayabharamu during Mahabharata war between Kauravas and Pandavas.

After 7 years of exile by Malideva Raju, his adviser and supporter Brahma Naidu sent Alaraja to Nalagama to claim Malideva's share. Alaraja was the son of Kalachuri Kommaraja of Kalyani. The demand was turned down and Alaraja was poisoned to death. Nayakuralu Nagamma is said to have ordered that Alaraja be poisoned to death. This killing of Alaraja angered the Kalyani Kalachuris. The enraged Kalyani Kalachuris and Brahma Naidu declared war on Gurazala. The Kalyani Kalachuris provided troops to help Malideva and Velanati Chodas.

In the story narrated by ballads during Ankamma Kolupu performed by Mudiraj people, there is a reference to one Kommaraju from Devagiri located in Maharastra which could be near Kalyani kingdom. In the story of ballads, it is also said that the Maaraacha ( Mahaaracha = Mudiraju) brothers from Devagiri kalyani kingdom joined the court of Brahma Naidu indicating that these Mudiraju brothers could be Kalyani kalchuris who participated in the war of Palnadu.

The great war of Palnadu was faught between two sons of Alugu Bhupathi Raju, who was the king of Palnad kalchuri clans. Battle of Palnadu - (1182) at Karempudi village, in Palnadu region, between the former rulers of Macherla and then rulers of Gurajala of Palnadu region at the end of exile period by Brahmanna and failure of peace negotiations and unexpected death of his nephew, Alla Racha Mallu, at the hands of Nagamma.

The ruling Haihaya ( Kalchuri ) clan of Palanadu, Nalagama and his step brother (cousin) Malideva went to a war at karampudi in guntur district with competing claims over the kingdom. In the war of palnad, the Alugu Malideva Raju and Bramhanaidu faction was defeated by Alugu Nalagama

The critical battle took place on the shores of the Naguleru River. Nalagama had several allies. One was Kakatiya Rudradeva; he decided that it would be to the advantage of the Kakatiyas to support Nalagama. Other allies of Nalagama included Kota Vamsa, the Parichedas and the Hoysalas. The Kalyani Kalachuris provided troops to help the Kalyani Kalachuris and Malideva. The battle was extremely vicious and bloody. Nalagama was victorious. Nalagama won the battle and Brahma Naidu's son Balachandrudu was killed in the fighting.

Palnadu is the northern region of Guntur District in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Also known as Pallava Nadu, it occupies an important place in Telugu history. After the decline of the Satavahana dynasty, the Pallavas became independent in Krishna river valley. The region is known as Palnadu in memory of ancient Pallavas. A series of dynasties such as Ikshvaku, Vishnukundinas, Eastern Chalukyas and later Kakatiyas ruled the region. The war of Palnadu weakened the power of Vengi Chalukyas and paved way for the emergence of Kakatiyas as a great Telugu dynasty.

The civil war shook the Velanadu kingdom to its foundation. A whole generation of the warriors of Andhra perished in the war. The tragedy hastened the end of the Chalukyan rule in Vengi. It exposed their weaknesses and allowed the Hoysalas, Kalachuris, Eastern Gangas and the Kakatiyas to eventually overrun them.

The battle was extremely vicious and bloody. Nalagama was victorious. Brahma Naidu's son Balachandra was killed in the fighting. Because Rudradeva and others had given military backing to Nalagama's side, the Velanadu kingdom was weakened and Rudradeva led his army into the costal region of Andhra. He was able to conquer Srisailam and Tripurantakam.

napotu, Balachandra, Brahma Nay udu, Alaraju ; Perneedu and Kommaraj are all noble heroes for whom life was not an end in itself but only a means to Dharma to which it could be sacrificed if necessary at any moment.

According to historians, Velamas worked for Mudiraju related Kalchuri kings and Mudiraj worked as interior palace guards in velama kingdoms. The intercaste marriages between these warrior clans may not be an unusal affair.

Alaraja of Kalchuri clans : Alaraja was the son of Kalachuri Kommaraja of Kalyani kingdom. Alaraja was the son-in-law of Nalagama Raju . It is also said some that Alaraja was the brother-in-law of Malideva Raju. It is also believed that Alaraja was aspiring to become the natural hire for the throne of Nalagama as Nalagama did not have children. It is also believed that one Narasinga Raju was also aspiring for the same throne and became a rival to Alaraja.

Brahmanna's sister, Chellamma, is said to have married into a Raju ( Mudi Raju ? )family of Kalyan descent (Kalchuri ) and her son Alla Racha Mallu, a Raju, was later on sent as a peace missionary for negotiations between Brahmanna and Nagamma. He is said to have secretely food poisoned to death by Nagamma and said to have never returned back. . �Alla� is one of the surnames of Telugu Mudiraju community today.

Alaraja = Alla Racha Mallu = A Kalchuri prince.

Brahma Naidu sent Alaraja as a war diplomat to Nalagama for claiming the the portion of kingdom lost by Malideva during cock-fight. Nayakuralu Nagamma is said to have ordered that Alaraja be poisoned to death. This killing of Alaraja angered the Kalyani Kalachuris. Brahma Naidu went to war with Gurajala on behalf of Malideva.

Bramhanaidu is said to be a Velama and was the adviser of Alugu Malideva Raju and regent of velanati chodas of coastal Andhra. Brahma Naidu and his father Dodda Naidu were vassals of the Chola-Chalukya and did the administrative work in their Andhra lands.

Dodda Nayudu and his son Brahma Nayudu served as ministers under Haihayas kings such as Alugu Bhupathi Raju ruling at Macherla. Dodda Naidu and Brahma Naidu were vassals of the Velanti Chodas (Vassals of the Chola-Chalukyas and responsible for the administration of their Andhra territories).

It is also said that Peddanna Bada Raju was brave warrior, son of Dodda Nayudu (then minister of Alugu Raju) and elder brother of Brahma Naidu, a velama by birth but given in adoption to then ruler Alugu Bhupathi Raju, and brought up as a Raju by his foster father. He later on said to have married a Raju girl, upsetting his Raju in-laws and their relatives who were not aware of his original caste, come together, decide and vow to kill him at any cost. But Peddanna is said to have defeated single handedly nearly more than one hundred such warriors.

Historian B S L Hanumantha Rao opines that Bramha Naidu and his father Dodda Naidu were sent as regents to Gurazala because they were interfering in the affairs of velanadu kingdom. He also feels that their ambitions to become kings were felt as a threat by the buddhist velanati chodas, who thought it would be better to send them as regents to their newly conqueresd territory of Gurazala, where they can function as a balance to the vanquished Haihayas, who were reappointed as the kings.

Bramha Naidu's idea of sending Alaraja, the fugitive kalachuri prince and son-in-law of Nalagama (heir apparent of gurazala throne) as emissary to Gurazala is a pre-planned attempt to get him killed at the hands of Narasimha Raja another contender for the crown. This is vindicated by the what Bramhanaidu tells the horror stricken parents of Alaraja that if something happens to Alaraja during this dangerous role, he promoises to give his own son balachandra for adoption. That will also clear the space for his son to become the only contender if Bramhanaidu wins the war. In fact as expected alaraja gets killed in the hands of narasimha and Bramhanaidu blames Nagamma for this and declares war unilaterally. He also denies his son Balachandra participation in the war, with the intention that no harm should reach him, since the whole idea is to put him on the throne.

However the oral histories and ballads that came after the battle tried to showcase Nagamma in bad light and Bramhanaidu and his som Balachandrudu as a heroes. After getting defeated, most of the defeated padma velamas of Bramhanaidu clan migrated to kakatiya kingdom where they got employed in the army. Bramha Naidu is recorded to have four wives and it is also recorded that maguva Manchala was purchased for his son Balachandra. Balachandra did not treat Manchala well and instead had a mistress.

Nayakuralu Nagamma was born at Gamalapadu. Nayakuralu Nagamma was a renowned statesperson and minister to king Nalagama, the ruler of Palanadu in Guntur District. The deceitful infamous 'Nayakuralu' Nagamma, a widow, is the minister for then rulers (Nalagama Raju and Narsinga Raju etc) of Gurajala , a small town in Palnadu region. Nagamma, lead the army against Machela in the war.She is one of the key characters along with Bramha Naidu in the epic war - Palanati Yuddham (war) set in the medieval Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India. She can be listed as one of the most powerful women in the medieval times in India and in the world. Nayakuralu Aravilli Nagamma is said to be a Reddy or Kamma and adviser to king Alugu Nalagama Raju.

Born as a peasant, but rose to her post due to her abilities and enabled her master to gain victories. When one of the enemy kings declared that as a woman she was not fit to sit on military councils she challenged him to a duel. She lost but eventually victory belonged to her side.

On the other side Nagamma was a widow without children and was old by then and had very little to gain from war. All the important kingdoms of the era sided with Nalagama and Nagamma is proof that they were on the right side. while commissioned oral epics like Palanati viracharitra are completely one sided and did injustice to Nagamma character, historians have done justice to her.

Gurazala
Gurazala is a semi town and mandal located in the northwestern parts of Guntur district. It is administrative hub(capitol) of region Palnadu. This town is in the heart of Palnadu, and has a legendary history of over a thousand years. Bramha Naidu, lived in Gurazala but moved to Marcherla due to the internal disputes The famous battle Palnati Yudhdham (War of Palnadu) took place between Gurazala and Macherla between 1176 AD - 1182 AD. at Karampudi (yuddabhoomi). In many scripts the war was referred as Andhra Kurukshetra.

Tens of tempels make this town a spiritual place starting from Ishtakameshwaraswami temple located in the southern town was built by Nagamma in the 12th century. Amaralingeshwara swami temple is located in the northern part of the town.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 1st September 2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


go TOP


43.RAYAMURARI SOVIDEVA - THE KALCHURI KING OF KALYANA
Rayamurari Sovideva ( 1167 - 1177 A.D) was the son of Bijjala -II, a kalchuri king of Kalyana branch. Sovideva was the father-in-law of Alugu Malideva Raju, who was a king of palnad branch of Kalachuris. Alugu Malideva Raju was the son of Alugu Bhupathi Raju and step brother to Alugu Nalagama Raju. The two cousin brothers fought a bitter battle of Palnad for their rights over the kingdom of his father. Raya Murari Sovideva ( Rajendra) supported Malideva with troops in the war of Palnad. But it seems that Alugu Malideva Raju was defeated in the war.

It is already accepted that mutharayars are the decendants of kalabhras and kalabras are a branch or variants of kalchuris. Further the surnames "Alugu" ans "Alla" belong to Telugu Mudiraj community today. This clearly establishes the fact that mudiraj people are the descendants of kalachuris and also kalabhras. For more details, readers may refer to kalchuri king Alugu Bhupati Raju in the web page "Kings" and for surname analysis in the wep page "surnames" in this website.

Kalachuris => Kalabhras
Kalabhras => Mutharayars
Kalchuris => Mudirajas

The war of Palanadu was a war between two factions of the same Kalachuri family of Alugu Bhupathi in which Nalagama faction was supported by a powerful lady minister Aravilli Nagamma and the other faction by a feudal lord Brahma Naidu. It is also said that Brahma Nayudu's sister was married to a prince of Kalyana kalchuris and their son Alaraja ( Alla Racha Mallu ) married Nalagama's daughter. From the above relations, it becomes clear that Palanad kalchuris were very closely related to kalyani kalachuris and palnad kalchuris could be an extension of kalyana kalchuris. The Kalachuris are the principal characters in the Andhra epic The battle of Palnadu

Someswara or Sovideva, the son of Bijjala Deva ruled from 1167 to 1177 AD and was succeeded by younger brother Sankara. The kingdom of Kalyana kalchuris went into decline after the assassination of Bijjalla. The rulers who followed were weak and incompetent, with the exception of Sovideva, who managed to maintain control over the kingdom.

Jain king Bijjala's minister Basava (1106-1167) promoted the Vira Shaiva sect that emphasized social reform and the emancipation of women. Basava disregarded caste and ritual as shackling and senseless. When an outcaste married an ex-Brahmin bride, Bijjala sentenced them both, and they were dragged to death in the streets of Kalyana. Basava tried to convert the extremists to nonviolence but failed; they assassinated Bijjala, and the Vira Shaivas were persecuted. Basava had been taught by Allama Prabhu, who had completely rejected external rituals, converting some from the sacrifice of animals to sacrificing one's bestial self.

Basavanna was a religious reformist and also the minister of Bajjala. It appears that Malideva Raju and his supporter Brahma Nayudu both being related matrimonially to Kalyana branch of Kalachuryas were also on the same path of religious reforms in Palnadu and finally caught in the bloody war of palnad.

Basavanna and Bijjala as such are the two central characters of the play and both of them have their antagonists. Bijjala finds himself at the mercy of his vagrant and dictatorial son Sovideva while Basavanna is let down by his close disciple Jaganna who after killing the King, stabs himself. Both Sovideva and Jaganna in a sense are representative of power hungry politics. The sub-plot which focuses on an inter-caste marriage between a lower-caste boy (Sheelavanta) and a Brahmin girl (Kalavati) add fuel to Sovideva's plotting which ultimately leads to the final damnation of the sharana movement. All dissent is crushed out and the regime reverts to orthodoxy. Whatever the truth, Vijjala's son Sovideva or Soma, tried to put down Basava and perhaps succeeded. The successors of Sovodeva are mere names, and we hardly know anything about them.

Bijjala ruled till 1168 in which year he met his death in the religious conflict with Veerashaivas. Bijjala was succeeded by his son Someshwani also known as Somadeva, Sovideva and Raya Murari (1108-1177), who was not as capable as his father. This gave the opportunity to the Chalukya prince Someshwara IV, or son of Taila III, and his followers to subvert the usurping Kalachuri line. Though this was not possible immediately, it was accomplished within the next three or four years. After Sovideva, came to the Kalachuri throne in quick succession his two younger brothers Sankama II (1177-1180) and Ahavamalla (1180-1183) . It was during the reign of the last-mentioned king that the Chalukya prince succeeded in wresting his ancestors' throne from the Kalachuris in 1181. Ahavamalla, however, continued to rule Belvola and Banavasi till 1183, when he was succeeded by his younger brother Singhana who, within a year after his succession, surrendered the two provinces to the Chalukya king and acknow�ledged his supremacy. There are a few inscriptions referring to Bijjala and his sons, dating from about 1161 to 1180, in this district.

Bijjala abdicated in 1167 A. D. in favour of his second son Sovideva. But that did not prevent the eruption of trouble, which shook the Kalachuri Kingdom and took Bijjala as a victim. Some scholars have argued that the trouble was political in nature, and that evil officers like Kasapayya Nayaka engineered the conspiracy. But Dr. P. B. Desai is of the opinion that Bijjala's hostilities against the Virasaiva movement provoked violent reaction, which took the form of an open rebellion. Though Basaveshvara did not sanction violence, his followers unleashed it, and Bijjala appears to have been murdered in 1168 A. D.

Bijjala's successor, Sovideva had to confront Challenges to his powers from many sides, but the held his own, and ruled upto 1176 A. D. he was succeeded by his younger brother Mallugi, but was almost immediately overthrown by his another brother Sankama who ruled till 1180 A. D. His successors were Ahavamalla (1180-83 A. D.) and Singhana (1183-84 A. D). During this period the Kalachuri Kingdom became weak and yielded its sovereign independence to the Chalukyas, whose power, in turn, flickered for a while before going out. The Kalachuri usurpation and rule, then, was dramatic, convulsive and short-lived.

According to Fleet, Bijjalla II abdicated the throne in favour of his second and favourite son Rayamurari Sovideva in 1167 A.D., which was his last reignal year. But an inscription from Muttigi (No.111) seems to indicate that, by the date of the epigraph falling in 1165 A.D. July, Sovideva had assumed independent charge of the kingdom. It is not clear whether he was supported by his father in the move. But it is now known that the mutual relations amount the sons of Bijjala were never smooth and that they seem to have prepared to seize the Kalachuri throne as their father's reign was drawing to a close. It is significant to note in this context that this inscription extols the prowess of Sovideva and compliments him for securing the kingdom by the edge of his word.

Another inscription from Muttigi (No.115), dated 1170 A.D. in the reign of Rayamurari Sovideva, incidentally furnishes interesting information about one of his younger brothers. This was Mailugi, also called Mallugi and Mallikarjuna, who raised the standard of revolt about the end of Sovideva's reign and ruled simultaneously over a part of the Kalachrui kingdom in 1175-76 A.D.

Inscription No. 180 declared that Sovideva was on the throne in A.D. 1168. However, as remarked by Fleet, Bijjala should have abdicted the throne in favor of his son Sovideva in A.D. 1167. But as indicated by the Balagamve inscription as well as the present one he should have continued to take an active part in the governance of the country even after abdication. This view is further corroborated by an inscription (No. 186) of the time of Sovideva himself wherein Bijjala is spoken of as being engaged in putting down the insurgents.

Before Bijjala's son Sovideva ascended the throne, Mailugi and Karna ruled for a short while. After a reiligious holocaust, Bijjala gave up his kingship, crowned his son, Rayamurari Sovideva, and died in March 1168 A.D.

We learn from the last two inscriptions of Kirtti-deva that he was the feudatory of the Kajachnrya King Raya Murari-Sovi-deva in 1170 AD.

South Indian Inscriptions - BOMBAY KARNATAKA - INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME III - The Kalachuryas

No. 181 - (B.K. No. 184 of 1933-34) - Nidoni, Bijapur Taluk, Bijapur District - Slab built into the east wall of the Hanumantadeva temple -Sovideva A.D. � 1170 . This inscription, referring itself to the reign of Rayamurari Soyideva, is dated in the 4th year of his reign, Vikrita, Ashdha su. 11, Friday, Dakshinayana -samkramana, corresponding to A.D., 1170 June 26, Friday. The samkranti however fell on the following Saturday. The king is stated to be ruling from his capital Modiganur. It states that a certain Brahmin named Virana reconstructed the temples of Surya and Gavaresvara at Niduvani which is called uttammad-agrahara. It records a gift of money made by Bandhudeva, son of Piriya Sovarasa, for the recitation of Sauparnma in the shrine of Somanathadeva. The coins Lokhi-priyasrahi-gadyana and Lokkiya-visa are mentioned.

No. 182 -(B.K. No. 156 of 1933-34) -Bijapur, Bijapur Taluk, Bijapur District -Slab (A.34, left side) in the Museum - Sovideva-A.D. 1170 -This short inscription is dated in the 4th year of the reign of Rayamurari Soyideva, Vikrita, Ashadha, Amavasya, Wednesday corresponding regularly to A.D. 1170 July 15, Wednesday. It states that Mahamandalesvara Chaudarsa, the Manneya of Tardavadi made a gift of land to the school at Pauthage (modern Salotgi).

No. 185 -(B.K. No. 161 of 1933-34) -Bijapur, Bijapur Taluk, Bijapur District -Slab (A-38 right side) in the Museum -Sovideva � A.D. 1173 -This inscription is dated in the [7th] regnal year of Rayamurari Somesvara, Vijaya, Pushya ba. 4, Tuesday, Uttarayana-samkramana, corresponding regularly to A.D. 1173, December 25, Tuesday. It records a grant of land and house sites made by ghateyama-Sahani to Sridharabhatta and others as the brahmapuri of Mulasthanadeva.

No. 186 -(B.K. No. 79 of 1932-33) -Haveri, Haveri Taluk, Dharwar District -Slab set up in the temple of Purada Siddhesvara -Sovideva (Undated) - This badly damaged record refers to Rayamurari Somesvara and registers some gifts for the worship of god Siddhesa made by Mayiyana-Chamupati. It mentions. Siddhapayya -Dandanayaka, a subordinate of the king.A reference has also been made to Bijjana as vanquishing the enemies.

No. 187 -(B.K. No. 120 of 1933-34) - Babanagar, Bijapur Taluk, Bijapur District -Slab lying in the ruined temple of Siva -Sovideva (Date lost) -This worn out inscription seems to be a composite record of two grants for a Jinalaya built at Kannadige. The first grant made by Bijjala is dated in Saka 1083, Vikrama, Pu[shya]. The Saka year cited is the current year. The details preserved correspond to A.D. 1160, November-December. A certain Jaina priest (name lost) of Mangaladeva, belonging to Mula-samgha and Desi-gana is mentioned. The date of the second grant which was made by Somesvara (i.e. Sovideva) is lost except Pushya ba. 13, Sunday, Uttarayna-[samkramana]. Modeganuru is mentioned as the capital. The (coin called) Lokkiya-visa is also mentioned.

No. 188 -(B.K. No. 120 of 1933-34) -Babanagar, Bijapur Taluk, Bijapur District -Slab lying in the ruined temple of Siva - Sovideva (Undated) -This inscription referring itself to the reign of Rayamurari Sovideva registers a gift f land made by Kesiraja, the subordinate of Garuda-Pandyadeva, to a tank called Gangasamudra. The gift was made in the presence of Sandhivigrahi Sovarasa and other pradhanas. It also registers the grant of land made to god Virupakshadeva of lttige by Garuda-Pandyadeva, who is referred to as Banavasa-puravar-adhisvara and is stated to be governing Nurumbada from his capital Rattapalli.

. SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS -VOLUME XVII -INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 - 1904 -Kalachurya - Rayamurari.

No. 64.- (A. R. No. 58 of 1904).- Kurugodu, Bellary Taluk, Bellary District. -On a slab set up on the south side of the mandapa in front -of the Kallesvara temple. Rayamurari Sovideva. 1176 A.D.- Published in S.I.I., Vol. IX, Part I, No. 296.

LAKKUNDI :There are the inscriptions of the Kalachurya King Sovideva(1173 A.D.) which tells about the donation of gold to a Basadi by a person called Gunanidi Keshava.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 9th September 2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


go TOP


44. KAMINENI MUTTARAJU -A VALMIKI NAYAKA

From one of Copper-Plate / Stone Inscriptions of South India, it is observed that people having Kamineni surname are originally the descendants of Valmiki Nayakas of Mudiraj community.

The first known ancestor of this poligari family is Kamineni Rama Nayudu, “who is said to have been appointed by Krishna Deva Rayalu” to rule the district of Udayagiri, an event which, according to family history, took place in 1199. His great-grandson was asked by the subahdar of Golconda to put down a revolt in the district of Chundi (also spelled Sundi), where he settled after his victory. His son Tata Nayudu was granted the estate in jagir in 1487. Muttarazu, the fourth holder of the jagir was granted the title of nawab, and was succeeded by his four sons, one after the other. During the reign of his grandson also named Muttarazu, Nawab Mohammed Ali transferred the western part of Chundi to Kalahasti. Muttarazu was succeeded by his son Ankappa Nayudu and his grandson Muttarazu, who was paying a peshkash of 4,100 pagodas to the government in 1791, after the Company appointed collectors in the various districts of the Carnatic and gave them full powers to reduce the polegars and put an end to the chaotic nawabi administration. Company administration came to an end in 1792, but in 1801, after the death of Nawab Amdat ul-Amra, the whole of the Carnatic was annexed. In 1818, the zamindar of Chundi contained 43 villages.

Kamineni Muttarazu was the son of Polineni. The granter of Aram was Muhammad Kuli Kutb Shah of Golkonda. The inscriptions shows that by the beginning of 17th century the Mussalmans had obtained the soveriegnty over the Northern part of the district. The use of name KAMINENI seems to show connection with the family of the present zamindars of Chundi. It may be perhaps regarded as the last surviving fragment in Nellore district of the old Reddi kingdom. Today, we find the people having Kamineniand Polineni surnames among Kamma caste.

Translation of Kandukur Inscription (AD 1640 -41)
(Old Chundi, Telugu From a Mandapa opposite Janardhanasvami's remple)
( Obeisance to ) Sri Rama ! Hail !! On the 2nd day of the bright fortnight of Phalguna of the year Vikrama, corresponding to 1563 of the illustrious, victorious and prosperous salivahana saka era, KAMINENI MUTTARAJU who is a descendant of the race of Valmiki, who is of the gotra of Ammasani, who is the grandson of Vira Raghava Nayaningaru and the son of Polineningaru, (gave) to Vira Bhattu the granson of Inugandi Vira Bhattu and the son of Ayyappa Bhattu and ........ the son of Appa Bhattu and the granson of Jayavarapu Basava Bhattu ....... The field called Nulantachenu in the Sima of Kandukur, in the village of Chundi, to the west of the village to the east of Baridinatippa, to the North of the field of the Urimindevaru, to the South of the field of the Alatturivaru and one kunchala in the field called (nu)lantu to the South of Chundi, to the west of the path to vitrala , and to South of the field " Cheruvupalli Pallamarri".

This is the charitable deed of the gift of land issued to the above said Inagadiya Nimmaya.

There were two desayis for Nellore district, the Northern portion being under the deshamukhi of Udayagiri and cumbham ( now in the Karnool district) and the Southern portion being under Desayi Gangu Reddy. The district was also divided between two sthala-karnams the Northern portion being under the Akkarazu and the Southern under the Mutturazu ( Mudiraju) families said to have been appointed in the reign of Lavegula Gajapathi in 1199 A.D. These ancient institutions had however considerably decayed before 1801 A.D.

Muttarazu => Muttharaju => Mutharaju => Mudiraju => Mudiraj
Desayi = Desai ( Maharastra Surname)
Deshmukhi = Deshmukh ( Maharastra Surname)

Stone Inscriptions Kandukur (14) (A.D 1613 - 14 )
[Chundi ( hamlet Lingalapalem ) . Telugu. To the West. On four sides of stone ]

Translation

First Side
Hail ! On Sundat the 10the day of the dark fortnight of Chaitra of the year Pramaadicha, corresponding to the year 1535 of the illustrious, victorious and prosperous era of Salivahana Saka, the acts of piety performed by Ayyapiandu Balinendu Virappangari Rapamadharundu .. .. .. Nayaningaru grandsons of Kamineni Dadi Nayaningaru, and sons of Viraraghava Nayaningaru and Kondamamba, while he was ruling the town of Chundi granted to him as an amaram by Mahimandu Khulikudupillamgaruare as fillows .. .. .. He gave meras and manyams in the villages under his jurisdiction to Brahmaresvara of Arumuru for daily offerings and worship with a lamp .. .. (unintelligible).

Second side
.. .. In the villages names .. .. .. He found a village and caused a tank to be constructed in the name of his father viralaya. In the name of his mother Kondamma he found the village Konda Samudram and gave it as an Agrahara to Bodinapalli Gopinathayya's son ( Sri Chppalaka Tiruharam ? ). He caused a well to be sunk in her name in the Nallam Reddi .. .. .. Varu's yard. To the North of Chundi he got a tank constructed in the name of his brother Ayyana and gave manyams under it to dieties and Brahmanas. He got a tank constructed in the name of his younger brother Venkatappa to the South of Chundi. He got a tank constructed in the name of his sister Kirtivande Tirumalamma. He had a tope planted in the name of Daduva (?). He dedicated the tanks and villages to those persons in whose name they were respectively constructed.

Viralaya = Veeralayya ?
Ayyana = Ayyanna ?

Third Side
Whoever fail to continue these charities as long as the sun and moon remain will be born in the womb of a donkey. He caused a ... .. .. Constructed for his younger brother Polineni Khinulama (?). Those that continue this in this manner .. .. .. Will incur the sin of .. .. ...

Fourth Side
He provided for daily offerings and worship with a lamp and arranged the performance of annual festivals. ( The temple of ) Chundi Janardhana Swami being in ruins since the days of the Reddis ( Reddy Dynasty ) he had the temple plastered with chunam set up the diety in the temple and founded an endowment for daily offerings and worship with lamps He founded festivals.

Note : In K.R 20, we have Kamineni Muttarazu who was apparently the son of Polineni mentioned here. The granter of the aramam must be Muhammad Kuli Kutb Shah of Golkonda. The inscription shows that by the beginning of the 17th century the Mussalamans had obtained sovereignty over the northern part of the district. The use of the name Kamineni seems to show connection with the family of the present Zamindars of Chundi. The estate dates its existence as a Jaghir or aramam from 1487. It perhaps be regarded as the last surviving frangment in Nellore district of the old Reddy Kingdom.

Chundi : Chundi is the headquarters of the Chundi zamindari and it is situated 16 miles west of Kandukur with a population of 2201, consisting of 1843 Hindus and 223 Muhammadans and 135 christians. The Kandukur - Pamur road runs 7 miles North -East of Kandukur. The village is at a distance of 3 miles from Singarayakonda railway station.

Nenis : Today most of the people having surnames followed by NENI .. .. such as Surapaneni, Kamineni, Vallabhaneni etc. are called chowdary from kamma community in coastal AndhraPradesh. The surnames- kamineni, polineni, Ammaneni may be some of the hidden racial links between the ancient royal community of Mudiraj and recently evolved agricultural community of kammas.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
18th September 2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


45. MUTHARASU CHENNAPPA NAICKER - A CHIEFTAIN OF MADRAS:

Cheenappa Naicker was a Telugu speaking man. The name of the city Chennai is derived from the name of Chennappa Naicker, the Rajah of Chandragiri, a Telugu-speaker from Andhra Pradesh. Chennappa granted the British the right to trade on the coast � and who was a Telugu speaker from what is today a different Indian state, Andhra Pradesh.

Damerla Chennappa Nayak was the nayak of chandragiri to give britishers right to establish a company. Chennai belonged to telugus. Earlier business were mostly established by telugu.

On 22 August 1639, Francis Day of the British East India Company obtained a small strip of land in the Coromandel Coast from the Aravidu line of Vijayanagara King, Peda Venkata Raya (a.k.a. Venkata III) in Chandragiri. The region was under by the Damerla Venkatapathy, Nayak of Vandavasi.The permission was to build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities.

The name Chennai is an eponym, etymologically derived from Chennapattinam or Chennapattanam, the name of the town that grew up around Fort St. George, built by the British in 1640. There are different versions about the origin of the name. When the British landed here in 1639 A.D. it was said to be part of the empire of the Raja of Chandragiri. The British named it Chennapatnam after they acquired it from Chennappa Nayaka, a Vijayanagar chieftain. Gradually, the name was shortened to Chennai. The first instance of the use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed dated August 1639 to Francis Day, an agent for the British where there is a reference to Chennaipattinam.

Chennappa => Chennayya => Chennaiah = Chennai

Chennappa was a local chieftain
The St George Fort was built by the East India Company near Marina beach and Chennapattinam, a group of fishing hamlets named after local chieftain Chennappa Nayakar.

Successive batches of British families who reached India preferred to settle down in Madaraasa -Pattinam, raising their own garden-bungalows. With the rapid expansion of the town, a cluster of nearby villages called Chennapattinam (named so by a chieftain of Venkatagiri dynasty of rulers in memory of his ancestor Chennappa Naidu) was also encroached upon.

Chandragiri was ruled Muttaraju Valmiki Nayakas
After dismemberment (dismantling) of Vijayanagara Empire (Talikota war, 26.1.1565) the individual Nayakas holding a fort each, controlling the surrounding country became independent rulers on their own, respecting each others territories as they were colleagues once. Most famous were - Penugonda, Gooty (Gut`ti), Chandragiri. Chandragiri & fort are located a few miles from Tirupati town. Later they proclaimed themselves as kings. At that time the region of present Chennai (Chennapatnam, Madras) was part of Chandragiri kingdom. The king Peda Venkata Nayaka leased (1639) the site on which the English built (1640) the present-day Fort Saint George. Probably, Damerla Venkatapathy Nayak as king of Vandavasi (presently 'Wandiwash') was a vassal of Chandragiri.

Damara is one of the surnames of Telugu Mudiraj community. The Damara could have its origins in the name of Chieftain Damerla Venkatapathu Nayak. The Nayak and Muttarasu titles were used by rulers belonging to valmiki subsect of Mudiraja / Muthuraja royal community.

Damerla => Damarla => Damara

Chennappa was a Mutharasu
Incidentally the local fishing hamlet on present site of Ft. St. George, was headed by a chief whose name was 'Mutharasu Chennappa'. The fishing helmet most probably belonged to Telugu Mudiraj fishermen. After his surname the new English town was called 'Madarasu' by the local Telugus (Tamils came much later with the railway network when the employment opportunities grew fast, just as in the case of Bengaluru when it became British town), while the English called it George Town (GT). We heard it called GT, as children in Madras in 1950s. Some used to also call the whole city as 'Chennapatnam' in the fashion of most port towns of Coromandal coast (Nagapattinam, Krishnapatnam, Machilipatnam, Visakhapatnam & Bheemunipatnam) like my grandfather did.

Mutharasu => Mudarasu => Madarasu => Madrasu => Madras

The caste name MUTHARASU got modified to city name MADRASU
The Mudiraj people are also known as kolis in South India. It was well recorded that Kolis who used to worship MUMBA DEVI built MUMBAI (BOMBAY ), the great commercial capital of India on West coast (Arabian Sea). Many people do not know that the same fishing community people of MUDIRAJ built the cultural city of MADRAS on East Coast (Bay of Bengal) of South India. The history of MADRAS reveals that the city was built by Telugu speaking people of fishing community and the city became a point of great dispute at the time of reorganization of states in independent India. Though the city was founded by Telugu Mudiraj, the population of Tamilians proved to be marginally on higher side at the time when the city was included in erstwhile Madras state, which was created for Tamilians. The Tamilians who knew the secret of its Telugu Mudiraj founders, changed the name of their state from MADRAS to TAMILNADU.

The chieftain's name CHENNAYYA got modified to city name CHANNAI
The city / town of MADRAS was actually the city / town of MUDIRAJ community people. The Founder of the city was a Chieftain / chief of Mudiraj fishing community and his name was Mutharasu Chennayya. While a part of city was known after the community name MUDIRAJ, the other part of the city was named after Chennayya (Chennai) with the initiative their sons. The name by which it is known amongst natives everywhere is, not Madras, bur Chennappa Pattanam, a name which it derived from Chennappa Nayakkar, father-in-law of the Nayakkar of Chinglepat, a petty local chieftain, a feudatory of Chandragiri Raja, from whom the English obtained possession of a little fort on the east coast which they converted into a fortified factory.

Chennappa => Chennayya => Chennaiah = Chennai

Madras came into existence around the 1680s. Various stories sorround its antiquity. The most prominent and widely believed one being the following: In the summer of 1639, the Raja of Chandragiri, one of the last known Humpi ruler of the Vijayanagar dynasty, gifted (to be tongue in cheek about the attitude of some of the historical figures of India) a strip of land on the south eastern shores of Bay of Bengal on the Coromandel Coast. Like most of the rulers (who mainly were small tribal, dynastic dukes, nobles or chieftains lording their own domains and constantly warring to expand their confines circumferentially), the Raja was no exception and this is in no way belittling. The exigencies of circumstances. Also, part of the so-called aspect of pride of the high and the royal. When the East India Company wanted a site for establishing their trading post, the Vijayanagar ruler had this little fishing hamlet on the shores of the south eastern part of India to give away. Thus came the first British settlement in Tamilnadu.

Mutharsu Chennappa Naicker could be from Valmiki sect of Mudiraja community
Thus the fishing community people of Mudiraj & Kolis were a great city builders. As kings, they were well known for their patronage of building great rock temples in Kakatiya, Vijayanagar and Nayaka kingdoms. These Nayakas are most probably from valmiki subsect Mudiraja community.

The city of Madras has now been renamed as Chennai. It is stated that the name Chennai traced its origin to "some other language". The rechristening of the city is part of the steps announced for the "growth of Tamil in various fields". There are different versions about the name of this once sleepy coastal village. When the British landed here in 1639 A.D. it was said to be part of the empire of the Raja of Chandragiri. The British named it Chennapattinam, after they acquired it from Chennappa Nayakar. Gradually, it became Chennai. The first instance of the use of the name Chennai is said to be in the Vestiges of Old Chennai, the sale deed of August 1639 to Francis Day, an agent for the British. There it has been referred to as Chennaipatnam.

The British are said to have built Fort Saint George, the present seat of power, in 1640. It was named after the patron saint of England. The Vestiges of Old Chennai infer that the original village of Madraspatnam lay north of the proximate to Chennapattinam. In course of time and with rapid growth, the two virtually became one. It is also inferred that the English preferred the name Madraspatnam, while Indians chose Chennapattinam.

The Vijayanagar rulers appointed chieftains known as Nayaks who ruled over the different regions of the province almost independently. Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, an influential chieftain under the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Rayalu based in Chandragiri-Vellore Fort, who was in-charge of the area of present Chennai city, gave the grant of a piece of land lying between the river Cooum almost at the point it enters the sea and another river known as the Egmore river to the English in 1639. On this piece of waste land was founded the Fort St. George exactly for business considerations. In honour of Damerla Chennappa Nayakudu, father of Venkatadri Nayakudu, who controlled the entire coastal country from Pulicat in the north to the Portuguese settlement of Santhome, the settlement which had grown up around Fort St. George was named after him as Chennapattanam.

The older area called the Madraspatnam lay to the north of it. Later on, the intervening space between the older northern site of Madraspatnam came to be quickly built with houses of the new settlers (as the two expanded) and that the two villages became virtually one town. While the official centre of the settlement was designated Fort St. George, the British applied the name Madras Patnam to the combined town.

Chennai, originally known as Madras Patnam, was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Pennar river of Nellore and the Pennar river of Cuddalore. The capital of the province was Kancheepuram. Tondaimandalam was ruled in the 2nd century A.D. by Tondaiman Ilam Tiraiyan, who was a representative of the Chola family at Kanchipuram. It is believed that Ilam Tiraiyan must have subdued the Kurumbas, the original inhabitants of the region and established his rule over Tondaimandalam. Chennai is a city which has grown by merging numerous villages which are really ancient. Thondamans belonged to Muthuraja community. The was a king by name Tondamana Mutturaja.

It is tought in school, about the city's founders, Muthurasa Naicker and Chennakesava Naicker, both of whom most probably spoke Telugu and belonged to Muthurasa caste. How the name of an Indian, Muthirasa Naicker, was any way less "Indian" than that of Chennekesava Naicker ? At the most it may hide the fact that the city was founded by Muthurasa community people but truth can never be earsed.

Webmaster
Kokolu Ankarao
Nagpur, Maharastra, India
Date : 25th September 2008


go TOP


46. RACHAMALLA - A DESCENDANT OF GANGA KING SRIPURUSHA MUTTARASA:

There were several Rachamallas, who were the descendants of Western Ganga King Sripurusha Muttarasa. When a civil war broke out in 975, Chavundaraya supported the cause of Prince Rachamalla IV and installed him on the throne. The Gaigantic statue of Bahubali Gomateswara at Shravanabelagola was installed during the reign of Rachamalla -IV by his minister Chamundaraya. It was commissioned by a Military Commander in the service of Rachamalla, and carved out of granite by the sculptor Aristenemi in 981 AD.

Some ministers and generals of these Ganga rulers also were devout Jains and spent large sums of money in building temples and other architectural monuments. The 17 meter high statue of Bahubali was built at Sravana Belgola by Chamundaraya in 983. Chamundaraya was the minister and general of Rachamalla, a king of the Ganga dynasty. Nemichandra, the famous Digambara scholar was a friend of this minister.

The Gomateshwara staue at Shravanabelagola was the greatest royal tribute to the fresh wave of spiritualism that washed over the Deccan. It was not until the time of Rachamalla of Ganga dynasty, the king of Lalavanapura, that the strongest myth of Jainism was concretised through his minister Chamundaraya. Inscriptions definitely state that the statue of Gommata was caused to be erected by Chamundaraya, the minister of the Ganga king Rajamalla Satyavakya or Rachamalla, whose reign began in 974 A.D. and ended about 984 A.D. since according to tradition the consecration took place during the reign of Rajamalla, the statue must have been erected between these two dates.

Sravana Belgola , a Jain pilgrimage located 36 lms east of Hassan.Sravana Belgola was established in the 9C-10C under the Gangas, the powerful kings of Southern karnataka at that time.The site benefited from the patronage of Chamundaraya, the minister of Rajamalla IV (974-85), both converts to Jainism.

The greatest and noblest achievement of Rajamalla - 4 (974-975 A.D.) and his minister, the virtuous Jina, Chamundarya was set up of this gommata. Chamunaraya did mahamastakabhisheka (981 A.D.) to this monolithic giant of fulfill the cherished desire of his mother. Another version is that gommateshwara was caused after the sallekhana of rajamalla-4 at that very place to commemorate his death. Chanundaraya caused Gullakayaji and erected it in front of gommatesvara, as his patron diety Kushmandini Yakshi appeared before him in the garb of an old woman and blessed the successful performance of the abhishek. Never before nor afterwards, Karnataka reached such great heights in religious and literary achievements. Verily the period of Rajamalla-4 and his great minister chamudaraya can be scribed in golden letters for the posterity.

Chamundaraya was the Prime Minister of Marashimha and served the latter's son Rachamalla in that capacity of a general. In the year 974, Marasimha starved himself to death in the Jain manner and was succeeded by Rajamalla IV, whose minister Chamunda Raya staved off usurpation.During the last years of Rashtrakuta rule, the Gangas were also under constant threat of civil war and from invasions of the increasingly powerful Chola Dynasty. When a civil war broke out in 975, Chavundaraya supported the cause of Prince Rachamalla IV and installed him on the throne. The Decline Rajamalla IV was succeeded by his younger brother .

It is very interesting to note that the Gangas played an important role by patronising Jainism. Shravanabelagola drew the attention of Ganga dynasty from 4th century to 13th century. Its glorious past called as Gangavadi-96000 (Ganganadu) encompassed the frontiers of the kingdom with the religious compassion of Jainism. The famous rulers such as Shivmara I, Shivmara II (A.D. 788-812), Amoghavarsha, Marasimha II, Rachamalla IV (A.D. 964-999) and the minister Chavundaraya stood as the golden link between Jainism and Shravanabelagola.

The abounding inscriptions available throw much light on the patronage of these kings for Jainism. Simhanandi, the Jain muni was the great inspirant for the foundation of Ganga dynasty as revealed by an inscription in Shravanabelagola dated 1179 A.D. Another inscription of the place (A.D. 1129) has mentioned emphasising the fact that Simhanandi blessed his disciple Konganiverma with the sword incarnated with the name of Arahantha to revolt against the gamut of sins. An inscription of 1400 A.D. also mentions the name of Simhanandi Acharya. The inscription found in other parts of Ganga domain also mention the importance of Shravanabelagola. According to these Madhava, also called Konganivrma was the founder of Ganga kingdom. He is described as a great warrior and was blessed by Arhatbhattakha. Simhanandi also showered his blessings on him to combat his enemies and attain supremacy.

There are inscriptions on the slabs near the right and left foot of the image of Gommatesvara at Sravana BELGOLA. The first two lines record that Chamunda Raja caused to be made the image, at the foot of which the inscription is engraved, and the third line that Gamgaraja caused to be made the buildings which surround the image. Thus, the carving and consecration of the Bahubali statue in Shravanabelagola is ascribed to the great Chamunda Raja who was the commander-in-chief as well as Prime Minister of the Ganga King Rachamalla during the later period of 10th century A.D. Chaundaraya was an illustrious minister who served under the successive rulers of the Gangas namely Marasimha II, Rachamalla IV and Rachamalla V.

Marasimha's successor King Rajamalla IV ( 974 �984 A.D. ) continued the royal patronage to Jainism and his minister and general Chamunda-Raya also continued to build religious structure at Sravana-Belagola. Chamunda-Raya, the great Jiana warrior, scholar and devotee, served as the prime minister and commander-in-chief under the three famous kings of the Ganga dynasty of Talakad, Viz., i) Marasimha (961-974 A.D.), ii) Rajamalla ( 974-984 A.D.), and iii) Rakkasa-Ganga. He was a minister of the Ganga king, Rachamalla IV (974-984), and a general who by bravery in many battles had gained numerous titles of distinction.It was during this period of service that Chmunda-Raya installed the gigantic colossus of Bahubali or Gommata at Sravana-Belagola and it was in recogonition of that unmatched and unmatchable pious act of his that the king conferred upon him the title of "Raya", which means a king or prince, and which finds a modern equivalent in thatof "Prince" conferred upon Count Bismarck by the German Kaisar. With a view to fixing the date during this period of service, the following facts can be asserted on the basis of the investigation of relevant sources .

The greatest and noblest achievement of Rajamalla - 4 (974-975 A.D.) and his minister, the virtuous Jina, Chamundarya was set up of this gommata. Chamunaraya did mahamastakabhisheka (981 A.D.) to this monolithic giant of fulfill the cherished desire of his mother. Another version is that gommateshwara was caused after the sallekhana of rajamalla-4 at that very place to commemorate his death. Chanundaraya caused Gullakayaji and erected it in front of gommatesvara, as his patron diety Kushmandini Yakshi appeared before him in the garb of an old woman and blessed the successful performance of the abhishek. Never before nor afterwards, Karnataka reached such great heights in religious and literary achievements. Verily the period of Rajamalla-4 and his great minister chamudaraya can be scribed in golden letters for the posterity32.

Shravanabelagola, a small sleepy town nestled around the hills of Chandragiri and Vindhyagiri in Hassan district of Karnataka is a major Jain pilgrim center. The town's principal claim to fame is the 57-foot tall statue of Bahubali Gomateshwara. This colossal figure built around 983 AD by Chamundaraya, a minister of king Rajamalla of the Ganga dynasty from a single stone is the largest freestanding monolith statue in the world. The statue is built on top of the Vindhyagri Hill and one needs to climb 614 steps to reach it. Sravanabelagola is 160 km away from Bangalore.

RajamallaI succeed his father Shivamara II. Sripurusha's son and successor, Shivamara II (C.788-816 A. D.) was unlucky to face the full fury of the Rashtrakuta aggression. Twice he was routed by the Rashtrakutas-once by Dhruva and again by Govinda III- and was taken prisoner. Parts of Gangavadi were incorporated into the Rashtrakuta empire. His successor, Rajamalla I (C.817-853 A. D) too fought against the Rashtrakutas; but it was during the reign of his successor, Nitimarga Ereganga (C.853-869 A. D) that the relation between the two dynasties was normalised.

The Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarsha I gave his daughter Chandrabalabbe in marriage to Nitimarga's son Butuga I. Nitimarga was succeeded by Rajamalla II (C. 870-907 A. D), who was followed by Ereyappa Nitimarga II (C.907-919 A. D), after whom Narasimhadeva (C.919-925 A. D) ruled. His successor was Rajamalla III (C.925-935 A. D) who was overthrown by his ambitious brother Butuga II (C.935-960 A. D). He had the advantage of being the brother-in-law of the powerful Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna III. This alliance proved disastrous to the Chola ruler Parantaka I, who was comprehensively routed at Takkolam (C.949 A. D). Butuga II thus earned a remarkable military laurel for his dynasty by lending his sword to his Rashtrakuta ally.

Butuga's successor was Maruladeva (C. 960-963 A. D) and he was succeeded by Marasimha III (C. 963-974 A. D), who remained an active ally of the Rashtrakutas. When the latter suffered from the attacks of the Northern enemies, Marasimha rushed to their assistance. He also took up the cause of Indra IV, although the Rashtrakuta dynasty had already been pulled down by the Chalukya feudatory, Taila II. The death of Marasimha was a prelude to the decline and fall of the Ganga Kingdom. The rule of Rajamalla IV (C. 974-985 A. D) which began with a discordant note of a civil war, was noted only for the distinguished services of the minister Chavundaraya, who in fact wielded the real political authority. Rajamalla's brother Rakkasa Ganga (C.985-1024 A. D), despite his formidable name, ended up as a feudatory of the Cholas, and with it, the political sovereignty of the Gangas was lost.

Sripurusha Muttarasa and his descendant kings
Shivamara II also assuemed the title of Muttarasa and he is also known as Madhava Muttarasa in some inscriptions.

  • Sripurusha (726 - 788)
  • Shivamara II (788 - 816)
  • Rachamalla I (816 - 843)
  • Ereganga Neetimarga (843 - 870)
  • Rachamalla II (870 - 907)
  • Ereganga Neetimarga II (907 - 921)
  • Narasimha (921 - 933)
  • Rachamalla III (933 - 938)
  • Butuga II (938 - 961)
  • Marulaganga Neetimarga (961 - 963)
  • Marasimha II Satyavakya (963 - 975)
  • Rachamalla IV Satyavakya (975 - 986)
  • Rachamalla V (Rakkasaganga) (986 - 999)
  • Neetimarga Permanadi (999)

Rajamalla I constructed a cave Jaina temple at Vallimalai in Chittore district. This Rajamalla appears to be grandson of Sripurusha Muttarasa.

Pallva Inscriptions - Nos.101 to 125
No. 107 - (A. R. No. 227 of 1915) - Brahmadesam, Cheyyar Taluk, North Arcot District - It is stated in this record of Vijaya-Kampavarman, dated in the 20th year, that a member of the alum-ganattar of Kavadippakkam in Paduvur-kottam made a gift of 11 kalanju of gold for supplying, from the interest on this amount, water to the village may be identified with Brahmadesam itself where the present inscription is found. Since we find an inscription of the Ganga king Rajamalla, the grandson of Sripurusha at Vallimalai not very far from Brahmadesam, Rajamalla-chaturvedimangalam, may have been called so after this Ganga king. It may be mentioned that in the region surrounding Brahmadesam there are villages called Sripurushamangalam and Ranavikrama chaturvedimangalam which must have been named after the Ganga kings Sripurusha and Ranavikrama, the grandfather and father respectively of Rajamalla. The name of the god at Brahmadesam viz., Tiruppondai-Perumanadigal is uncommon in the Tamil country and it is probably to be traced to some Ganga or Western Chalukya princess.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
6th October 2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


go TOP


47. KOKALLA -FOUNDER KING OF KALCHURI DYNASTY :

Kokalla-I was the founder king of Kalachuri dynastry in Cetral India. There were so many Kalchuri kings who kept the dynasty name alive and ruled assuing the Kokalla name starting from Kokalla-1 to Kokalla-15.

Kokalla or Kokkalla or Kokkula was a Kalchuri and king. There are historical foot prints that can prove the descendancy of Mudiraj people to Royal Clans of Kalchuris. There are Mudiraj people with surname Kokolu and it seems to be closely related and modified version of the clan's name Kokalla. Some historians call this Kokalla as Kokkula. There are people in Andhra Pradesh with surname Kukkula also and their caste is not known to the webmaster.

Kokalla => Kokala => Kokola => Kokolu.

Kokkula => Kokula => Kokola => Kokolu.

The Kalcuhri clan was also called as Haihayas and were ancient people. These people were ruling in Eastern Malwa and the neighboring region around 8th century AD. Several branches of this family had settled in different parts of Northern India. The most famous king of this clan was Kokalla - I, who was an imperial power below modern day Madhya Pradesh. He had defeated all major kings in that era around 10th century AD. Kokalla or Kokkula was a famous Kalchuri king who is known to descend from Haihai Royal Clans.

The most famous regime with which Jabalpur and its adjoining areas are associated was that of the Kalchuri Dynasty. The Kalchuris ruled from the 6th to the 13th century, making their's the longest reign in the history of the Indian subcontinent. In the pre-Christian era, the Kalchuris were associated with the Chedis, the Haihayas, and with the legendary Sahasrajunas. In the course of their journey through history, the Kalchuris proved their remarkable resilience by moving from Mahismati (modern Maheshwar) in Avanti to Tripuri in Dahala, Tummana and Ratnapura in Daksinakosala (modern Chhattisgarh in Madhya Pradesh) and Kalyana in the southwest, setting up great imperial capitals.

The Kalachuris of Tripuri were an ancient ruling house whose earlier seat of power was Mahismati on the banks of Narmada river. The great kings of this dynasty included Kokalla, Gangeyadeva and Karna. Jabalpur (Tripuri) was one of the seats of the Kalchuri dynasties. For a long time it was ruled over by the Kalchuri dynasty. The best known in Indian history ruled in central India, with its base at the ancient city of Tripuri (modern Tewar ?). Its origin is placed about the beginning of the 8th century, but little is known of its early history. The line comes into clearer focus only with Kokalla I (reigned c. 850 -885). The period between Kokalla I and Kokalla II (reigned c. 990�1015) is marked by a consolidation of Kalacuri power. Numerous inscriptions belonging to the Kalchuri kings establish the genealogy of these kings from Kokalla I (875 AD) to Kokalla 15 (1180 AD), the last Kalchuri king. Kokalla-I was so famous that his sucessors too ruled in the name of Kokalla (upto Kokalla-15). Buddhism and Jainism became popular in the soil Kalachuri's India and witnessed a heaven of culture, language and intermixed populace.

Kalachuris were also called as Haihayas and were ancient people. These people were ruling in Eastern Malwa and the neighboring region around 8th century AD. Several branches of this family had settled in different parts of Northern India. There is one inscription dated 594 of the Kalchuri Era, which is equal to a.d. 841. The Kalchuris started an era that came to be known as the Kalchuri Era. They established their kingdom in Madhya Pradesh with their capital at Tripuri near near Jablapur. These people had come into conflict with the ruler of Kannauj, Malwa, Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. They also faced the palas and Kalinga rulers.It is understood that Kalchuris had matrimonial relations with Chalukyas and Rastrakutas.

The most famous king of this clan was Kokalla - I, who was an imperial power below modern day Madhya Pradesh. He had defeated all major kings in that era around 10th century AD. Kokalla I was the founder of the dynasty. After Lakshmanraja, Kokalla I (reigned a.d. 850-90) became the ruler of the Dahala branch of Kalchuris; he extended the boundaries of his kingdom, defeating the rulers of the mighty Rashtrakuta and Pratihara dynasties. Sankaragana, Was first son of Kokalla - I and ruled from 878 - 888 AD. Kokalla - II, son of Yuvaraja regained all kingdom which kalchuris lost and belonged to very end of 10th century AD. The most important rulers of this dynasty included Gangeyadeva. He tried to make the Chedis the paramount power of Northern India. He was followed by his son Karandeva.

There is one Kalacuri Nohalesvara temple which was erected by Nohala, the wife of Yuvarajadeva I of Kalacuri, in the 10th century at Puspavati / Bilhari. The Iconography of the Puspavati (Bilhari) reveals that there existed an east-west axis between Gujarat north of the head of the Gulf of Khambat, and eastward along the Narmada as far as Tripuri. The political and religious nature of this axis is revealed in the inscriptions of the Kalacuri Kings of Tripuri (Yuvaraja I, Laksmanaraja, and Yuvaraja II) in the 10th and 11th centuries. The most significant of the inscriptions comes from Bilhari itself.

The Bilhari inscription ( undated, late 10th or early 11th century according to Kielhorn) mentions Yuvaraja I Kalacuri entering Lata (Saurastra), and also his son, Laksmanaraja, having marched to the "western region", where he had his troops bathe in the sea (Arabian Sea), before worshipping Somesvara (Somanatha-Patan) ; and the Gorwa grant of Laskmikarna credits Laksmanaraja with conquering, among other territories, Lata and Gurjara. It is observed that temple inscriptions and statues indicate figures of FISH and BOAR, which are prominent symbols of Mudiraj people and also symbols of Vaishnavism.

The Kalachuris history is said to have become insignificant by 1181 AD.

Tumman (presently Tuman) in Chattisgarh is a small village, which is located at about 23 KM North-West of Katghora Tehsil Head Quarters. Though this place is not so important, but it was the first capital when the Haihai or Kalchuri Kings came to Chhattisgarh for the first time. It has been mentioned in one of the stone inscriptions named Kharod of Ratanpur that in the year 933 (Hindu Calendar/ or 1181-1182) that one prince of Haihai dynasty had 18 sons. One of them was named Kaling. Kaling's son Kamal was the ruler of Tumman . In the stone inscriptions of King Jajalwa Dev of Ratanpur, during the year 866 (as per Hindu calendar/or 1114 A.D.), it is mentioned that Kokkula of Cheds dynasty had 8 sons. The first son was the ruler of Tripuri and the others became the administrators of small kingdoms. Kalingraj were ancestors of these younger sons. Kalingraj occupied South Kaushal (present Chhattisgarh) and stayed there. He made Tumman as his capital. Kalingraj's son was Kamalraj. Kamalraj's son Ratnaraj or Ratnesh built temples, gardens etc. to make Tumman a beautiful place. Ratnaraj also founded Ratanpur. His son Prithvidev also constructed a temple at Tumman and a lake at Ratanpur. In one of the ancient writings of Prithvidev-I named Amodhapatt(at the time of year 831, Chedi Samvat, 1079 A.D.) there is reference to the dedication of Chatushk(building standing on four pillars) in Tumman. Ratnadev-I made Ratanpur which is now in Bilaspur District, as his capital in place of Tumman.In Tumman village there are fifteen ruins of beautifully sculptured and intricate stones. These ruins are mainly of temples. On removing the main ruins , a wonderful entrance door was found.

On top of the entrance door, there are images of Bramha, Vishnu and Shiva. From the idol of Shiva in the center, we knew that this was a Shiv temple. In the middle of these three idols, images of nine planets have been made. On the door side, names of Vishnu's ten Avatars have been sculptured. Below this there is Ganga with her vehicle the Crocodile and Yamuna with her vehicle the Tortoise. These intricate carvings resembles in style with the temples of Pali and Janjgir. Nearby flows the River Jatashankari. On the banks of this river there is a heap of damaged ruins. Probably this place was the residential place of Haihai Kings. This is called Satkhanda Mahal.

It is quite probably that seeing the geographical location of Tumman, a small invading group of Haihai's came here and occupied this place. In Tumman is situated in a valley which is surrounded by ranges of hills on all sides. There are only two places from which we can go outside from Uprera in the east and Mathin in the west. Probably the importance of Tumman gradually reduced after Ratanpur was made the capital.

webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
dt:12/03/2007

go TOP


48. PONNAR SHANKAR - CHERA CHIEFTAINS OF KONGUMANDALAM :

The story is said to be that of two war heroes of Kongumandalam - Ponnar and Shankar who are worshipped even today in parts of Tamil Nadu as " kaaval deivams". Ponnar Shankar is about two war heroes of Kongumandalam - Ponnar and Shankar, who are worshipped even today in parts of Tamilnadu as 'Gods'. Ponnar-Shankar story was highly celebrated in Tamilnadu for its literary values.

Kongu is derived from kanga meaning Ganga. Warrior people of Kongu are Gounders and they are the people related to Western Ganga Muttarasa kings. A major sect of Muthurajas are believed to be Vellalas who could be the descendants of North Indian Bhilalas and the central Indian Bhallalas. Valanadu could be the land of valayars and valayars are one of the subsects of Tamil Muthuraja community today.

Ganga => Kanga => Konga => Kongu

Email No. 32 received from Poovarasan , Malaysia and published under webpage "UREMAILS" in this website indicates that Malaysian Muthurajas worship Ponnar Shankar as their community heroes and dieties.

" .. .. .. My Father Mr.Ramachandran s/o Maruthamuthu ever told me about Shankar Ponnar & Thangga Periyakka stories that related with Muthurajah. Please leet me know, the information that given in web, come out as a Book. If so I would like to get one. Please reply me "

Email No. 33 received from Singamuni, Singapore further confirms that Ponnar & Shankar, who attained Demi-God status are our Muthuraja ancestors and adds....

" I have also received a message from our brother Mr. Poovarasan from Selangor , Malaysia and I have also read his message in the e-mail section and regarding his quiry about Shankar Ponnar and Thangga Periyakka. Both are are our ancestors and now accorded Demi-god status and you can get more information from the Sellayee Kovil Managing Committee at Rajampalayam Village , Manachannalur via, Trichy District, Tamil Nadu. You can contact my uncle Mr. Dorairaj to assist you."

The story of brothers used to be one of the greatest folklores of the Kongu region. Local bards used to sing the story for a period of thirteen days. At the end of the story they used to perform ritual death of the brothers and the soldiers and their resurrection.

It is said that the great Chola warriors expanded into the Kongu region, cleared the forests and established agricultural settlements. Certain clans soon distinguished themselves in local battles fought to win the land and to establish agricultural settlements. As a result, the Chola king rewarded them by giving them rights to fine tracks of land. The clans which are named are among the prosperous Gounder caste in Kongu today.

The Story of two Brothers Ponnar & Shankar is a well known folklore in the Kongu region depicting the migration of the Gounders to the Kongu region and their eventual victory over the land. Statues of Brothers is a familiar sight in the Kongu region. Ironically the people who take great interest in the story are not Gounders. They are from Kongu Chettiars and Marmeri Natars.

Since the two borthers are worshipped as village protecting Gods, this complete story is compiled under saints. For more details see for Saint No.11 under Web Page "SAINTS" in this website.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date :23/12/2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


49. SURYAVAMSA MUTHARASA KING MUKTARAJA, KARNATAKA :

Mutharasa of Suryavamsam performed penance at Nimishambal Temple. Definitely this Temple near Mysore & Srirangapattanam has great relevance to the Mutharayas

Muktaraja, the Suryavamsha Mutharasa king, who performed penance
This is a place where a king by name Muktaraja belonging to "Suryavamsha" had performed his penance (tapas). This is considered as a holy place. The Raja and also Rishi Mukthaka could be the suryavamshi Mutharasa who performed the penance. Some more details are given below under heading "origins of temple".

Mutharasa kings ruled parts of Mysore Region Temple situated on the banks of the river Lokapavani (Cauvery) near Mysore. Over 400 years old. The Divine Mother (Goddess) is known to grant all your wishes instantly. Srirangapattanam and Nimishambal are great places for history, old architecture, river side, bird watching et all - again best during monsoons.

Dr. Nagaswamy, on his study of Muthurasas postulated that the king Vridharaja found at Mysore around 5th AD was Mutharasa from TN who paved way for this sect and probably this is time for evolution of Kannada language ! Dr. Nagaswamy, in his Mutharayar - defines them as Ganga Kings of Kongani belonging to Tamil Mudhu Velir kudi.

Vridha = Mudi = Old = Ancient = Great
Vridharaja = Mudiraja = Great king

History of Shri Shri Nimishamba temple at Ganjam
The temple of the Divine Mother Shri Shri Nimishamba Devi is located at Ganjam, a small village in the town of Srirangapatna near the palace city Mysore. The origin of this temple has a long and interesting history which dates back to 1548 A.D. The Divine Mother took the form of Shri Shri Nimishamba as an answer to the Rishi Mukthaka's prayers for protection against the two demons.

Origin of Nimishamba Temple
Around 1548 AD a Rishi (Sage) called Mukthaka was asked by King Sumanaska to perform a Yajna (A sacred fire ritual to eliminate negative forces and invite Divine Grace) for the prosperity of the Kingdom. Rishi Mukthaka selected a village called Ganjam on the banks of the River Kaveri for this holy purpose. This is at present in Srirangapatna near Mysore, Karnataka state. While he was immersed in Tapas (Austerities), he was constantly harassed by two demons (Asuras) named Jaanu and Sumandala. The Great Sage invoked Adishakthi (The primordial energy that created this Universe) by offering oblations through the sacred fire (Homa). Adishakthi, the Infinite Cosmic Energy, manifested in the form of the Divine Mother in all Her resplendent glory from the Sacrificial Fire and vanquished the demons in an instant.

How the Temple came into being
The Divine Mother instructed Rishi Mukthaka to build a temple for Her worship at that spot. She asked him to call her Shri Shri Nimishamba. Rishi Mukthaka reverentially built the temple and consecrated the image of Devi Nimishamba. He then continued meditating on her in a state of total Samadhi. Nimishamba Devi is the Absolver of all Karma and the Liberator of Souls. She creates, nourishes and maintains the Cosmos. All those who worship her will obtain Her All Encompassing Love and Divine Grace.

This Hindu holy spot was believed to have been established by a king called as Muktharaja who had inscribed the 'Shri Chakra' on a stone and then went into penance. This stone still exists and is is being kept in front of the deity. In fact Muktaraja had got carved "Shrichakra" on a stone and started performing poojas. It has been kept in front of Nimishamba deity inside the temple, which we can see even today. There is a belief that Parvathi is going to clear off all the problems and trouble of her devotees within a minute. That is why she is called as "Nimishamba". "Nimisha" means a minute. Muktaraja blessed with "moksha" by Lord Shiva that is why there is a deity by name Moukthikeshwara. This was installed at the time of Mummadi Krishnaraja Odeyar about 300-400 years back.

For more details about Nimishamba Temple, readers may kindly see chapter-27 under webpage "TEMPLE CITIES" in this MUDIRAJA website.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 06/01/2009
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


50. ACCUTA KALAPPALAR, A CHOLA KING OF KALABHRA KULA :

This Accuda Kalappalan could be the same as Accuta Kalabbha referred by Buddhadatta. This Accuta Vikkanta is said to be a chola king who belonged to the Kalabbha family / dynasty. A lot of Kalabhra kings ( Ancestots of Mudirajas ) assumed Chola titles after they penetrated into Chola, Chera and Pandya kingdoms. They also developed matrimonial relations with Cholas. In essence the Mutharayars and Cholas seems to be one and the same people with two separate branches of royal lineages.

Meykanadar, a 13th century Tamil Siva Saint and devotional writer, was the son of a chieftain Acchyuta Kalappalar or Achchuthak kalappalar. The Saint was born at thiruppennakadam in thirumunaippadi state / pennadam.(Cuddalore Dist) in the tradition of shaiva peasant in 12th - 13th century A.D. He wrote Sivagnana Bhodham. He built "Meykandadeva Iswaram" and Meykanda putteri in Mathur near Thiruvannamalai. His book - The Realization of Knowledge of Saiva, played a crucial role in the development of Saivism.

To say about 'Mey Kanda Devar', he was a three year old child when he scripted these 12 verses! It might be hard to believe or even to imagine! But this is history - it's not a myth. He was born in 1225 BC in a place by name Thiruvennainallur in Tamil Nadu. He had 49 scholars as his disciples. He left the world at an young age.

According historians, the Kalappalars are said to be the kalabhras, the ancestors of Tamil Mutharayars. The Tamil Mutharaiyars and Telugu Mudirajas are one and the same people.

Achyuta Kalappalar
There, in Tiruppennakatam, lived a chieftain named Acchyuta Kalappalar. He was gifted with all material blessings of this world, but not a child. This Kalabhra king Acyuta Kalappalan belonged to Nandi hills and was great benefactor of Brahmins. One day he went to Turaiyur where his religious teacher, Sakala agama panditar lived, to receive his blessings. The teacher worshipped at the feet of Lord Siva and asked the disciple to place a thread in between the palm leaves of a book which had on its pages impressed the Thevaram hymns. The purpose of the teacher was toknow the will of God from the meanings of the stanza of Tevaram that made its appearance before him.

So did the kalappalar many times singing that glorious song of thirunyana chambandhar. One day the Lord appeared in his dreams and said that appreciating his determined devotion on the Lord and sambandhar dhevaram, he would be blessed with a splendid son like sambandhar. Very soon his wife delivered a son. They named him as svethavanap perumal, in the name of God at thiruvenkadu.

Immediately the Teacher asked his disciple to go to Tiruvenkatu with his spouse and carry out the worship. While the Kalappalar was performing the worship, the Lord of Tiruvenkatu told him in his dream that though he had not the good fortune to have a child in that birth, because of his implicit faith in the utterings of Sambandar, he would be granted a child even like the saint himself. The chieftain finished his vow of worship and returned to his native place. In course of time a male child was born to him and it was being reared with unique care and endearment by the family, the relatives and the citizens alike.

For more details about Saint Meykandar, readers may refer to web page "SAINTS" in this website.

In Tamil literature there is mention of ancient Kalappa kings and a Kalappa clan as existing till comparitively recent times. There is a mention of Accuta Kalabbha by Buddhadatta in his Buddhist texts and he could the same as Accuta Kalappalar, the father of Siva Saint Meykandar. Sanskrit Kalabhra becomes Kalabbha in Pali and it becomes Kalappa in Tamil.

According to 'Chulavamsa', Buddhadatta and Budhaghosa are certainly represented as contamporaries. The formar belongs to Uragapura [Uraiyur] near modern Trichinopoly in South India. He himself speaks patriotically of the kingdom of Cola and associates his literary activity with the reign of Accutavikkanata or Accutavikkama of the Kalabbha or Kalamba [kadamba] dynasty.

Buddhadatta is said to have flourished when king Accutavikkanta of the Kalamba (Kadamba) dynasty was one the throne. It is difficult to identify King Accuta or Accutavikkanta (Acyta Vikrama) of Kalabhra or the Kadamba dynasty. But the Kalabhras once made a great influence over the Chola territory and Simhavishnu, the Pallava king, defeated them in late sixth century. Colian king Acytavikranta or Acytavikrama who is described as 'Kalambakulnandana' or 'Kalabbhakulanandana' (also Vaddhana).

n the 5th century A.D. a great Buddhist divine called Buddhadatta Thera, who flourished in the reign of the Kalabhra chief, Accutavikkanta, resided in a vihara in Kaveripattinam built by one Visnudasa or Krsnadasa. This Thera is said to have written most of his works in Kaveripattinam at the instance of the Buddhist acaryas Sumati, Buddhasika and Sanghapala. Buddhadatta's patron was the Cola king, Kalaber Accutavikkanta, and this divine exhibits in his works an unusual eloquence and patriotism in describing the Cola kingdom under him, of which he was a proud inhabitant.

Buddhadatta lived in Kaveripattanam in arounf 5th century A.D and taight Buddhism. Kaveripattanan was a very prosperous city, croweded with people, full of precious things and bazars. The city was destoyed by sea (Tsunami) and it was deserted by its inhabitants, which was described in Manimegalai. Rapid must have been the advance to popularity of Buddha cult in Kaveripattanam since Karikalas time, for fine monasteris to be built by lay admirers like kanhadasa. Accuta Vikkanta, the king who overthrew Sola dynasty must also have been an admirer of the Buddha cult and actively encouraged the building of monasteries for its monks. This king who is called Accuta Vikkanta in the Vinaya vinicchaya apparently ruled over the whole of the Sola territory. The modern representative of this town is Budalur near Trichinopoly, where Mutharayars live in large numbers. The region immediately North of this village fits in with the description of Buddhadatta. Accuda Kalappa could also belong to this Vikkanta lineage.

This Accuda Kalappalan could be the same as Accuta Kalabbha referred by Buddhadatta. This Accuta Vikkanta is said to be a chola king who belonged to the Kalabbha family / dynasty. A lot of Kalabhra kings ( Ancestots of Mudirajas ) assumed Chola titles.

Kalappalars - Kalabhras - Mutharayars
Kalappira Invasion 300 AD : The classical Pandiyan kingdom was destroyed and weakened by the invading Kalappiras who were otherwise called kalappala in the 3rd century A.D. The Kalappira / Kalappalas were from northern Karnataka or central India. The Sangha age and learning came to an abrupt end. The Kalappalar Kings were called Muthariyars and the Aristorcracy and soldiers were called Kalappalars. The Kalappalars ruled most of the presentday Tamil Nadu and Kerala hence called Mutharaiyar. The Pandiyan kingdom was eclipsed from 300-600 A.D. All the classical books were destroyed.

The classical Pandiyan kingdom was destroyed and weakened by the invading Kalappiras in the 3rd century a.d. While the kings were called Mutharaiyars or Mudhiraju the soldiers and commoners were called kalappala or Kalava or kalavar along with Servai and Servaikkarar The Kalappalas conquered and ruled all three states,the Chera,Chola and Pandiyan kingdoms.

Krishnaswami Iyengar has given his support to the theory that the Kalabhras were the Kallar of old Tamil poetry. Kallar has an alternative form Kalvar and subsequently Kalvarbecame Kalavar, which turned into Kalabar, Kalabara, Kalabhara and ultimately into Kalabhra. The word Kalappalar is a variant of the word Kalappa which became Kalabbha in Pali and Kalabra in Sanskrit. Kalavars were mostly pretty chieftains in olden times.

Kallar => Kalvar => Kalavar => Kalabar => Kalabara => Kalabhara => Kalabhra

The actual relation between the words Kallar and Kalabhra seems to be just opposite to what Iyengar thought to be. The Kalabhras were the descendants of Kalchuris or Kala Chedis or Kalaveeras. Kala means Black.

Kalaveera => Kalabeera => Kalabera => Kalabara
Kalabara =>Kalabra => Kalabhra
Kalabara => Kalabhra => Kalabba

Kalabara => Kalabhra => Kalabba => Kalappa => Kalappala
Kalabara => Kalbara => Kalbar => Kallar
Kalabara => Kalavara => Kalavar => Kalvar

Some regard kalabhras as kalappalars of Vellala community. Kalappalas were Buddhist and Jain Kannada speaking people. Some identify kalabhras with kalvar chieftains of Tiraiyan tribefrom Tirupati. The Kalappalas were Tamil chieftains, as is proved by the fact that the three Kajas sang to them in Tamil. They were completely Aryanized because they encouraged Aryan cults.

Accuda Kalappala and Accuta Kalabbha could be one and the same person. The Velvikkudi grant tells us that a cruel king, called Kalabra of the Kalabhra clan defeated many Adhirajas, original Tamil monarchs and established his sway over Madura, among other Tamil districts. Since the Pali Kalabba will invariably become Kalabhra in Sanskrit, it follows that the Kalabhra king of Velvikudi charter is identical with Accuta Kalabbha and Accuda Kalappala.

We have little information about the Kalabhra rule in the Tamil country. The Tamil grammar Yapperunkalam refers to a Kalabhra king, namely Achutha Kalappalan. It appeared that he ruled the Tamil country from Uraiyur. He had also patronised the Tamil poets. A Buddhist scholar namely Buddhadatta lived in his kingdom. According to traditions, he imprisoned the Chera, Chola and Pandyan rulers. He had extended patronage to Buddhism and Buddhist monasteries.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 12 / 01/ 2009
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


51. ACCUTA VIKKANTA, A ( CHOLA ) KING OF KALABHRAKULA :

The only Kalabhra king who is known with a specific name is Accuta Vikranta. He is believed to have ruled towards the close of the fifth century AD and the beginning of the sixth century AD. Buddhadatta, a well-known Pali commentator who flourished in the fifth century says in the Vinaya-viniccaya that "he wrote this work for the sake of Buddhasiha while he was residing in the lovely monastery of Venhudas (Vishnudas) in a city on the banks of the Kaveri, by name Bhutamangalam and it was begun and completed at the time when Accuta Vikranta of Kalabhra Kula was ruling over the earth. . According to Nilakanta Sastri, Acchchutakalaba is likely the last Kalabhra king.

In the 5th century A.D. a great Buddhist divine called Buddhadatta Thera, who flourished in the reign of the Kalabhra chief, Accutavikkanta, resided in a vihara in Kaveripattinam built by one Visnudasa or Krsnadasa. This Thera is said to have written most of his works in Kaveripattinam at the instance of the Buddhist acaryas Sumati, Buddhasika and Sanghapala. Buddhadatta's patron was the , and this divine exhibits in his works an unusual eloquence and patriotism in describing the Cola kingdom under him, of which he was a proud inhabitant.

Buddhadatta tells us that his royal pafron was King Accutavikkanta of the Kalamba dynasty . All his works were written in the famous monastery erected by Venhudasa or Krishnadasa. He is said to have flourished when king Accutavikkanta of the Kalamba (Kadamba) dynasty was one the throne. It is difficult to identify King Accuta or Accutavikkanta (Acyta Vikrama) of Kalabhra or the Kadamba dynasty. But the Kalabhras once made a great influence over the Chola territory and Simhavishnu, the Pallava king, defeated them in late sixth century. Colian king Acytavikranta or Acytavikrama who is described as 'Kalambakulnandana' or 'Kalabbhakulanandana' (also Vaddhana).

Kalabhras dynasty ruled over the entire Ancient Tamil country between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. in an era of South Indian history called the Kalabhra interregnum. The Kalabhras displaced the kingdoms of the early Cholas, early Pandayan and Chera dynasties. Information about its origin and reign is scarce. The Dynasty left neither artifacts nor monuments, and the only sources of information are scattered mentions in Buddhist and Jain literature. The Kalabhras were displaced around the 6th century with the revival of Pallava and Pandya power.

The Velvikudi inscriptions of the third regnal year of Pandya king Nedunjadaiyan (c.765 - c. 815 C.E.) say that Pandya king Mudukudumi Peruvaludi gave the village of Velvikudi as brahmadeya (gift to a Brahmins). It was enjoyed for a long time. Then a Kali king named Kalabhran took possession of the extensive earth, driving away numberless great kings. Buddhist writings mention that a certain Achyuta-Vikranta of Kalabhra-kula referred to as "ruling the earth

Kali = Kala = Black
Kali King = King of Black race = Kala beeras = Kala Churis ?

The memory of Accuta Vikranta lingered on for long among the Tamil Buddhists. In Yapparungalam, a Tamil work of eleventh century AD, written by Amitasagarangar, the poet "prays to the Buddha to grant Accuta with the long arms like the clouds in charity and with the fighting spear so that he might wield his specture of authority over the whole world". From the testimony of Buddhadatta, who was contemporary of Accuta Vikranta, and the praise showered upon the Kalabhra king by the poet in Yapparungalam, it is evident that Acchuta Vikranta was a Buddhist and a liberal patron of Buddhism.

Kalappira Invasion 300 AD : The classical Pandiyan kingdom was destroyed and weakened by the invading Kalappiras who were otherwise called kalappala in the 3rd century A.D. The Kalappira / Kalappalas were from northern Karnataka or central India. The Sangha age and learning came to an abrupt end. The Kalappalar Kings were called Muthariyars and the Aristorcracy and soldiers were called Kalappalars. The Kalappalars ruled most of the presentday Tamil Nadu and Kerala hence called Mutharaiyar. The Pandiyan kingdom was eclipsed from 300-600 A.D. All the classical books were destroyed.

Buddhadatta
The first Pali scholar of Tamil Nadu was Buddhadatta. He was at Uragapura, modem Uraiyur, in the fifth century AD. He called Pali and Buddhism at the Mahavihara at Anuradhapura of Sri Lanka. Buddhadatta was contemporary of the great Pali and commentator, Buddhaghosha. It is said that when Buddhadatta was returning to India after completing his studies, beat crossed another boat carrying Buddhaghosha to Sri Lanka. As they met, they introduced themselves and exchanged countries. On knowing Buddhaghosha's plans, Buddhadatta was departing requested Buddhaghosha to send copies of the commentaries, as and when compiled, to him in India. Buddhaghusha appears to have done this.

To return from Sri Lanka, Buddhadatta resided in a Vihara by a Buddhist minister named Krishnadasa, Nagapattanam. While staying here, he wrote Madhurattha Vilasini (Commentary on the Buddhavamsa). He wrote another famous work Abhidhammavatara (Summary of Buddhaghosha's commentaries on the Abhidhammapitaka) at the request of a bhikkhu named Sumati. His another important work is Vinaya Vinicchaya (Summary of the Buddhaghosha's commentaries on the Vinaya-Pitaka). In a colophone at the end of this Work, Buddhadatta says that "he wrote this work for the sake of Buddhasiha while he was residing in the lovely monastery of Vehnudasa (Vishnudasa) in a city on the banks of the river Kaveri, by name Bhutamangalam, and it was begun and completed at the time when Accutata Vikranta of Kalabhra Kula was ruling over the earth.

Another work attributed to Buddhadatta is the Ultara Vinicchya which he is said to have written while he was residing at Anuradhapura.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 12 / 01/ 2009
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


52. KOOTRUVA NAYANAR, A CHIEFTAIN OF KALANDAI :

Kootruva Nayanar was a chieftain in Chidambaram belonging Kalabhra lineage. He was one of the 63 nayanars explained in the Periya Puranam. He was the chieftain of Kalandai. This is now known as Kalappaal. This Naayanaar is referred to as Kalappaallan by Nambi Aandaar Nambi. It is not clear whether this Kootruva Nayanar is the same as Achuta Kalappalan who the father of Saint Meykandar.

One Nerkunram Kilan, a Kalappala Raja has been brought to our notice by S. Semasundara Desigar in an insciption which he discovered. Kurruva Nayanar, one of the sixty three Saiva saints is called a Kalappalan by Nambiyandar Nambi ( 10th Century) in his Tiruttondar Tiruvandadi. This person is called Kalandai Mudalvandar, lord of Kalandai by Sekkilar, and Kalandai Vendar, King of Kalandai and Kalandai in Umapati Shivam's Tiruttondar Purana Saram. From this we may infer that the Kalappalar originally belonged to Kalandai, a well known Shaiva shrine in the Tanjore district.

Kootruvar was not an average saint. He was a chieftain who conquered swathes of land in southern India, cutting into the Chola kingdom. Kootruvar kept defeating his adversaries and made it as far into the Chola kingdom as Thillai. There he desired that the 3000 priests of Thillai should crown him king. However, the priests, being politically affiliated to the Chola king and fearing reprisals, refused saying that they would only perform that rite to those stemming from the Chola lineage.

After all, the Chola kingdom had been in place for centuries, and this guy with his hairy bunch of followers, would probably not last too long. As priests who have little faith in god often do, it is best to side with the one who has the dough and the muscle to provide the dough for the longest time� back then it was the Chola kings, not Kootruvar. Despondent, he left Thillai and went to Kerala, which was part of the Chera kingdom.

Kootruvar was not a politically vain chieftain. He was aware that all the glory and bounty he had won came as the lord's prasadam. Kootruvar was a devout Shiva bhakta who chanted the pancaksharam continuously, especially on the battlefield. In turn he used his bounty to make life more pleasant to Shiva bhaktas, by providing them with necessities and land. When he wished to be crowned in Thillai, not just some city, but Thillai, he had other motives than vain glory.

The priests were not aware of that, but the Lord who dwelled in his heart was fully aware. He appeared in a dream to the despondent Kootruvar, and placed his glorious feet as a crown on Kootruvar's head. This is what Kootruvar wanted when he had tried to convince the priest's to crown him. He was now certain that he had conquered the one thing that mattered�a place under Shiva's feet.

These chieftains were crowned by Thillai Vazhl Anthanars(Dikshtars) in the Nataraja temple.Its said that the dikshtars crown only the cholas.Also in Periyapuranam we hear od dikshtars refusing to crown a kalabhra king as he is not a chola.This crowning ceremony was on the fact that the chidambaram chieftains were of Chola clan. In Periya Puranam we find a Kalabhra King (Kootruva Nayanar) asking the Dikhsitars to crown him.But the dikshtars say that "Chozharku anri Veru yarrukum Mudi sootamaatom" and refuse.Also as they have refused to crown the kalabhra they fled to north for safety leaving behind several families. Thillai Andanars refused to Crown Kootruvanayanar and reiterated their loyalty to Sembian Cholan.

Kootruva Nayanar was a great devotee of Lord Shiva and his bhaktas. Chanting of Panchakshara Mantra and serving bhaktas are included in his routines. The Lord blessed him with all wealth and streangth, and made him powerful. Most of the Chola and Pandyan Kindoms came under the rule of Kootruva Nayanar. He wished, he should crowned as king by the Brahmins. He meant only to spiritualize the coronation and to enable him to feel that the crown as a symbol of feet of the Lord. But Brahmins feared and refused to do. At last Lord Shiva appeared and crowned him by placing his feet on his head. Nayanar continued to worship the Lord and finally attained Him.

The Lord, the Indweller of our hearts knew that, when the Nayanar asked the three thousand Brahmins to crown him, it was only to spiritualise the coronation and to enable him to feel that the crown was but a symbol of the Feet of the Lord. When the Brahmins feared political repercussions, the Lord Himself fulfilled the devotee's wish.

The accounts of Sakya Nayanar (the Buddhist) and Kootruva Nayanar (the Jaina), both devotees of Lord Shiva, are significant pieces of writing. Kootruva Nayanar wanted none but Siva to coronate him and the Lord obliged His devotee who cared for his people.

Kurruva (Kutruva) Nayanar was the king of Pudukottai. He made himself more and more powerful till at last he became strong enough to take possession of many places, belonging to the Colas and the Pandyas.

Kutruvar's is an insightful tale that teaches us the true nature of the devotional path. He was a minor chieftain of Kalandai. By dint of personal striving and battle heroism, he defeated several kings and got ready to be crowned as an emperor. However, when he approached the priests of Thillai to crown him in a formal ceremony, they refused. He was, after all, a nobody with no proper royal ancestry. And the priests would crown only a person of the Chembian (Chola) dynasty.

But Kutruvar was not offended. He merely felt forlorn and prayed to Shiva that he be crowned with the Lord's Feet,Which the compassionate Lord did in Kutruvar's dream that night. Kutruvar spent the rest of his life worshipping in various temples dedicated to Shiva.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 12 / 01/ 2009
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


53. DHATUSENA - A MAURYAN RULER OF KALABHRA DESCENT FROM CYLON

Dhatusena is said to the descendant of a Kalabhra King of Pundra ( Punadra ). In some records, Dhatusena is also identified as Dasenkeli. We do not have any details about this Kalabhra king of Punadra. Punadra was a pretty state located formerly in the Sabar Kantha Agency in Western India. According to the book of Lineage of Kings of Sri Lanka, King Datusena was the son of King Damstranam of Punadra State of South India who was of Maurya Dynasty.King Damstanam could the father / grandfather / ancestor kalabhra king of Punadra. This is one of the first evidence available to link Kalabhras to Mauryan empire in South India. The Kalabhras of Thirupathi region who invaded the South Indian peninsula could also be most probably the pretty Jain - Buddist chieftains of Mauryan kingdom.

There was a Punadra princely state in Western India which was a Koli jurisdictional state. Mudirajas are the descendants of Kalabhras and also kolis.

Punadra
File 1926 C/8(93) Major Meek.P.A., Mahi Kantha (Sadra) says about the interference of Virpur Chief re: recognition as Rajputs of the Chiefs of Punadra and Dabha who are Makwana Kolis and were reconverted from Islamism to Hinduism. IOR/R/2/619/28 1926.)

Punadra. Petty State in the Mahi Kantha Agency, Bombav Presidency; situated on the Watruk river. Villages, 11. Estimated area, 12 J square miles; under cultivation, 16,650 bighds. Population (1881) 3767. The revenue is returned (1882-83) at ;i57o; and tribute of 37, los. is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda. Products � bdjra, rice, and wheat. The Miah of Punadra, Abhi Singh, is a Mukwana Koli, converted to Islam. The Miahs observe a sort of mixed Muhammadan and Hindu religion, giving their daughters in marriage to Muhammadans of rank, and marrying the daughters of Koli chiefs. On their death their bodies are buried, not burnt. There is i school with 24 pupils. Transit dues are levied in the State.

Mahi Kantha was a political agency or collection of princely states in British India, within the Gujarat Division of Bombay Presidency. Over half of its territory was covered by the princely state of Idar. There were eleven other states (notably Pol, Danta, Malpur and Mohanpur), and a large number of estates belonging to Rajput or Koli thakurs, formerly feudatories of Baroda; several of the states paid tribute to Baroda, and some, being classed as non-jurisdictional thalukdars, were under British administration. Many of the inhabitants were Bhils and Kolis.

King Damstranam
According to the book of Lineage of Kings of Sri Lanka, King Datusena was the son of King Damstranam of Punadra State of South India who was of Maurya Dynasty. King Damstranam waged war against King Mahanama of Sri Lanka and conquered the country and signed a Peace Accord with King Mahanama. As a result, King Damstranam married the daughter of King Mahanama. She was called Sanga. Datusena was their eldest son. King Damstranam was a friend of King Singhavarman of Pallawa State of South India.

King Singhavarman's enemies waged war against him and Datusena led the King's Regiments against the Calabara ( Kalabra ) regiments and defeated the enemies and saved the life of King Singhavarman. As a result of his military prowess King Singhavarman made Datusena the chief commander of his military regiments.

He also gave in marriage his sister, Prutha to Datusena. Datusena's and princess Prutha's eldest son was Kashyapa. Later on Datusena left the Kingdom of his father, Punadra State and settled down in Sri Lanka, which he inherited from his maternal side. During that time Sri Lanka was ruled by an Indian Calabara ( Kalabra ) tribe - Tamils.

He fought with the Tamil rulers, Thirathara, Dathiya and Pithiya and put them to the sword and ascended to the thrown of Sri Lanka. The Prana State (Mangalore) assisted him by sending 75 ship loads of regiments to conquer the Island.

The relationship between King Singhavarman and King Datusena weakened after some time and Singhavarman sent Migara to capture Datusena alive and present him to Pallawa State. He waged war with Datusena whose regiments were led by Kashyapa who overpowered Migara's regiments and saved his father, Datusena's life. Migara then signed a Peace Accord with King Datusena. This resulted in Migara marrying the sister of King Datusena called Ganga. And Migara was recruited to the military service of King Datusena. These circumstances prevailed on Migara and Princess Ganga to leave Pallawa State and they took up court in Sri Lanka with their two children. Thus Migara and also Migara Jr. Had joined the military regiments of King Datusena and King Kashyapa from the regiments of King Singhavarman.

King Mahanama of Ceylon, the father of Sangha and granfather of Dhatusena
King Mahanama - From 410 AD to 432 AD - After king Upatissa, his brother "Mahanama" becomes the king and he rules the country for peaceful 22 years. He had a daughter called "Sanga". After the queens death he married another Tamil queen and from her he had a son called "Sotthisena". Tamil queen wanted her son to be the king but king Mahanama wished Sanga to be the queen after him. However king died suddenly and Tamil queen was able make her son Sotthisena (01 day) the king but he was poisoned by the ministers and Sanga's husband "Chatthagahaka" (432 AD)became the king.

Then a minister called "Mitsen" became the king in the same year and six Tamils named "Pandu" "Parinda" "Kudaparinda" "Tiritara" "Datiya" "Petiya" (432 AD - 459 AD)took the throne by defeating Mitsen.

Mahanama died in 426 A.D after a reign of 22 years, leaving two children, one a son named Sothisena by an Indian Tamil woman, the other a daughter named Sangha by his queen. Sothisena succeeded to the throne of his father but was poisoned on the very day of his accession by Sangha.

This was the work of Princess Sangha. Kingship then went to the husband of Princess Sangha, Prince Chattagahaka. According to 'Pujavaliya', he is referred to as Lamanitissa. But the Pujavaliya calls him Sathgahaka. This king has built a tank named Chattagahaka. After ruling the country for one year the king died. He had a loyal and intelligent minister.

In 434 CE, two groups of Buddhist nuns from Sri Lanka presided over the first Bhiksuni ordination in East Asia in the ancient Chinese capital of Nanjing. Sponsored by King Mahanama of Sri Lanka, Tessara and her nineteen sisters traveled over the high seas and gained access to the highest realms of Chinese society.

During the reign of King Mahanama in around 430A.D, Buddhagosa translates the commentaries. This means that Kalabhra descendant king Damstranam was contemporary to the famous Kalabhra king Achyuta Vikranta as Buddhaghosha lived during the time of Achyuta.


Dhatusena was a king of Sri Lanka who ruled from 455 to 473. He was the first king of the royal Moriyan dynasty of Sri Lanka. In some records, he is also identified as Dasenkeli. Dhatusena reunited the country under his rule after twenty six years, defeating the South Indian invaders that were ruling the country at that time. Dhatusena made eighteen irrigation tanks, a large irrigation canal known as Yodha Ela, and the Avukana statue, a large statue of Lord Buddha.

Dhatusena was King of Ceylon from 459 to 477 AD. Dhatusena was the son of Sangha, the daughter of King Mahanama who ruled from 410 to 432. The country was invaded in 433 by six Tamil leaders from South India, known as the six Dravidians. They overthrew the Sri Lankan monarch and ruled the country for twenty six years, from 433 to 459. During this time, Sinhalese leaders abandoned Rajarata and fled to the Ruhuna from where they resisted against the invading rulers.

Dhatusena abandoned the religions life and began to collect adherents to fight the Tamil king, in the reign of Khuddaparinda (441 � 456 AC). Uprisings quickly followed each other and led to a state of open insurrection which lasted for five or more years. The fourth, fifth and sixth Tamil kings were all killed in battle with Dhatusena only the fifth king Dathiya, being able to maintain himself on the throne for three years. After the death of the last king Pithiya in a decisive battle with Dhatusena, in which the main body of the Tamil army was annihilated Dhatusena (Dasenkeli) was consecrated king at Anuradhapura in the year 459 AC and became the founder of the Moriya dynasty.

Dhatusena was raised by his uncle, a Buddhist monk named Mahanama. Gonisavihara is a vihara in Ceylon where the young Dhatusena was brought up by his uncle, while he remained in disguise as a monk. Geiger thinks it was to the south of Anura-dhapura.

In the Culavamsa, it is stated that king Dhatusena in his boyhood lived as a novice under a thera who was his mother's brother and who was residing at the Dighasanda monastery. Here the name of the thera is not given. According to some, the uncle of King Dhatusena was the author of the Mahavamsa. Mahathera Mahanama compiled Mahavamsa, during the time of King Dhatusena, 150 years after King Mahasen.

Mudi = Maha = Ancient = Great

The Tamil rulers were searching for Dhatusena, and his uncle ordained him as a Buddhist monk to disguise him. Dhatusena later organised a resistance movement against the Tamil rulers and led a rebellion against them. Dhatusena claimed the kingship of the country in 455. By the time Dhatusena started the rebellion, three of the six Tamil rulers were already dead, and in the battles that occurred during the rebellion, two more were killed. The final battle took place in 459, where the last king, Pithiya, was killed. He liberated Anuradhapura from 27 years of Pandyan (Tamil) Rule. Having successfully defeated the Pandyan invaders, Dhatusena was crowned as the king of Sri Lanka in 459, taking Anuradhapura as his capital.

King Dhatusena (433 A.D.) is credited with having repulsed Indian invasions and particularly for organising a naval build-up to deter seaborne attacks. He also had the foresight to cover these defences with artillery

Dhatusena, a Great Tank Builder
Dhatusena built eighteen irrigation tanks in order to develop agriculture in the country. Among these tanks are the Kalavewa and Balaluwewa, which are interconnected and cover an area of 6,380 acres (2,580 ha). . He exploited the waters of the Kala Oya and named the reservoir as Kala weva which was his 'treasure trove'. For this stupendous tank Kalaweva, he had to pay the price of his life as he was killed by his son Kassapa. This unique but marvellous piece of irrigation feat culminated in the construction of its solid embankment which itself ran into three miles in length.

Culawamsa refers to Minipe Ela as 'Yaka-Bendi-Ela' meaning the canal that was built by the Yakkhas of the past who were the ancestors of the Veddahs.The Minnipe Ela was built in king Dhatusena's reign of the 5th century AD, by putting up a stone anicut on the rapids of Mahaweli ganga in its diversion. In later years, it was further extended during the kingships of Aggabodhi I (6th century AD) and Sena III (9th century AD). He also constructed the Yodha Ela, also known as Jayaganga, an irrigation canal carrying water from Kalawewa to Tissawewa tank in Aunuradhapura.

Then king "Dhatusena" from maurya monarchs was able to defeat Tamils and to get back the throne. He was a great king and very famous constructions of the king are "Kala" water tank and "Aukana" Buddha statue. Kala water tank is a huge reservoir and Aukana statue is established near the dam of Kala tank and the belief is that the statue was built to protect the tank.

The tallest standing Buddha statue of Srilanka was built by Dhatusena
The Avukana statue, a 13-metre (43 ft) high statue of Lord Buddha, is also a creation of Dhatusena. The standing Buddha statue at Aukana, is the one of the tallest in Sri Lanka and is an architectural marvel of the ancient Sri Lankans, and is carved out of a rock boulder. The rock cut statue which stands 38 feet 10 ins (39') above its decorated lotus plinth and 10 feet across the shoulders, belongs to the period of King Dhatusena (459-477 AD), the builder of the great reservoir Kalawewa.



Mahavamsa was written during Dhatusena's rule
During his reign an uncle priest of the king completed the Pali Mahavamsa. Dhatusena was praised as liberatorof Anuradhapura from a quarter- century of Pandyan rule. The king was also honored as a generous patron of Buddhism and

The Mahavamsa, also Mahawamsa, (Pa-li: "great chronicle") is a historical record, written in the Pali language, of the Buddhist kings of Sri Lanka. It covers the period from the coming of King Vijaya in 543 BC to the reign of King Mahasena (334 � 361). The Mahavamsa was written in the 6th century CE by the Buddhist monk Mahanama, brother of the Sri-Lankan King Dhatusena, and heavily relied on the Dipavamsa, written five centuries earlier. Deepavamsa Atthakatha , a chronicle was also developed during King Dhatusena.

A companion volume, the Culavamsa or Chulavamsa ("lesser chronicle"), compiled by Sinhala Buddhist monks, covers the period from the 4th century to the British takeover of Sri Lanka in 1815. The combined work, sometimes collectively referred to as the "Mahavamsa", provides a continuous historical record covering over two millennia.

While it is not considered a canonical religious text, the Mahavamsa is an important Buddhist document giving the early history of the religion in Sri Lanka, beginning near the time of the founder of Buddhism, Siddhartha Gautama. As it often refers to the royal dynasties of India, the Mahavamsa is also a valuable text for historians who wish to date and relate contemporary royal dynasties in the Indian subcontinent.

According to a statement in the Culavamsa ( Chola / Choola Vamsa) it seems that king Dhatusena was a lover of history and he was instrumental for the compilation of the Mahavamsa. The statement referred to is that king Dhatusena at the end of an anniversary celebration held in honour of the great Mahinda thera, who introduced Buddhism into Ceylon, ordered the promulgation of the chronicle of Ceylon throughout the Island, and for that purpose he gave a thousand coins. This indicates that a new work had come into existence which was not yet become popular, and this must have been the composition of Mahanama of the Dighasanda Parivena.

A German translation of the Mahavamsa was completed by Wilhelm Geiger in 1912. This was subsequently translated into English by Mabel Haynes Bode, and the English translation was revised by Geiger.

Dhatusena and family history
King Dhatusena who reigned as the ruler of Lanka from the ancient city of Anuradhapura had three children from different wives. A daughter and two sons. Kassapa was the first born from a lesser queen and Mogallana the second born, by the chief queen. The daughter was given in marriage to Prince Migara, the son of Dhatusena's sister. Prince Migara was the Senpathy of King Dhatusena, the chief of his soldiers. The king's choice to succeed him to the throne was Prince Mogallana.

Having heard that Prince Migara was ill treating his daughter, King Dhatusena, in punishment, arrested Migara's mother, his own sister, and burnt her alive in retaliation. The way was paved for an alliance between Kassapa and Migara and they plotted to take the kingdom away from Dhatusena and Moggallana. The soldiers came, and Mogallana escaped. King Dhatusena was captured, and subsequently pasted alive to a wall, and left to die.

Prince Kassapa became the King. Mogallana left the shores of Lanka and sailed to India in search of allies to fight and win back his kingdom. The fear of Mogallana's return made King Kassapa seek an alternate to the unprotected city of Anuradhapura He wanted to build an impregnable fortress to withstand the vengeance and the onslaught of his brother. Hence, the birth of Sigiriya.

King Kassapa constructed his new capital and reigned from the rock fortress for a period of seventeen years. Mogallana returned. The news reached the King that his brother was marching to Sigiriya with a large army. For reasons unknown Kassapa, who built the unscalable fortress to defend himself, left the very same protection and came down to meet Mogallana in battle. The charge had begun. The two brothers directed their men, leading the attack. Arrows whistled and spears flew; thrown by men running to meet the enemy. Swords clashed and soldiers fought, mired in a fear of death which knew no quarter. The battle was fierce, fought in the grasslands that seemed with the blood of both horse and man.

The tide turned. Kassapa's men began to scatter and run in defeat. The King stood alone astride his elephant shouting vainly at his receding columns. It was the end. Kassapa, the God King of Sigiriya, drew his dagger and stabbed himself to death. Mogallana never stepped into Sinha-giri. The rock fortress was left to decay. It died with its creator, and no one wanted any part of King Kassapa's magnificent legacy that he left to the remaining centuries. Sigiriya slept, in pastoral isolation, soft and silent, undisturbed by man, for a thousand and more years, till it awoke again, to fascinate the modern world. Perhaps, to be classified, as a man made wonder of planet earth.

Kasyapa / Kassapa is a gotram of Telugu Mudiraj people and the gotramight be having some direct or indirect relation to Muthuraja / Mudiraja people of South India as these kings and people descended from Kalabhras.

Sigiriya
Sigiriya (Lion's rock) is a rock fortress and ruins of a palace situated in central Matale District of Sri Lanka dating to the fifth century B.C.E. Although the history of the building of the fortress, palace, and monastery is unclear, most probably it was built by King Kasyapa (477�495 C.E.) of the Moriyan dynasty as a fortress and palace. After Kasyapa's death, the fortress was converted into a Buddhist monastery and served for the next eight hundred years when it was abandoned in the fourteenth century.

Located on a prominent hill standing 370 m above the plane surrounding it, Sigiriya makes a striking appearance. The site has tremendous cultural and historical significance. Its western rock face, 140 m long and 40 m high, has won acclaim for the abundant erotic frescoes that are strikingly similar to the paintings in Ajanta Caves of India. Sigiriya has an upper palace that sits at the top of the rock, a mid level terrace, a lower palace with gardens, moats, and walls at the base of the rock. The architects created a sophisticated reservoir and garden system for aesthetic beauty, drinking water, and air cooling. When Sigiriya converted to a monastery after King Kasyapa's death, Buddhist monks removed many of the erotic paintings as out of keeping for a place of religious practice.

Some important descendants of Dhatusena
Kasyapa ( 470-488 AD ) was the son of King Dhatusena by a Pallava woman, killed his father and moved his capital from Anuradhapura to Sigiraya. He was later dethroned by his exiled brother, Mogallana, who returned the capital to Anuradhapura � built the famous rock fortress at Sigiriya and also adorned the rock cave faces with the world famous paintings of Sigiriya. His rule ended when his brother Mogallana returned with an army from India and he committed suicide during this battle.

Mogalanna (Mugalan) 488-506 AD � Son of Dhatusena, brother of Kasyapa

Kumara Dhatusena (Kumaradasa) 506-515 AD � Son of Mogallana

Kirti Sena 515 AD � Son of Kumara Dhatusena � ruled for 9 months and was murdered by his maternal uncle, Siva.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 29 / 01 / 2009
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


54. DURVINITA MAHADHIRAJA - A SUCCESSFUL WESTERN GANGA KING

Avinita's son and successor, Gangarasa Durvinita (529-579 CE), was one of the most remarkable rulers of the Ganga family. Durvinita is seen as the most successful ruler of the Western Ganga Dynasty. He was one of the ancestors of Sripurusha Muttarasa, another famour Western Ganga King of later times.

Durvinita mahadirayan's succession was a disputed one, as he had to overcome the challenge of his younger step-brother who seemed to have secured the assistance of the Pallavas and the Kadambas. The Nallala grant refers to this war of succession; so does the Kadagattur grant which gives a hint that his younger brother was supported by the Pallava King and that the " Goddess of sovereignty came to the rescue of Durvinita because of his excellent display of valour and determination". Western Ganga kings Avinita and Durvinita used titles Mahadiraja and Mahadirayan and at a later period their descendant Sripurusha used a similar title having the same meaning by modifying Mahadiraja as Muttarasa

Mahadiraja = Mahadirayan = Mahadi Rayan = Mudiraja = Great King
Raja = Rayan = Raya = Rasa = King
Mahadi = Maha = Mudi = Mutta = Great
Mahadirayan = Mudirayan = Mahadiraja = Mudiraja = Muttarasa

Durvinita's father Avinita and his ancestors
The first Ganga king Kongunivarma mahadirayan ( 189-250 AD) crowned himself at Vijayaskandapuram (later called Gangeyam-Kangayam after the Gangas) (ref:Kongudesa rajakkal). The first ruler of the dynasty was Konganivarma Madhava (C.350-370 A. D) who worked to establish his power at the expense of the Banas and by expanding in Kongudesa or the Salem region. He thought it wise to be friendly with the Pallavas, a policy which was followed by the early Ganga rulers.

Konganivarma Madhava was succeeded by his nephew Madhava II or Kiriya Madhava ( C.370-390 A. D.) who was the son of Dadiga who moved to Dalavanapura. His successor Harivarma (C.390-410 A. D.) is said to have been installed on the throne by the Pallava Simhavarma. During this period, two branches of the Ganga dynasty were established at Paruvi and Kaivara.

The earliest inscription of Kodagu belongs to the Ganga dynasty which ruled from Talakad. It is a copper plate inscription and is famous as Mercara copper plate of Ganga King Avinita who ruled from 466 to 529 AD. Actually it is a set of three copper plates secured by a ring and an elephant seal. This inscription is now exhibited in Lutheran Museum at the town of Basle in Switzerland.

A stone inscription of the time of the Ganga king Nirvinita, who is identified with Avinita says that his younger son assumed from a Kaduvetti of Kanchi, the Kongu Nadu: 'Sri Nirvinita's younger (or little) son assumed the Kongani crown, from the people of Kaduvetti and the Pallava king''

Harivarma's son Vishnugopa (C.410-430 A. D.) had a quiet, uneventful reign, and was succeeded by Tadangala Madhava (C.430-466 A. D.). He is said to have been anointed by the Pallava king Skandavarma. His friendly relations with the Pallavas did not prevent him from normalising his relations with the Kadambas. In fact, he married the daughter of Kakusthavarma. He strengthened the Pallava rule by incorporating the Paruvi and the Kaivara branches into the main line. His son and successor was Avinita (C.466-495 A. D.) who consolidated the Ganga position by marrying the daughter of the Raja of Punnata. He remained friendly with the Pallavas, but was reputed to be very stern in his dealings with the enemies.

Harivarma, the third king of the dynasty changed the capital to Talakkad near Sivasamudram. All the kings had the cognomen Kongunivarma. The third king Harivarma removed his capital to Talakad on the Cauvery. He was a subordinate of the Pallavas and was succeeded by Vishnugopa who renounced Jainism and embraced Vaishnavism. His grandson Madhava III succeeded him, married a Kadamba princess and was a Shaivite. He was succeeded by Avinita who ruled in the first half of the 6th century. Avinita was a Jain but respected other religions. He came to the throne even while he was a baby.

The earliest lithic record calling the Ganga kings Konganipattam (Kongani crown) starts only with the Serugunda inscription of 6th century, during the rule of King Avinita, indicating the conquest of the Kongu region by Avinita.

Durvinita Mahadirayan
In 529, King Durvinita ascended the throne after waging a war with his younger brother who was favoured by his father, King Avinita.Some accounts suggest that in this power struggle, the Pallavas of Kanchi supported Avinita's choice of heir and the Badami Chalukya King Vijayaditya supported his father-in-law, Durvinita.From the inscriptions it is known that these battles were fought in Tondaimandalam and Kongu regions (northern Tamil Nadu) prompting historians to suggest that Durvinita fought the Pallavas successfully.

Interestingly, some light is shed on the Cholas of Uraiyur by the Western Gangas of Talaikkadu. The Ganga ruler Durvinita, who ruled in the later half of 6th cent a.d., had a Chola princess as his Chief Queen. She is called 'the daughter of the family of Karikala Chola, an exemplary Kshatriya, and ruler of Uraiyur'.

Sri Vikrama, the grandson of Ganga Durvinita and who ruled in the 7th cent a.d., also had a Chola Princess as his Queen who is called 'the daughter of the Chola family of Karikala, who raised embankments on either side of the river Kaveri'. These references do show that Karikala Chola's family, ruling from Uraiyur, was still recognisd as a dynasty powerful enough to be reckoned with.

The Gangas were ruling the northern part of the Kongu and occasionally the south as well. Karur was in the southern Kongu. Some of the Ganga rulers and also the Kadambas of the West, were crowned by the Pallava rulers. The Pallavas of Kanchi considered themselves overlords of Gangas, and Kadambas in the 5th and 6th cent. They were gradually expanding towards the south as far as Trichy in the 6th cent a.d. Till then Karur continued to be under the Cheras.

The Pallava interference in the Ganga affairs resulted in a shift in the dynastic relations which hitherto had been cordial. Durvinita could not remain friendly with the Pallavas who had created problems for him by supporting his step-brother. The Ganga monarch swore vengeance on the Pallavas who were routed in the battle of Anderi in his fifth regal year. The Pallavas, however, continued their hostilities and it is likely that they secured the assistance of the Kadambas in their attempt to tame Durvinita. In the protracted war that ensued, several pitched encounters were fought, and the Gummareddipura record informs us that Durvinita overcame his enemies at Alattur, Porulare and Pernagra. It is possible that these victories enabled him to extend his power over Kongudesa and Tondaimandalam. Durvinita, the Ganga ruler accepted overlordship of Pulakeshi-II and even gave his daughter in marriage to Pulakesin II and she became the mother of Vikramaditya I.

Gounders were the descendants of Western Gangas
The title Gounder is used with various regional variations by distinct castes. The root word is Kavunda. This system of administration was started by the great king of the Ganga dynasty,Durvinita.This post of a village headman was usually given to the warrior clans of this region and fell to the erstwhile Gangakula to which Durvinita himself belonged to. The Kongu Vellala Mangala Valthu which was sung by the Tamil saint-poet Kambar also strengthens the claim as he blest the marriying couples;one of the line runs. Other different castes-the Vanniyars and the Kurumbars also have the title.

Durvinita was an able warrior king
Durvinita managed to grab the throne by virtue of his valour... Durvinita defeated the Pallavas in the battle of Anderi... the Gummareddipura inscription hails that Durvinita overcame his enemies at Alattur... Durvinita was a clever king... While Durvinita was an able warrior he was also a man of letter and art... Durvinita wrote a commentary on the fifteenth canto of Bharavi...

The Origin of Ganga Muttarasas
The origin of the Gangas presents many problems. Some of the later inscriptions provide an account of a tradition which connects the Gangas with Ayodhyapura. Its ruler was Harischandra of the Ikshvaku family, whose daughter-in-law, Vijayamahadevi bathed in the river Ganga and gave birth to a son named Gangadatta, who became the progenitor of the Ganga family. Another version of this legend speaks of Puruvasu, the son of Yayati; the former is said to have propitiated the river Ganga and had a son by name Gangeya, whose descendents were called the Gangas. They are referred to as having ruled from Ahichchatrapura. The legend also has it that one of the descendents of the family by name Bhagadatta established his authority over Kalinga and became the founder of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty.

The Ganga dynasty came into existence in 2nd century AD after the name of its founder Gangeya or Gangadutta. Jain Acharya Simhanandi inspired his two disciples Daddighaa and Madhava to establish their rule, which they did by constituting the territory of Gangawadi with Kolar as their capital. But actually Madhava Kongunivarma I was the first crowned king of this dynasty, who ruled for a long period during 189-250 AD Jainism was the national religion during his rule. King Durvinita Konguni of this dynasty was the disciple of famous grammarian Acharya Devanandi Pujyapad

Hostilities with Pallavas and Kadambas
Durvinita was able to cement his friendship with the newly emerging Chalukya power. He gave his daughter to Chalukya Vijayaditya; and when his son-in-law became a victim of the Pallava aggression, Durvinita championed the Chalukyas and installed his grandson Jayasimha on the Badami throne. The timely help of the Ganga monarch did much to save the Chalukyas, and on this sure foundation was built a tradition of a durable friendship between the two ruling families.

During Durvinita's rule, the hostilities between the Pallavas and Gangas came to forefront and several pitched battles were fought by the two kingdoms. Durvinita defeated the Pallavas in the battle of Anderi. Though the Pallavas sought the assistance of the Kadambas to the north to tame Durvinita, the Gummareddipura inscription hails that Durvinita overcame his enemies at Alattur, Porulare and Pernagra. It is possible that these victories enabled him to extend his power over Kongudesa and Tondaimandalam regions of Tamil country. He may have also made Kittur his capital.

Ties with Chalukyas
Durvinita was a clever king. In order to keep the Pallavas at bay, he gave his daughter to Chalukya Vijayaditya or from the Nagara record to Pulakesi II, though the later is unlikely owing to the difference in their eras. The Chalukyas were an emerging power at this time. When the Pallavas attacked the Chalukyas, he fought on the Chalukya side and cemented a long lasting friendship with the Chalukyas that lasted through the rule of both the Badami Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas and Kalyani Chalukyas, covering a period of over 600 years.The Gummareddipura and the Uttanur plates describe Durvinita as the Lord of Punnata. According to some historians - Vikramaditva's queen Ganga Mahadevi, mentioned in the Gadval Grant, may have been a grand-daughter of Durvinita.
Durvinita was able to cement his friendship with the newly emerging Chalukya power. He gave his daughter to Chalukya Vijayaditya; and when his son-in-law became a victim of the Pallava aggression, Durvinita championed the Chalukyas and installed his grandson Jayasimha on the Badami throne. The timely help of the Ganga monarch did much to save the Chalukyas, and on this sure foundation was built a tradition of a durable friendship between the two ruling families.

Pulakesin was a contemporary of Durvinita. Dubreuil places his date between 605 and 650 A. D. Pulakesin II reigned from 609 to 642 A. D. Therefore, they were contemporary princes reigning over two neighbouring kingdoms. The same fact is established by a passage in the Avanti-sundari-katha of Dandin.

Vishnuvardhana, Durvinita, and Simhavishnu were contemporaries. There is no doubt about the identity of Durvinita and Simhavishnu; Vishnuvardhana the king of Achalapura, has been identified with Vishnuvardhana, the brother of Pulakesin II, the king of the Chalukyas. It is also clear from this that Pulakesin II was a contemporary of Durvinita and Simhavishnu. We must remember that Durvinita came to the throne about 605 A. D., and he ruled for 45 years. It is probable that Durvinita was a comparatively young man at the time of his accession, and he could not have had a grown-up grandson like Pulakesin at the time. Durvinita was alive for 8 years from 642 to 650 A. D. during the period of interregnum in the Chalukyan kingdom.

The Gummareddipura and the Uttanur plates describe Durvinita as the Lord of Punnata. In fact, his mother was Jyeshtadevi, the daughter of Skandavarma of Punnata. It is possible that there were no male heirs to the Punnata throne and naturally the sovereignty of that Kingdom devolved upon Durvinita.

Durviniti's opponent was Kaduvetti of Kanchi
The Nagar inscription says that he vanquished a Kaduvetti of Kanchi who was a powerful king, and a terror to all his neighbours. So much is implied in the sentence, 'the Kaduvetti who is celebrated as Ravana to this earth'. Ravana was a fierce and mighty demon who was a terror to all the kingdoms on earth. To be compared with him, this Kaduvetti, the opponent of Durvinita, must have been very powerful, and he must also have inspired great fear in the minds of his enemies. The reign of Durvinita extended, as we had seen, from A.D. 605 to 650 A.D. There ruled at Kanchi, according to Dubreuil, (17) two kings, during this period.

The Kaduvetti whom Durvinita defeated was must therefore have been none other than Narasimha I. Before his defeat by the Ganga king, Narasimhavarman was the undisputed master of the whole of Southern India. He was also ruling over the southern provinces of the Chalukyan kingdom. It was, therefore, necessary to defeat him first, to help the Chalukyan king to recover his ancestral dominions. Durvinita attacked him first and defeated him. The victory of the Ganga king resulted in the restoration of his daughter's son (Vikramaditya I) to the hereditary dominions of Jayasimhavallabha.

Religion & Literature
Considered the most successful of the Ganga kings, Durvinita was well versed in arts such as music, dance, ayurveda and taming wild elephants. Some inscriptions sing paeans to him by comparing him to Yudhishtira and Manu - figures from Hindu mythology known for their wisdom and fairness.

The early Gangas were worshipers of Vishnu. However he had a Jaina guru called Pujyapada and his court was adorned with several Jaina scholars. This tolarence was common among later Ganga kings, who actually took up Jainism. While Durvinita was an able warrior he was also a man of letter and art. Kavirajamarga hails him as one of the early writers in Kannada, though his Kannada works are thought to be extinct. The renowned Sanskrit poet Bharavi is said to have visited the Ganga court during this period. Durvinita wrote a commentary on the fifteenth canto of Bharavi's Kiratarjuniya. He translated into Sanskrit Vaddakatha or Brihatkatha of Gunadya originally written in Prakrit. He also authored a work called Sabdavatara. His prowess in the battle field, knowledge of war instruments and arms, political science, medicine, music and dance has been written about in the Nallala grant.

The religious outlook of Mahadirayan Durvinita was marked by tolerance. Though he was a worshipper of Vishnu and a performer of Vedic sacrifices like Hiranyagarbha, King Durvinita Konguni of this dynasty was the disciple of famous grammarian and preceptor Acharya Devanandi Pujyapad. His court was adorned by many Jaina scholars. His religious catholicity is reflected in the generous patronage he extended to all religious sects. Himself an eminent scholar, Durvinita evinced keen interest in promoting literary cultivation. The renowned Sanskrit poet Bharavi is said to have visited the Ganga court during this period. Durvinita is supposed to have written a commentary on the fifteenth canto of Bharavi's Kiratarjuniya. He also translated into Sanskrit the Vaddakatha or Brihatkatha of Gunadya, which was originally written in the Paisachi language (translated by his vassal Konguvelir to Tamil). He is also credited with the authorship of 'Sabdavatara', a work on grammar. His Nallala grant hails him as an expert in the composition of various forms of poetry, stories and dramas. In fact, Nripatunga's Kavirajamarga hails him as one of the early writers in Kannada.

The earliest known Kannada writer from this dynasty is King Durvinita of the 6th century. Kavirajamarga of 850 CE, refers to him as an early writer in Kannada prose. It is claimed that the name Durvinita is found only in Kavirajamarga and Western Ganga inscriptions prior to the Magadi inscription of 966. This according to historians is proof enough that the Durvinita mentioned in Kavirajamarga is the Western Ganga king.

The many-sided accomplishments of Durvinita are recorded on the Nallala grant. He is compared to Kautilya in expounding the science of polity; to Narada, Tumburu or Bharatadeva in his knowledge of music and dance; to Charaka and Dhanvantri in the knowledge of medicine or to Parasurama in the use of arms. He is referred to as endowed with three constituents of royal power, namely, Prabhusakti (imperial power), Mantrasakti (the power of discretion) and Utsahasakti (the power of active will). His political achievements, military victories, diplomatic skill and many sterling qualities of head and heart prove that his claims were justified. Durvinita was indeed a great ruler of the Ganga family.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
19th March 2009
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


55. THE MTHURAYAR CHIEFS OF SENDALAI - NIYAMAM

The Muttaraiyars were a line of powerful chiefs and were for a long time feudatory to the Pallavas, rulling over portions of the Tanjore and Tirchinopoly districts and of the former Pudukkottai State. The centre of their power was somewhere in the districts of Tanjore, Sendalai, at present a small village near Tirukkattupalli, appears once to have been a flourishing town with the beautiful name Candralekha, and either this place or Niyamam in its neighbourhood was most probably the centre of Muttaraiya rule. As their territory lay between the Pandya and Pallava empires, they were involved in almost all the contests between the two powers. Their subordination was of great assistance to the Pallavas not only in their struggle againt the Pandyas but also in holding the Cholas under subjection.

The Pandyas and Pallavas carried on the wars by proxy through their subordinate chiefs the Mutharayars and Velirs. Among the Velirs the most well known are the Irukkuvels of Kodumbalur. The Kodumbalur Velirs located in the political buffer zone between the kingdoms of the Cholas and Pandyas and formed the family of nobility from which kings and other chiefs made matrimonial alliance.

The Mutharaya line of Chiefs of Sendalai - Niyamam
  • Perumbidugu Muttaraiyan alias Kuvavan Maran (c.A.D. 655-c.680)
  • Ilangovadiyariyan alias Maran Paramesvaran (c A.D. 680-c.705)
  • Perumbidugu Muttaraiyan II alias Suvaran Maran (c.A.D. 705-c.745)
  • Videlvidugu Vilupperadi-Araisan alias Sattan Maran (c.A.C. 745-c.770)
  • MArppidugu alias Peradiaraiyan (c.A.D. 770-791)
  • Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan alias Kuvan Sattan (c.A.D. 791-c.826)
  • Sattan Paliyili (c.A.d. 826-c.851)


Neelakanta Sastry says that Niyamam was Mutharayar's Capital. But historian SR Balasubramaninan concurrs; Pandarathar says that their Capital was Sendalai.The geographical region consisting of Pudkukkottai - Thanjai - Nemam was under Mutharayars till 853 AD.

The Muttaraiyars mentioned in Sendalai Pillar were feudatories of the Pallavas is also known. It is clear that in all these important places in Tanjore - Pudukkottai, the Pallava power and impact were very much effective in the 9th cent. A.D. It has been shown that these Muttaraiya chieftains were active both in the Kanchipuram and Tanjore - Pudukkottai regions.

The area round Thanjavur was under the sway of chieftains known as the Muttaraiyuar whose inscriptions are found at Sendalai and Niyamam, who ruled either independently or as vassals of the Pallavas. One such chief was Kataka-Muttaraiyan mentioned in theVaikuntha-Perumal temple inscriptions at Kanchipuram as a Pallava subordinate in the reign of Nandivarman II. No. 18 of the "Pudukkottai Inscriptions" refers to a Muttaraiyar chief called Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan as a feudatory under Dantivarman.

Kodumbalur is mentioned as the scene of a few wars in the 8th century. In one of them, the Pandya King Mara-varman Raja-simha (740 � 765 AD) defeated the Pallava King Nandi-varman Pallava-malla. The Sendalai records attribute a victory at Kodumbalur to Perumbidugu Suvaran-Maran (first half of 8th century), a Muttaraiyar chief, who is mentioned as having defeated the Pandya-s and the Cheras.

Dr. Kudavoil says Niyamam was an important town under Mutharayas. Quotes Sendalai Sundareswarar temple inscriptions : "Perumbidugu Mutharayan @ Kuvaran Maaran; his son Elango Vadhiyaraiyan @ Maaran Paremeswaran; his son Perumbidugu Mutharayan @ Suvaran Maaran. Suvaran Maaran was also known as Vallakkoman.

Vijayalayan (Pazhayarai) fought Pandyas under Pallavas. For having won the War at Thirupurambiyam (ref P.S.) Vijayalaya was given back Cholanadu. In the process of establishing his own Land, he should have fought with Mutharayas also and expanded to Vallam to Niyamam and retained Thanjai as his Capital.

Very attractive Saptha Mathar images were found near Niyamam at Ilagadu Siva temple near Thirukkattuppally. This mages are huge and are very attractvie. They appear to belong to the Nyamam Pidari temple mentioned in Muttaraya inscriptions.

South Indian Inscriptionms- No. 206.�Two Pandya copper plategrantsfrom Sinnamanur : The three Pandya kings Perumbidugu Muttaraiyan alias Kuvavan Maran, his son Ilangovadiyaraiyan alias Maran Paramesvaran, and his son Perumbidugu Muttaraiyan alias Suvaran Maran mentioned in the Sendalai pillar inscriptions of about the 8th century A.D. do not appear in this genealogy. Theyevidently belonged to a subordinate branch of the family and were perhaps kings of the southern Tanjai country, ruling almost independently of the imperial Pandyas at Madras and sometimes fighting with them.

South Indian Inscriptionms - Inscription No. 402 - (A. R. No. 402 of 1906) - Tiruchiraplli District, Pudukkottai State, Tirumayyam. :Satyagirinatha-Perumal Temple � On A Stone Set Up Inside The Premises.

This is in characters of about the 9th century A.D. It is incomplete. It seems to record a gift of land for the renovation of some structure (temple?) and worship therein by Perumpidugu Perundevi, the mother of (a chief by name) Videlvidugu Vilupperadi-Araisan alias Sattan Maran. It is possible that this chief was related to the Muttaraiyars of Sendalai.

Niyamam (Nemam)-Ilangadu-Puttakaram
Niyamam (Nemam) is located 25 km northeast of Thanjavur on the southern bank of the river Kaviri. The villages around Niyamam have many important archaeological monuments and mounds; besides several episodes of flooding in river Kaviri and agricultural activities have created a few natural mounds in this region. Niya mam is reported to be the capital of the Muttarayas, who ruled over Thanjavur and Pudukkottai regions. At a distance of 100 m on the road deviating from Thirukkattuppalli-Kallanai highway, two massive stone Siva Lingas and a stone image of Jyeshta Devi were found. The right hand of Jyeshta is broken and the left is placed on the seat by the side.

At a place called Aiyyarmedu in Puttagaram area of Niyamam, three broken stone statues were found. It is reported by the local people that this area had a fort of the early medieval chieftains Muttarayas. Six of the Sapthakannikas (mathrikas), namely, Varahi, Indirani, Kaumari, Maheshwari, Chamundi (?) and Brahmi, which were originally found at this site, are now preserved in the Vijayavidangeshwarar temple at Ilankadu. These images, which are in seated posture, have kusabandha indicating their virgin status, and their lower right hands (in the front) are in abhaya mudra, slightly tilted towards their right, which is a noteworthy feature. There was also a standing image of Shiva in the form of Veerabhadra (?), whose right hand is also in abhaya mudra akin to the style of the Sapthakannikas. The images are excellently carved and represent the artistic style of the late Pallava/early Chola period. Normally, Sapthakannika sculptures occur in the form of panels, but these large independent images with pedestal indicate that they were originally enshrined in a major temple. These statues might have been in the Kaalaapidari temple of the Muttarayas, which is referred to in the Sentalai inscription of Suvaran Maran (Annual Report of Epigraphy 1897, nos. 65-68; Epigraphica Indica XII, no. 10, pp.134-158) and Tellarerinta Nandivarman (ARE 1899, no. 11; South Indian Inscriptions VI, 447, p.185). The Sentalai inscriptions are suggested to be originally from the Pidaari temple that Page 30 existed at Niyamam (Balasubramaniam n.d.). The Linga and the nandi from this site are installed in the above-mentioned temple, according to the local lores. The Sundaresvara temple at Sendalai near Tanjore is well known to students of Tamil arts. It carries inscriptions of Pallava, Pandya and Muttaraiya rulers and refers to a great Maha-kali temple at Niyamam, a village nearby. The pillars belonging to the Niyamam Maha-kali temple have been brought and reused in the Sendalai temple.

An inscription on the outer Gopura of this temple mentions a Jaina priest Kanaka-sena Bhattarar. The inscription, was copied by the Government Epigraphist in the year 1899 (ARE no 7) but is somewhat damaged. Writing about the Jain foundations under the Cholas, the Great historian, Professor Nilakanta Sastri has drawn our attention to the Sendalai inscription and remarks "Kanakasena Bhattarar who had the palli is found at Sendalai in the 12th year of a Parakesari."

In a number of instances one finds the portrayal of seated or standing Tirthankara images beneath the umbrellas or in the case of Parsvanatha beneath the hooded Cobra. In one instance Mahavira is portrayed seated beneath an umbrella and is flanked by Cowries. The adjoining panels portray devotees standing in adoration. In another instance we find the Tirthankara standing flanked by Yaksha and Yakshi. In another part forming part of a makara torana Parsvanatha is seen standing. There are other panels depicting dancers and in a rare portrayal a buffalo is shown yielding a calf.

There is a Sanskrit inscription in the inner gopura of the Sendalai temple itself praising the greatness of Gopa Tippa. The inner gopura of Sendalai was built earlier and the second gopura built by Gopa Tippa later. It is possible he built a number of Gopuras in the Tanjore-Kumbhakonam area. The Kandiyur-Sendalai regions suffered worst depredations during the invasion of Malik Kafur in the year 1310. That the temples suffered worst during the disastrous invasion is recorded in the writings of Amir Kusru, written in Persian language. Gopa Tippa appears after one hundred years of this destruction and rebuilt a number of temple gopuras.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
15th August 2009
Nagpur, M.S, India

go TOP


56. THE PANDI MUTHERAYAN ARATTAVATHY ARAYAN, KARUR

The Hindu News : Tuesday, Oct 06, 2009

KARUR: A team of archaeologists and epigraphists from the Archaeological Survey of India has unear thed a unique Tamil stone inscription belonging to the 9th Century AD near Karur that for the first time throws light on the matrimonial relationship between the Mutherayar chieftains and Pandya rulers of Madurai.

The team, led by the Assistant Superintending Epigraphist of the ASI, S.Rajavelu, including archaeology and epigraphy enthusiasts K.Balasubramaniam, V.Panneerselvam and S.Alagesan, discovered the inscription at a dilapidated Siva temple atop a rocky outcrop at Veerakanampatti, around 20 km from here on the Karur-Dindigul highway a couple of days back. Known as Eswaran Paarai, it houses the stone built temple dedicated to Lord Siva. It is on the outer portion of the temple that the team discovered the inscription.

Pandya link
Speaking of the find, Dr.Rajavelu says that the Ninth Century inscription proclaims Pandi Perundevi, mother of Pandi Mutherayan Arattavathy Arayan who was the chieftain of the region, constructed the temple in memory of Pandi Mutherayan Sozhiga Arayan, probably a kinsman, and named the shrine "Kaala Eswaram." The inscription also carries the eight "mangala" insignias besides stating that the bequeathing royalty would hold the protector of the charity in high esteem.

"For the first time we have come across a Pandi Mutherayar inscription that states the matrimonial link between the Mutherayars and Pandya rulers especially during the Eighth and Ninth Centuries," observes Dr.Rajavelu. Perhaps the Pandi Perundevi mentioned in the inscriptions could be a Pandya royal lady, he adds.

The Sozhiga Arayan, who was a local chieftain, is also referred to in an inscription discovered by Dr.Rajavelu and his team from a tank at Velliyanai village nearby. That inscription had been assigned to the Sixth Century, Dr.Rajavelu points out.

The dilapidated stone built temple has a square sanctum sanctorum and rectangular muga mandapam. On the Kumudhavari part of the temple a stone inscription belonging to the 12th century is found. A royal order beginning with the words "Konerinmai Kondan�" is also found besides ascribing the name of the deity in the temple as "Thirukundra Thali Udaya Nayanar," observes Dr.Rajavelu. The team also stumbled on a 13th century inscription on a separate pillar at the temple during the field study.

Collection by Mrs. Bhagya Rao

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
12th October 2009
Nagpur, M.S, India

go TOP


57. PALUVETTIRAYAR- M AMUTHARAYAR KING OF KERALA

Pazhuvettarayar was sundara chozhan's treasurer, a battle-hardened old warrior, and a powerful nobleman.

During the period of the Chola dynasty, when Uraiyoor was the capital of the Chola kingdom, the Cholas had many local kings who were their supporters. One among them called Pazhavettarayar ( from the Muthurayar community ) was the king of Pazhuvoor. The name of Periya Pazhuvettarayar was Ambalavaanan. It is mentioned in the ASI board kept outside the keezhap pazhuvur temple. Paluvettaraiyar Maravan Kandanar is noted as an important general during Uttama Chola reign. He also served under Sundara Chola. We will have lot of difficulties fitting them into the historic pazhuvettaraiyar chronology.

Paluvettarayar = Pzhavettarayar

They were petty chiefs who were ruling present Kila-Paluvur and Mela-Paluvur, in the Udaiyarpalayam taluk of the Tiruchirapalli district, during Chola kingdom with the title Paluvettaraiyar, (which is one of the family name of Kallar community). They were responsible for a number of benefactions to the temples at this place and to have been related to the Chola by marriage. The Kallars are one of the warrior tribes of Mudiraja / Muthuraja community.

Paluvettaraiyar figures largely in the inscriptions copied at Kila-Paaluvur and Mela-Paluvur in the Tiruchchirappalli District. A.R. No. 231 of 1926 dated in the 12th year of Parantaka, that Paluvettaraiyar Kandan Amudanar fought, on behalf of his Chola overlord, a victorious battle at Vellur against the forces of the Pandya king and his Ceylonese ally, in which the Pandya lost his life.

Kilappaluvur is part of the ancient settlement of Perumpaluvur ruled by Paluvettaraiyar chieftains (under the hegemony of the Chola Kings) who had also connections with the Cera clan in the west coast. Kilappaluvur is in Trichi-Ariyalur route leading to the ancient Chola capital of Gangaikondacholapuram.

Acertain Ambalavan Puluvur ( Pazhuvur) Nakkan figures very often in the records of Parakesari and Rajakesari. His Chola overlords were Uttama Chola and Rajaraja - I. Vikrama Chola was a title borne by Uttama Chola and his subordinate Ambalavan Paluvur Nakkan also bore the same title. Similarly when he figures in the records of Rajaraja-I, he is known as Ambalavam Puluvur Nakkan alias Pallavuarayan .

His exact relationship with the main line of Paluvettaraiya mentioned above is not known. In the time of Uttama Chola he figures as one of the noble men of the king's council. He was a devotee of Shiva. In the 10th regnal year of Uttama Chola, Ambalavan Puluvur Nakkan gave sheep for burning a perpetual lamps to the temple of Vijayamangalam. In the 12th year of Uttama Chola also he gave sheep to the same God for four pepetual lamps. His wives were also interested in making donations to the Shiva temples. Aparajita Cheyyavaymani and Singapanman Kanji Akkan the two wives of Ambalavan Paluvur made provision for the burning of perpetual lamps in the temple constructed by their husband.

The Lord Pazluvoor, the elder, - Ambalavan An important and powerful chieftain, - Officer of Taxation, Food Supply and Finance for the Chozla Empire, elder brother of Kalanthaka, Nandini's husband, about 65 years old. The Lord Pazluvoor, the younger, Kalanthaka - Commander of Tanjore Fort, Captain of the Guard Corps.

An important general during Uttama Chola's reign was Paluvettaraiyar Maravan Kandanar, who also served under Sundara Chola. His son Kumaran Maravan also served Uttama Chola. Ambalavan Paluvurnakkan (also known as Vikramasola -Maharajan of Kuvalalam) features during Uttama Chola's rule and continues into Rajaraja I's reign.

Pazhuvettaraiyar mystery ( of Kerala origin ) :
The famed pazhyvettaraiyars immortalised in ponniyinsevan were of kerala origins. But how they came and settled in a chola heartland and managed to survive in very high ranks is a mystery. Their relationships with cheras is not clear. The major chera - chola relationship starts with aditya chola but become more concrete in parantaka's times with his marriage of chera princes.

The king Parantaka married the daughter resembling regal glory incarnate of the Kerala king, who was also called Paluvettarayar. Uthama Chola had among others, a queen named Panchavanmatheviyar who was the daughter of the Chera king Paluvettaraiyar also known as Kandan Sundera Cholan. ( Rajaraja Chola - 1 had a queen known as Panchavanmathevi who was the daughter of Paluvettaraiyar Kandan Maravan the Chera king of Paluvur on the west of Thirutchirappalli bordering Kerala state ?? ) He also had a queen known as panchavanmathevi who was the daughter of Paluvettaraiyar Kandan Maravan the Chera king of Paluvur on the west of Thirutchirappalli bordering Kerala state. It was to this Vanavanmadevi the greatest emperor in the Chola history namely the Rajendra Chola ? 1 was born

Pazhuvettaraiyars enjoyed atleast 1 to 1.5 centuries of royal life - parantaka, arinjaya, kandarathitha and uttma times but completely lose their ground in rajaraja's times - never to appear again.

Like their entry, their exit is also something that cannot be explained. Pazhuvoor Nakkan panchavan mahadevi may have been his queen - but pazhuvettaraiyars almost vanished at the time of rajaraja.

It should be remembered that rajaraja was the first chola king to wage war against cheras breaking several decades of relationship. He ravages kerala.

Paluvettaraiyars, from the region of Thiruchirapalli, closely associated with the Cholas from the time of Parantaka I when he married a Paluvettaraiyar princess, occupying a high position in the Chola administration. They apparently enjoyed full responsibility and administration of the region of Paluvur. Adigal Paluvettaraiyar Kandan Maravan had been one of the names of those feudal chieftains found in inscriptions.

Aditha Chola was succeeded by his son Paranthaha Chola (A.D.907-953) on the Chola throne. He married Udaiya Pirattiyar Kokkilan Adigal daughter of the Chera king Rama Varma of Kulasekara dynasty. He also married the daughter of another Chera king Paluvettaraiyar Kandan Amuthan named Arumoli Nangai ruling from west Paluvur of the present Tirutchirappalli in Tamil Nadu bordering Kerala. He had a further queen by the name Villavan Mathevi probably the daughter of the Venad King of the Chera country, who refer themselves as “Villavar’.

Dr.Kalaikkovan has written a monumental book on Pazhuvettaraiyars called "Pazhuvur Pudhaiyalgal". He traces the genology of Pazhuvettaraiyars with great accuracy - in this book. This is a reseach work on mela pazhuvur and kil pazhuvur temples. Dr.Nalini and Akila did Phd on these temples - I.

Periya pazhuvettaraiyar based on udaiyargudi inscriptions : we need to refer "Pazhuvoor Pudhaiyalgal" by Dr.R.Kalaikkovan before speculating further. The last few pages of the book give a detailed chronology along with years. In the book, there are names like Kumaran Maravan, Maravan Kandan etc - all taken from names mentioned in epigraphs found at Avani gandarpa easwaram temple at pazhuvoors. The person we are talking about was a mutharaiyar chief as evident from title "sozha ( Chola) mutharaiyan". Pazhuvetaraiyars bore the title "Pazhuvetaraiyan kandan maravan" etc.

The twin temples of Agasthiswara and Chiliswara, situated in Kilaiyur, near Keezhapazhuvoor provides us with the following information: " The powerful chieftains of Kilapaluvur, known as Pazhuvettaraiyars were connected by marriage to the Cholas. Parantaka I was married to a daughter of this family. There is a reason to believe from certain inscriptions that they were originally from Kerala. Sambandar the tamil saint-poet also indicates that the family who worshipped the deity at Paluvur were from Kerala."

The Chera king had the title Villavar Kon indicating Villavar clans founded the ancient Chera Kingdom. The Emblem on the flag of Cheras was Bow and Arrow. The Chera kingdom was founded by the integration of various Villvar tribes such as Vanavar, Puraiyar, Velliar and Pazhuvettaraiyars.

The first Lord Pazluvoor, the elder, - Ambalavan An important and powerful chieftain, - Officer of Taxation, Food Supply and Finance for the Chozla Empire, elder brother of Kalanthaka, Nandini's husband, about 65 years old. The second Lord Pazluvoor, the younger, Kalanthaka - Commander of Tanjore Fort, Captain of the Guard Corps.

Chola = Choza

Aditha Chozha was succeeded by his son Paranthaka Chozha in A.D.907 and the latter ruled up to AD 953). He married Udaiya Pirattiyar Kokkizhaan Adigal daughter of the Chera king Rama Varma of Kulasekara dynasty. He also married the daughter of another Chera king Pazhuvettaraiyar Kandan Amuthan named Arumoli Nangai ruling from west Pazhuvur of the present Tirutchirappalli in Tamil Nadu bordering Kerala. Still another of his queens was Villavan MaDevi probably the daughter of the Venad King of the Chera country, who refer themselves as "Villavar'. Paranthaka Chozha-1 had an elder son by Kokizhaanadigal named Rajadithya, a second son by the name Kandaraditha and a younger son by Arulmoli Nangai named Arinjayan. A native of Nandikkaraiputtur of Kerala Country named Velankumaran was the general of the Chozha Prince Rajadithya. This Prince was unfortunate to die very young, while engaging in a war with Thondainadu.

After the demise of Sundara Chozha, his son Rajaraja 1 was of course the legitimate heir to the Chozha throne, but he whole-heartedly gave the throne away to Uthama Chozha (A.D.970-985) the son of Kandarathitha Chola . Uttama was his uncle. Uthama Chozha had among others, a queen named Panchavanmatheviyar who was the daughter of the Chera king Pazhuvettaraiyar known as Kandan Sundara Chozhan.

Uthama Chozha died in the year A.D.985, and was succeeded by the rightful heir Rajaraja Chozha-1{A.D. 985-1014}. One of Rajaraja's queens was Villavanma Devi the daughter of the king of Venadu of Chera country. He also had a queen known as Panchavanmathevi who was the daughter of Pazhuvettaraiyar Kandan Maravan the Chera king of Pazhuvur on the west of Thiruchirappalli bordering Kerala state. It was to this Vanavanmadevi that the greatest emperor in the Chozha history namely Rajendra Chozha 1 was born.

The great honeymoon relation between the Cheras and the Chozhas was soon in peril, because of the expansive ambitions of Rajaraja and his son.

The Pazuvettaraiyar clan has been around since the time of Vijayala Chola's time. Because of their close ties to the royal family and their achievments, the family had the special rights to fly their own clan flag. There were two brothers of which the current elder Pazhuvettariyar held several important positions in the govt. The only one I understood was that he collected tax and dues from the smaller kingdoms that were under the Chola rule. At this point, we know that the current Chola king goes by the name, Sundara Chola.

Ponniyin Selvan Novel
Pazhuvettarayar is one of the important character in Ponniyin Selvan Novel . From the time of Vijayalayan the Pazhuvettarayar clan had enjoyed a tremendous influence in the Chozha empire. Periya Pazhuvettarayar was Sundara Chozhar's chancellor and Chinna Pazhuvettarayar, the Commandant of the Thanjavur fort. Sundara Chozhar trusted them implicitly and wished never to do anything against their wishes.

Ponniyin Selvan" is a fictional saga of epic proportions with a historical background. The Chola king Sundara Chozha is on his death bed and has announced his eldest son Aditya Karikalan as the crown prince. The people of course love the second prince Arul Mozhi Varman and many want him to become the next king.

There's also Nandini, the bewitiching beauty, with a mysterious past who wants to take revenge on Sundara Chozha's clan including the two princes and their sister princess Kundavai.

In any story, there is a hero and a heroine. In some stories one of them may be a negative character. Pazhuvoor Illaiya Rani Nandhini is one such character in Ponniyin Selvan. She occupies most part of the story, she is the most beautiful woman in the story, she is talented yet she is the Bad Girl. Now Vandhiyathevan is trapped in her deceitful plot.

The bewitching Nandhini was the wife of Chola chief general Periya Pazhuvettarayar (who was aligned with Madhuranthakar) and unknown to her husband is involved with a group of Pandya conspirators who are plotting to destroy the Chola family.

The Pazhuvettarayars and a number of Chozha princes hated Aditha Karikalan, because of his boorish manner and hasty temper. Karikalan's sister Kundavai Piratti and brother Arulmozhi Varman, had endeared themselves totally to the people of the Chozha country.

Therefore the princes were jealous of them also. Due to these reasons the princes wanted to crown Maduranthaka Thevan as per the law of succession. They resolved to do so, in a secret conclave, which they held in the palace of Kadambur Sambuvaraiyar located in the north bank of the Kollidam. It so happened that the proceedings of the secret conclave came to the notice of the Vana warrior, Vandiyathevan.

As a child Nandini grew up in the house of a temple priest in Pazhayarai and drew Aditha Karikalan's attention. Kundavai however was jealous of her beauty. Even as a child Nandini was sent to the Pandya country as ordered by Sembiyanmadevi. In the final battle with the Pandyas, Aditha Karikalan went in search of Veerapandyan and found him in Nandini's small hut built on the bank of the Vaigai. Nandini pleaded with him to spare Veerapandyan. Unheeding, Karikalan beheaded Veerapandyan.

Later Nandini married the old Periya Pazhuvettarayar. The conspirators Ravidasan, Revadasan, Soman Sambhavan and Kiramavithan, the erstwhile bodyguards of Veerapandyan had sworn to exterminate the Sundara Chozhar clan to a avenge Veerapandyan's death. Nandini helped them secretly.

The novel begins when Aditya Karikalan sends the warrior Vandiya Thevan to Kundavai with a message....... and from then on it is an absorbing ride full of action, drama and palace intrigue. Now, the complete novel is available in English in 5 volumes (six actually since Part V is in two parts). Check out the collection containing all the 6 books.

South Indian Inscriptions - volume XIX - inscriptions of Parakesari Varman

No. 332 : (A.R. No. 165 of 1929): On the west wall of he same shrine - This states that Ambalavan Paluvur-Nakkan alias Vikramasola-Marayan of Kuvalalam (Kolar) the Perundaram of Uttama-Choladeva built of stone the Srivimana of the temple of Vijayamangalatu-Deva at Periya Sri-Vanavanmadevi-chaturvedimangalam.

No. 333 :(A.R. No. 166 of 1929) : On the same wall - This records a gift of 96 sheep for burning a perpetual lamp with an ulakku of ghee everyday in the temple, by Aparayitan Seyyavaymani wife of Ambalavan Paluvur-Nakkan who built this stone temple. This is an inscription of Uttama-Chola.

South Indian Inscriptions - Volume XIII -Chola Inscription
12. A dynasty of chiefs known as the Paluvettaraiyar figures largely in the inscriptions copied at Kila-Paaluvur and Mela-Paluvur in the Tiruchchirappalli District. They seem to have held positions of power and influence under the Cholas from the time of Parantaka I and to have been related to the royal family by marriage. We find it mentioned in A.R. No. 231 of 1926 dated in the 12th year of Parantaka, that Paluvettaraiyar Kandan Amudanar fought, on behalf of his Chola overlord, a victorious battle at Vellur against the forces of the Pandya king and his Ceylonese ally, in which the Pandya lost his life. To commemorate this success the Commander Nakkan Sattan of Paradur made a gift of a perpetual lamp to the temple of Tiruvalandurai-Mahadeva at Siru-Paluvur.

It is perhaps this Amudanar who is referred to in the Anbil Plates of Sundara Chola as a Kerala prince whose daughter was married to Parantaka I and bore him prince Arinjaya (Ep. Ind. Vol. XV, p. 50). By 'Kerala prince' should be meant a relation of the Chera king, since we know that the Chera contemporary of Parantaka I was Vijayaraghavadeva (A.R. No. 169 of 1912), the probable successor of Sthanu-Ravi the friend and ally of Aditya I (S.I.I., Vol. III, No. 89). He must have taken service under the Chola like the Kerala general Vellankumaran under prince Rajaditya (A.R. No. 739 of 1905), and his help of Parantaka might have been situably recognized by the king by the grant of chiefship over a large tract of land. Tappildarma Pallavaraiyan to whom we were introduced on P. IV as the perundaram of Arinjaya calls himself a Paluvettaraiyan.

A descendant of Kandan Amudanar – probably his son – was Paluvettaraiyar Maravan Kandanar who finds prominent mention in the records of Sundara-Chola and his successor Uttama-Chola. He is represented in this volume by five inscriptions dated between the 10th and 13th years of the reign of the former. Nos. 208, 215 and 344 state that with the permission of this chief, the Nagarattar, the Todapatti-Chettigal and the authorities of the two temples at Paluvur had it engraved on stone that he manrupadu takes payable by them were to be on the same lines as at Nandipuram. It is of interest to note here that the rules obtaining at Nandipuram were regarded as model for some other villages also. An instance of this is to be found in C.P. No. 10 of 1913-14 referred to in para. 10 above, wherein Malavaraiyan Sundarasolan, the same as Kolli-Malavan Orriyuran is stated to have ordered the adoption of the rate prevailing at Nandipuram in collecting the taxes on house-sites, etc., in his region. No. 236 registers an assignment of 24 veli of land at Pasungulam on permanent lease to a private individual with certain obligations to the temple, under the orders of the same Paluvettaraiyar Maravan Kandanar, thus reflecting the chief's high estate.

17. The chiefs of the Paluvettaraiyar family who figured in the inscriptions of Sundara-Chola are mentioned in the records of this reign also, wherein they are referred to in terms of respect implying the high position they were still holding. Nos. 98 and 171, dated in the 4th and 7th years of the king and No. 298 of the 22nd year mention respectively Paluvettaraiyar Kandan Maravan and Paluvettaraiyar Kumaran Maravan. It is not clear whether the two names refer to one and the same person, or to father and son, which seems more probable. From No. 98 we learn that Kandan Maravan had founded the temple of Tiruttottam-Udaiyar at Mannupperumpaluvur in Kunrakkurram, and that he gave all the right of worship therein to a resident of Tiruchchiruvalandai on the representation of the supervisor of the temple, while he was staying at Senapuram in Maladu. No. 298 says that under orders of Kumaran Maravan a certain Vadugan Madhavan of Poygaikkuruvidam reclaimed a portion of devadana land at Uragankudi and gave it to the temple of Avanigandharva-Isvaragarattu-Mahadeva.

Still another member of the Paluvettaraiyar family besides Kumaran Maravan mentioned above, if not identical with him, was Palavettaraiyar Kumaran Kandan figuring in No. 235. By a slight mistinterpretation in the text of this record the chief has been taken to be son of Pagaividai-isvarattu-Devanar, whereas the latter's son was correctly Nakkan Pudi, who under orders of Kumaran Kandan brought some fallow lands at Uragankudi under cultivation and presented them to the temple for the maintenance of two lamps. Two daughters of this Devanar of Paluvur are also known one of them being Nakkan Akkaranangai who was married to a Chera prince (No. 153) and the other, Nakkan Panchavanmadevi, a queen of Rajaraja I (A.R. No. 385 of 1924)

Pazhuvoor (Paluvur / Pazluvoor)
Pazhuvoor is a small developing village near Samayapuram in the Trichy Chennai Highways. There is also a place called Pazhuvoor in the Ariyalur District of Tamilnadu. We can find that Karthikeya or Skanda, one of the sub-dieties or Parivbara Devatas, adorning the walls of early Chola period temples at Pazhuvoor on the banks of the river tamiraparani.

Melapazhuvur (near KeezhaPazhuvur) where Pazhuvettaraiyar (of Ponniyin selvan fame) belongs to: The Shiva temple is big and in ruins. At Mel Pazhuvur, the AvaniGandharpa Easwaram (mentioned by Gokul)- built by the great Pazhuvettaraiyars at the height of their powers.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
5th November 2009
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

go TOP


59. ILLANGO ADI – THE AUTHOR OF CILAPPATHIKARAM

On Tue, 26/3/13, araya samajam ( arayasamajam@gmail.com ) wrote:

Ilango Adi-The author of Chilappathikaram.

Everybody knows that the famous ancient epic “Chilappathikaram” was written by Ilango Adi, brother of the king Chenkuttuva whose capital was Chenkintoor alias Chengannur of Chera kingdom. Ilango Adi was one among the Muthuraja communities because; the word” Adi “was the sub title of king Mutharayars.

The following reference about the temple Vijayala Choleeswaram proves that the Chera kings were Muthurajas.

The temple Vijayala Choleeswaram was built by a Mutharayar king” Ilango Adi Arayan/Ilango Adi Mutharayar alias Chathambuthi. This is inferred from an inscription under one of the Dwara- Palakas.

“The inscription says that the temple was originally built by one sembudi also called Ilango Adi Arayan, and that is suffered damage by heavy rains and the same was repaired and rebuilt by one Mallan-Viduman/ Mallan- Vithuman Mutharaya king also called Tennavan Tamil Adi Arayan in 886 AD.”

More over The king Chenkuttuva had been admired as “Pani Thurai Parathava” by Paranar in his book “Pathittu Pathu”. Pani Thurai Parathava means that “The fisherman of cold sea port”. Parathavar was the ancestors of Pandya kings and they were closely related with the emperors of Chera, Chola Dynasties and they had also matrimonial alliance too.

During the reign of Chenkuttuva, (sangham period) the caste system had been existed. Hence The Chilappathikaram would not have been written by Ilango Adi if Kannaki was not the same clan. It clearly indicates that the ancient kings of Chera-Chola-Pandya Kingdoms were from Muthuraja/ Mudiraja /Mutharayar communities.

M.B.Shivakumar.
arayasamajam@gmail.com

go TOP


HOME
Our Caste Names & Subcastes : Mudiraj Muthuraj mudhiraj Mudiraja mudhiraja Muthuraja mudduraja muddhuraja mudduraju muddhuraju Mutharacha Mutharasu Mutharasi Mutrasi Mutharayar Mutharaiyar bunt bant bantulu bantlu Aryar Arayar Araiyar Aryan Arayan Araiyan valavan valayar valaiyar Ambalakkarar gounder koli koliyan kolian raju rajulu Bedar Ramoshi Valmiki Nayaka Tenugu Tenugolu Tenugollu Tenigolu Tenigollu