MUDIRAJ RELATED KINGDOMS


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  • Western Ganga + Haleri (Kodagu) + Kakatiya + Vijayanagar + Chowta & Chowda + Alupa + Chalukya + Keladi Nayaka + Chitradurga Nayaka + Gond Kingdoms + Kalabhra + Virata Kingdom + Mutharayar Kingdom +


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    01. WESTERN GANGA DYNASTY:

    The Ganga Muttarasa regime seems set started with Shivamara and attained political importance with Sripurusha, the grandson of Shivamara and then declined with Shivamara, the son of Sripurusha. Rachamalla was another Ganga Muttarasa who ruled ganga country after Shivamara.

    Advantage had been taken of the confusion into which South India was plunged on the fall of he Badami Empire by a prince of Ganga race by name Sivamara (Muttarasa). He was the hereditary ruler of what was known as the "Kongal Nad Eight Thousand". There are records in Mysore which may be assigned to him, one of which mentions him solely by name, without any regal title of any kind. But uses a technical expression which stamps him as holding a rank and authority considerably greater that those of any more local Governor, and others which speak of him as the "Konguni King", a term applied to all his successors. His date has been tentatively fixed as 755-765 A.D.

    He was succeded by his son(or grandson) Sripurusha Muttarasa.No His title at first was the same as his father's but there is evidence on his inscriptions that he gradually felt his way to independence. He is known later by the title "Maharajadhiraja" and "Paramesvara". The territory he ruled over coincided more or less with the south eastern portion of what is now Mysore State; it was technically known as the "Gangavdi 96,000" i.e., a province of 96,000 villages; his capital was Talakad, a sand buried city on the banks of the Kaveri near Kollegal. His reign was a long one of at least 42years, adn his date may be tentatively fixed as 764-805 A.D.

    Sripurusha was succeeded by his son Shivamara Muttarasa.

    Western Ganga Kings ruled parts of Ryalaseema regions :
    The Western Ganga kings were the ancestors to the people of Mudiraj warrior community. The Ganga kings Sripuriusha and his son Shivamara were known as Muttarasas through some of their inscriptions. The Ganga kings established their kingdom in Deccan India that spread across Tamilnadu, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. They were also matrimonially related to Pallavas who ruled Tamil country. These kings used olden South Indian script in their insciptions which seems to be the common ancestor language for both Telugu and Kannada scripts of today.

    Ganga copper plate from Penugonda, Andhrapradesh :
    Three copper-plates purchased from M.R.Ry. Adembhatta, a purohit of Penukonda, Anantapur district. They are strung on a ring, the ends of which are secured by a seal bearing in relief on the countersunk surface a standing elephant facing proper left. The inscription is in Sanskrit, the script employed being old Telugu- Kannada. The Western Ganga King Madhava Mahadhiraja II, alias Simhavarman, gave sixty-five paddy fields, sowable with twenty five khandukas of paddy, below the big tank of Paruvi in Paruvi Vishaya, to a Brahman named Kumarasarma of the vatsa gotra. Paruvi is identified with the village of Parigi in Anantapur district. The grant was made on the full-moon day in the month of Chaitra (lunar). This Madhava Mahadhiraja is stated to have been installed on the throne, by the Pallava King Skandavarma Maharaja and Aryavarman, father of Madhava, was installed on the throne, by Simhavarma Maharaja, lord of the Pallava family. These plates are very important as there is mention of two contemporaneous Pallava Kings. Skandavarman appears to have been the son of Simhavarman and is supposed to have ruled during latter part of the 5th Century AD. The plates must therefore have been issued at the beginning of the 6th Century AD.

    The areas ruled by Western ganga kings in Karnataka and Tamilnadu also can be seen to be spread with Telugu speaking people. This could be due to the fact that Western Ganga Kings started establishing their ruling political power from the then Telugu speaking Areas of present Bellary districts of Karnataka.

    A 10th century Pallava inscription calls Gangas as descendents of two princess from Ayodhya who founded a kingdom in Cuddapah with Perur as their capital before the 4th century later moving their capital to Kolar and finally in 466 to Talakad in present day Karnataka. The area they controlled was called Gangavadi and primarily included the present day districts of Mysore, Chamrajanagar, Tumkur, Kolar, Mandya and Bangalore. At times they also controlled small areas in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. In their early years they were feudatory to Pallavas and directly ruled Kolar and the Kongu Nadu on their behalf and at other times independently. Hence the region was also known as Nollambavadi. They continued to rule until the 10th century as feudatories of Rashtrakuta and Chalukyas. The Western Gangas ruled in Mysore state from c. AD 250 to 1004. They encouraged scholarly work, built some remarkable temples, and encouraged cross-peninsular trade. The Eastern Gangas ruled Kalinga from 1028 to 1434 – 35. They were great patrons of religion and the arts; the temples of the Ganga period rank among the masterpieces of Hindu architecture. Both dynasties interacted with the Calukya and Cola dynasties.

    The Western Gangas ruled as a sovereign power from the middle of fourth century to middle of sixth century, initially from Kolar, later moving their capital to Talakad on the banks of the Kaveri River in modern Mysore district. Though territorially a small kingdom, the Western Ganga contribution to polity, culture and literature of the modern south Karnataka region is considered noteworthy. The Western Ganga Dynasty (350 – 1000 CE) was an important ruling dynasty of ancient Karnataka in India. The Western Ganga Dynasty of Talkad ruled a large part of ancient Karnataka alongside the Kadambas in India, during 350-550 CE. They continued to rule until the 10th century as feudatories of the Rashtrakutas and Chalukyas. They are known as Western Gangas to distinguish them from the Eastern Gangas who in later centuries ruled over modern Orissa.

    After the rise of the imperial Chalukyas of Badami, the Gangas accepted Chalukya overlordship and fought for the cause of their overlords against the Pallavas of Kanchi. The Chalukyas were replaced by the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta in 753 CE as the dominant power in the Deccan. After a century of struggle for autonomy, the Western Gangas finally accepted Rashtrakuta overlordship and successfully fought along side them against their foes, the Chola Dynasty of Tanjavur. The defeat of the Western Gangas by Cholas around 1000 resulted in the end of the Ganga influence over the region.

    Though territorially a small kingdom, the Western Ganga contribution to polity, culture and literature of the modern south Karnataka region is considered important. The Western Ganga kings showed benevolent tolerance to all faiths but are most famous for their patronage towards Jainism resulting in the construction of monuments in places such as Shravanabelagola and Kambadahalli. The kings of this dynasty encouraged the fine arts due to which literature in Kannada and Sanskrit flourished. 9th century Kannada literature refer to the Ganga King Durvinita of 6th century as an early writer in Kannada language prose. Many classics were written on various subjects ranging from religion to elephant management.

    Talakkad was the capital city of Western Ganga Kings :
    The name Talakad conjures up images of sand dunes and medieval temples buried under the sand. There is an enduring legend about Talakad, near Mysore, known to historians as the headquarters of the Western Ganga dynasty. The earliest reference to Talakad occurs in an inscription of the Western Ganga monarch, Durvinita Kongini, who ruled in the 6th Century A.D. Later, the records of the Chola king Aditya I talk about Talakad being under Chola suzerainty. Emperor Rajaraja continued to rule over this area. In 1116 A.D., the Hoysala King, Vishnuvardhana defeated the Cholas and wrested control of the area. The sway of the later-day Gangas extended over parts of the present-day Tamil Nadu. The inscriptions in the Jain cave at Vallimalai near Vellore speak of the Ganga kings.

    The legend which surrounds this place is of much later origin. In 1610, Tirumala II of Srirangapattana, a vassal of Vijayanagara empire, was overpowered by Raja Wodeyar of Mysore. Tirumala and his wife Alamelamma retreated to Malingi, a village near Talakad, on the banks of the Cauvery. She took with her the jewels she used to lend to the temple priest twice a week, to adorn the goddess in that temple. Wodeyar thought that the jewels belonged to the temple and ordered its confiscation. Alamelamma would rather die than part with the jewels. She collected the precious ornaments and drowned herself in Cauvery, but not before uttering three curses: "Let Talakad become sand. Let Malingi become a whirlpool. Let the Mysore king fail to beget heirs."

    Around Talakad, there are sand dunes covering an area of nearly ten square kilometres. The river at Malingi is deep and treacherous and the Mysore kings have not had male heirs for the past many generations.

    Konganivarman was the first Western Ganga Ruler :
    The first ruler of the Western Ganga, Konganivarman, carved out a kingdom by conquest, but his successors, Madhava I and Harivarman, expanded their influence by marital and military alliances with the Pallavas, Calukyas, and Kadambas. By the end of the 8th century a dynastic dispute weakened the Gangas, but Butuga II (c. 937–960) obtained extensive territories between the Tungabhadra and the Krishna rivers, ruling from Talakad (the capital) to Vatapi. Repeated Cola invasions cut the contact between Gangavadi and the imperial capital, and Talakad fell into the hands of the Cola ruler Visnuvardhana in about 1004. Most of the Western Gangas were Jainas, but some patronized Brahmanical Hinduism. They encouraged scholarly work in Kannada (Kanarese), built some remarkable temples, and encouraged deforestation, irrigation, and cross-peninsular trade.

    Western Ganga Kings (350-999)

    Western Ganga kings ruled Anantapur District and parts of Rayalaseema region :
    Three copper-plates belonging to Western Ganga kings of 6th century AD are identified Penukonda, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh. They are strung on a ring, the ends of which are secured by a seal bearing in relief on the countersunk surface a standing elephant facing proper left. The inscription is in Sanskrit, the script employed being old Telugu- Kannada.

    The Western Ganga King Madhava Mahadhiraja II, alias Simhavarman, gave sixty-five paddy fields, sowable with twenty five khandukas of paddy, below the big tank of Paruvi in Paruvi Vishaya, to a Brahman named Kumarasarma of the vatsa gotra. Paruvi is identified with the village of Parigi in Anantapur district.

    The grant was made on the full-moon day in the month of Chaitra (lunar). No further deailts regarding the date are given. This Madhava Mahadhiraja is stated to have been installed on the throne, by the Pallava King Skandavarma Maharaja and Aryavarman, father of Madhava, was installed on the throne, by Simhavarma Maharaja, lord of the Pallava family. These plates are very important as there is mention of two contemporaneous Pallava Kings. Skandavarman appears to have been the son of Simhavarman and is supposed to have ruled during latter part of the 5th Century AD. The plates must therefore have been issued at the beginning of the 6th Century AD.

    Western Ganga kings patronised Jainism as their state religion. Kundakundacharya, the earliest Jain exponent lived on a hill near Konakondla in modern day Anantapur. Kundakundacharya was responsible for popularising Jainism all over the sub-continent. Simhanandin, another Jain exponent who lived in modern day Cuddapah secured the patronage of the Western Ganga kings in 350 A.D. The first Telugu poets Ponna, Pampa and Rana were Jains. The Jain principle of social equality was borrowed by the veera shaivas.

    Western Ganga kings ruled Bangalore and surrounding districts
    Historically, the earliest dynasty which established its sway over Bangalore Rural district is that of the Gangas. In about the fourth century A.D., the Gangas established themselves at Kolar and the territory comprised in Bangalore Rural district formed part of Gangavadi 96,000 and Honganur of Channapatna Taluk was the chief town of a sub-division, called Chikka Gangavadi, which occupied the Shimsha valley. During the Seventh century, Mankund was a place of great importance and was the second royal residence of Ganga Bhuvikrama(654-79) and also of Shivamara(679-726). In the eight century Shri Purusha made Manyapura ( Manne of Nelamangala Taluk) his royal residence and later it was a major center under the Rashtrakutas.

    Western Ganga kings ruled Talakkad and Mysore region :
    The Western Gangas ruled in Mysore state (Gangavadi) from about AD 250 to about 1004. Bangalore was also under the rules of Ganga kings as per the stone inscription of Gangas of 9th Centiry AD.

    Talakad is 45 km from Mysore and 130 km from Bangalore. Talakkad was patronized by the Western Gangas in the first millennium CE. Talakad has seen the devout expressions in stone of the Gangas, the Cholas, the Hoysalas, the Vijayanagar kings and the Wodeyars of Mysore.

    Western Ganga kings ruled Dharmapuri and parts of Salem district :
    The Ganga Pallavas had their sway over Tagadur (present Dharmapuri) and the Western parts of the Salem District. The Western Gangas are also mentioned as having ruled Baramahal during the end of the 8th century.

    Dharmapuri district constitutes the northern portion of the former composite district of Salem and was known as North Salem. The district is situated in the interior of the southern Peninsula bounded on the east by the North Arcot and South Arcot districts, on the west by Bangalore and Mysore districts of Karnataka State, on the north by Karnataka State and the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh and on the south by Salem district. The district headquarters is located at Dharmapuri.

    The people hailing from this district speak different languages. The Palacode area consisting of Hosur and North Western portion of Krishnagiri taluk is a multilingual area where Kanarese, Telugu, Tamil and Hindustani speaking people are found. The predominant communities living in these areas are the Kapus, Lingayats, Okkaligas, Balija Chetties, Oddars, and Scheduled Castes of Holeyas and Madigas. The weavers in this area mostly belong to Sali Chetties. The Baramahal area comparing the eastern parts of Krishnagiri taluk, Hosur and Dharmapuri taluks has Telugu speaking communities and Tamil speaking communities who constitute the majority. The predominant communities living here are the Vanniars, Kongu Vellalas, Gollas, Telugu Chettiars, Okkaligas and Senaikudyars. The 'Malayali' tribal people are found in the Chitheri hill areas. The Adi-Dravidas and Arunthathiars form, the bulk of the Scheduled Castes and they are scattered throughout the district. Main languages spoken in the district are Tamil, Kannada, Telugu and Urdu.

    Western gangas were matrimonially aligned with other Sounth Indian ruling kingdoms :
    The first ruler of the Western Ganga, Konganivarman, carved out a kingdom by conquest, but his successors, Madhava I and Harivarman, expanded their influence by marital and military alliances with the Pallavas, Pandyas, Calukyas, and Kadambas.

    Western Ganga kingdom existed by the side of Kadamba kingdom in Karnataka. The Kadambas were contemporaries of the Western Ganga Dynasty of Talakad and together they formed the earliest native kingdoms to rule the land with absolute autonomy. The second daughter of Kadamba king Kakustha was married to Ganga king Madhava.

    The Chalukya dynasty was established by Pulakesi I in 550. The Chalukyas maintained close family and marital relationship with the Alupas of South Canara and the Gangas of Talakad. Politically, the Gangas were feudatories and close allies who also shared matrimonial relations with the Chalukyas.

    A contest with the Pandyas of Madurai over control of Kongu region ended in a Ganga defeat, but a matrimony between a Ganga princess and Rajasimha Pandya's son brought peace helping the Gangas retain control over the contested region.

    A chance find of a bronze group of Vrshavahana, Devi and a bull, with a prabha, by playful School Children at the Village Velanjeri near Thiruttani, on 6-10-1977 led to the discovery of two important Copper Plate grants, one issued by the Pallava ruler Aparajita and another by Parantaka Chola I. That Kampavarman and Nrpatunga were brothers was recognised by scholars earlier. After giving the mythical genealogy of the Pallavas, the grant begins with Kampavarman. He seized the throne from Pallava Nrpatunga with glory. A certain Vijaya of matchless virtues and born of the Ganga family, was his queen. Aparajita was their son. Aparajita destroyed the elepants of the Bana ruler, captured Karanai,the Pandya city, and won a great battle against the Chola at Chirrarrur. The present Velanjeri copper plate mentions that Aparajita was the son of Pallava ruler Kampavarman through a Ganga Princess whose name is given as Vijaya. It specifically mentions Aparajita as the son of Kampavarman, through Vijaya, a Ganga princess. It further shows that Kampa and Aparajita had the able support of the Ganga chieftains. Further, this plate states that Kampavarman captured the Pallava throne forcibly from Nrpatunga. This shows that Varaguna, Aditya, Bana and Muttarasa were on the side of Nrpatunga while Aparajita and Kampa, were aided by the Ganga ruler Prithivipati on the other. It was mentioned earlier that Aparajita's mother was a Ganga princess. That Aparajita was aided in the Sripurambiyam battle by Ganga Prithivipati is well known Prithvipati obtained victory for his over lord Aparajita, but lost his life in that battle. The Ganga ruler Prithvipati was the sole supporter of Aparajita. Obviously the battle fought at sripurambiyam should have been a terrible one. Apparajita had a joint rule with his father Kampavarman throughout his life. Aparajita fought bravely against formidable combination of enemies. The Sripurambiyam battle though gave a great victory to Aparajita, removed his powerful friend Prithvipathi from the scene and this ultimately led to his defeat and death around 890 A.D.

    Amoghavarsha's daughter married a Ganga prince in about 860. Due to the resilience of the Gangas, Rastrakuta king Amoghavarsha I was forced to follow a conciliatory policy. He married his daughter, Chandrabbalabbe, to the Ganga king Buthuga -I and another daughter, Revakanimmadi, to the Ganga prince Ereganga. Amoghavarsha I who succeeded Govinda-III made Manyakheta his capital and ruled a large empire and made peace with the Gangas by giving them his two daughters in marriage, and then defeated the invading Eastern Chalukyas at Vingavalli and assumed the title Viranarayana. His rule was not as militant as that of Govinda III as he preferred to maintain friendly relations with his neighbours, the Gangas, the Eastern Chalukyas and the Pallavas with whom he also cultivated marital ties. The Gangas thereafter became staunch allies of the Rashtrakutas, a position they maintained till the end of the Rashtrakuta dynasty of Manyakheta. Butuga II, of the Western Gangas of Talakad had married sister of Rastrakuta king Krishna-III.

    Amoghavarsha-III (934 - 939 ) CE, (the younger brother of Indra-III) also identified as Baddiga and who married a Kalchuri princess Kundakadevi, gave his daughter to a Western Ganga king Bhutuga-II in marriage along with large territory as dowry. Rastrakuta king Krishna-III, who married a Chedi princess, gave his daughter Bijjabbe to a Western Ganga prince in marriage.

    Such marital ties established strong diplomatic ties and confirmed independent status for long.

    Temples built by Ganga Kings :
    The Western Ganga style of architecture was influenced by the Pallava and Badami Chalukya architectural features, in addition to with indigenous Jain features. The Gangas build many Hindu temples with impressive Dravidian gopuras containing stucco figures from the Hindu pantheon, decorated pierced screen windows which are featured in the mantapa (hall) along with saptamatrika carvings (seven heavenly mothers). Some well known examples are the Kapileswara temple at Manne, Kolaramma temple at Kolar and the Kallesvara temple at Aralaguppe. At Talakad they built the Maralesvara temple, the Arakesvara temple and the Patalesvara temple. Unlike the Jain temples where floral frieze decoration is common, Hindu temples were distinguished by friezes (slab of stone with decorative sculptures) illustrating episodes from the epics and puranas.

    Shravanabelagola was an important part of Western Ganga Kingdom :
    The monolith of Gomateshwara commissioned by Chavundaraya is considered the high point of the Ganga sculptural contribution in ancient Karnataka. Carved from fine-grained white granite, the image stands on a lotus. It is the largest monolithic statue in the world.

    Shravanabelagola is located 51 km south east of Hassan in Karnataka at an Altitude of about 3350 feet above sea level. It is well connected to Mysore and Bangalore. It is a little township tucked away between Indragiri and Chandragiri hills. It was an important Jain piligrim center patronised by Western Ganga kings.

    The Akandabagilu or the massive door, carved out of a single rock with an elaborately carved Gajalakshmi in her typical posture flanked by two elephants, is meritorious work of Jain craftsmanship. This also said to have been under the guidance and inspiration of Chaundaraya, the illustrious minister who served under the successive rulers of the Gangas namely Marasimha II, Rachamalla IV and Rachamalla V.

    One of the largest temples in the area is the Chaundarya Basadi dedicated to Neminatha, the 22nd Tirthankara depicted under a seven hooded canopy and flanked by male chauri bearers. This temple is unique in its style. It belongs to the era of the western Gangas and is evolved out of the Chalukyan styles at Badami and Aihole. One the same hill can be seen the Chandraprabha Basadi dedicated to the 8th tirthankara by the same name. It is one of the oldest basadis on the hill and can be assigned to the early 9th century under the reign of Sivamara, a Ganga king.

    The Ganga cronicle states that the great Ranganatha temple was built in the days of later Ganga rulers. There are records, however, of the existence of Shive and Vishnu temples, endowed by individual sovereigns of ganga dynasty. In the days of Vishnu Vardhana a temple manager of Shiva temple at Maddur ( Alias Shivapura ) claimed a plot of land on the strength of a copper plate grant of Shivamara -II. There are similar references to Vishnu temples. This Shivamara's father. Sri Purusha Muttarasa, is referred to as a worshipper at the feet of Narayana.

    Talakkad - A Ganga town of Temples :
    Talakkad was patronized by the Western Gangas in the first millennium CE. Talakkad is a town known for its sand dunes, located near Mysore in Karnataka. A historic site, Talakkad once had over 30 temples. It stands at a sharp bend of the Kaveri river eastwards from a southerly course. Sand dunes are formed here persistently, extending over a mile, burying a large number of monuments. Talakkad houses the imposing temple to Vaidyeshwara - Shiva.

    Religion of Ganga Kings :
    The Western Gangas gave patronage to all the major religious faiths of the time; Jainism and the Hindu sects Shaivism, Vedic Brahminism and Vaishnavism. However scholars have argued that not all Gangas kings may have given equal priority to all the faiths. Some historians believe the Gangas were ardent Jains, though inscriptional evidence is not conclusive since they mention kalamukhas (staunch Shaiva ascetics), pasupatas and lokayatas (followers of Pasupatha doctrine) who flourished in Gangavadi, indicating Shaivism was also popular. King Madhava and Harivarman were devoted of cows and brahmins and King Vishnugopa was a devout Vaishnava.

    Madhava III's and Avinita's inscriptions describe lavish endowments to Jain orders and temples. There is also inscriptional evidence King Durvinita performed Vedic sacrifices prompting historians to claim he was a Hindu and was either a Vaishnavite or a Shaivite. However, Western Ganga records from the 8th century reveal a strong Jain influence evidenced by the many basadis they built and due to popularity of saints such as Pushpdanta, Pujyapada, Vajranandi, Srivaradhadeva, Ajitasena.

    Inscriptions having references to Western Gangas :
    Brahmadesam in the North Arcot District is mentioned in two inscriptions (Chola inscription Nos. 292 and 322) under the name Rajamalla-chaturvedimangalam, evidently after one of the Western Ganga kings named Rachamalla who must have been ruling in these parts, as evidenced by his inscription No. 6 of 1896 at Vallimalai. A Western Ganga subordinate of Aditya (Chola) in the same district was Gangamarttanda alias Sembiyan Prithivi -Gangaraiyar, son of Mahadeva thechief of Pangala-nadu who figures as the donor of an ornament to the god at Tiruppalanam in the Tanjore District (Chola inscription No. 319). He has been surmised to be a brother of Alivin Kallarasi alias Sembiyan Bhuvani (or Prithivi) -Gangaraiyar also a son of Mahadeva figuring in the reign of Parantaka I (M.E.R. 1931, II, 8). Another chief who is already well-known to us as the recipient of certain honours at the hands of Aditya and his Chera ally Sthanu-Ravi was Vikki-Annan whose wife Kadambamadevi is stated to have made a gift of a hundred sheep for burning a lamp in the temple at Tillaisthanam ( Chola Inscription No. 337).

    INSCRIPTIONS OF RAJAKESARIVARMAN No. 292 - (A.R. No. 237 of 1915.) - Brahmadesam, Cheyyar Taluk, North Arcot District -On the south wall of the central shrine, Chandramaulisvara temple - This records an endowment of a piece of land under the tank Tigaittiral-eri by Tiruppondai-Somasiyar (somayaji), son of Kumaradi-Bhatta-Vajabhejiyar (Vajapeyayaji) of Manarpakkam, a member of the alunganam of Rajamalla-chaturvedimangalam of Tiruvegambapuram in Damar-kottam, for the daily feeding of a Brahman at mid-day in the temple of Sripondai-Perumanadigal. The gift was entrusted to the ganavariya-perumakkal of the temple. This is possibly an inscription of Aditya I. In the M.E.R. 1916, II, 8, the village has been surmised to owe its origin to one of the Western Ganga kings named Rajamalla. No inscriptions of that dynasty have however been found at this place ; but there is one actually of a Rajamalla at Vallimalai in the same district (No. 6 of 1895).

    INSCRIPTIONS OF RAJAKESARIVARMAN No. 297 -(A.R. No. 277 of 1916.) - Tirakkol, Wandiwash Taluk, North Arcot District - ON the west face of the boulder with Jaina images - This inscription is much damaged. It seems to record an endowment, the nature of which is not clear, to a Jaina shrine called Gangasurapperumballi at Raja[kesari]puram by Sri Gangaraiyan. It also mentions another shrine called Maisuttapperumballi in the same place and a pallichchandam land situated in Tiruvidaikkali.

    Westrern Gangas were well literate kings of South India who promoted literature :
    the 4th and 11th centuries. The period of their rule was an important time in the history of South Indian literature, though many of the writings are deemed extinct. Some of the most famous poets of Kannada language graced the courts of the Ganga kings. Kings, court poets and royalty created eminent works in Kannada language and Sanskrit language that spanned such literary forms as prose, poetry, Hindu epics, Jain Tirthankaras (saints) and elephant

    Coins of Western Ganga kings :
    The Gangas of Talakad ruled for over seven centuries from 4th to 11th century AD. Their coinage is rare. A group of gold coins called Gajapati pagodas with caparisoned elephant on the obverse and a floral design on the reverse are attributed to these kings. The attribution is based on the similarity of the caparisoned elephant seen on the coins and the animal depicted on their copper plates and seals.

    The Western Gangas Elephant ( Gajapati ) Pagoda circulated in Lanka is evidenced by a hoard of 179 discovered in 1922 at Allaippiddi in the Jaffna district. The Gajapati pagodas and similar fanam coin were probably introduced about 1080 when Gangavadi emerged from Chola domination. The Gajapati was rare at the time of Thunberg's visit to Lanka in 1777. The Elephant was the crest of the dynasty called Gangas. Western Gangas with capital Talkad in 450 AD is modern Karnataka (Mysore). Friedberg is in error to list these Pagodas as from Orissa since that is eastern Ganga not those who minted these pagodas.

    The Western Gangas Elephant ( Gajapati ) Fanam may have circulated in Lanka alongside the similar pagoda coin. Govind Prabhu of India who has researched these coins, comments that these coins are scarce and that this is a nice genuine specimen which looking at this particular elephant style could be dated back to 12th century AD. Pankaj Tandon felt the reverse looked more like a Rooster. It is of the same weight as the Hoysalas gold Fanam coin which is however thinner and larger (8mm) and was marketed in US with this title.

    Origin of Gangas and Ganga kings
    The historians of Orissa have shown how (the origin of India's illustrious Ganga dynasty) is shrouded in mystery. Infact, no documentary historical evidence has yet been available to establish their origin. These historians have accepted the inscriptions engraved at different times by the Ganga dynasties, chiefly of Kalinganagar and Mysore, as the basis of their research. Besides these royal dynasties, a community called Gangavamsa has spread all over India and the historians are completely silent about it. For all these reasons, we have to trace out the common men of the Ganga dynasty or Ganga community spread all over India and try to know their ancestry in order to unravel the mystery surrounding the origin of the Ganga dynasty. It can be asserted that the historical Ganga dynasty has evolved from among the common men of the Ganga dynasty or Ganga community.

    It is known from the inscription of Jainaguru Simhanandi, compiled by B. Lewis Rice that the forefathers of Ganga dynasty coming from Ayodhyapur under the leadership of Vishnugupta had initially settled at Ahichhatra located in the basin of the rivers Ganga and Yamuna. Later on they proceeded to Southern India in quest of new territory. On the way some of them had settled at Kalinga. Being advised by Jainaguru Simhanandi, Vishnugupta along with others came to Karnataka and established a new kingdom.

    According to this inscription the Ganga dynasties of Karnataka and Kalinga had come from Northern India. In the opinion of Dr. N. K. Sahu, both the western and eastern Ganga dynasty belong to one and the same dynasty and they came from North India in 5th century A.D. and established new kingdoms in Kalinga and Karnataka respectively.

    The origin of the Gangas is derived from Iksvaku and trace back to Ayodhyapura. Under Visnugupta the seat of government was moved to Ahichhatra, which, it is hinted, as Vijayapura. With the arrival of Dadiga and Madhava in the South, at Ganga-perur and the establishment of the Gangavadi kingdom in Mysore aided by Simhanandi, we seem to come to historical events.

    Two princes of the Ikshaku family, Dadiga and Madhav, migrated from the north to south India. They came to the town of Perur (in the Cuddapah district in the Andhra State). There they met a Jain teacher whose name was Sinhanandi. He trained them in the art of ruling. At the behest of the teacher Madhav cut asunder a stone pillar which barred the road to the entry of the Goddess of sovereignty." Thereupon Sinhanandi invested the princes with royal authority, and made them rulers of a kingdom.

    The above opinion Dr. H. K. Mahatab has shown that this Ganga community has been divided into several divisions and families with the passage of time. In the Andhavaram copperplate inscription of Indravarman III of Ganga dynasty, the Gangas are described as the descendants of the Tumbura dynasty. Probably, while the Ganga dynasty or Vamsa was proceeding towards South from North India, a smaller branch from among them settled at the foot hills of Vindhyas and was known as the Tumbura race. Mr. Dubey has identified the Tumbura-race with Mashyas. That this word Masya written in English, may be an 'Apabhramsa' (distortion) of the word Mahishya can't be ruled out. In an attempt to identify this Mahisya-race with Kaivarttas (fishermen), the historian Jagabandhu Singh has defined the Mahisya-race. Quoting evidences from the Padma Purana and Brahmavaibarta Purana, he has established that the Mahisyas and the Kaivarttas are virtually the same. In his opinion, the child born of a Kshatriya father and Vaisya mother is called a Kaivartta or Mahisya.

    According to the Bengali historian Sevananda Bharati, the primary abode of the Mahisya-race was located in the northern bank of river Narmada, which originated from the foot hills of the Vindhyas. The present day Ratnavati on the bank of river Narmada is perhaps another name of the ancient city Mahishimati. It was the old capital of the Mahishyas. Therefore, it had the name Mahishimati Nagari (the city of Mahishimati). The Mahishyas had migrated from Ayodhya on the bank of river Saraju and entered the province Midnapur through the eastern part of the Vindhyas.

    From this it appears that these Kaivarttas or Mahisyas had come from the bank of the Saraju and settled at the foot of the Vindhyas in the age of Mahabharata or prior to that. It is probable that the Kaivarttas or Mahisyas, who had settled at the foot hills of the Vindhyas had later on identified themselves as the Tumbura- race described in the Vayu Purana.

    In a book, written in Bengali and edited by Biharilal Kalye, it is mentioned: "The Gangas of Orissa are remarkable among the powerful independent kings ruling over different places of India. The first king of this Ganga dynasty Anantavarma belonged to the Mahisya race."

    Pandit Lalmohan Vidyanidhi in his book Sambandha Nirnaya and Mahima Ch. Mazumdar in Gaude Brahmana have mentioned that the Mahisya-race became very powerful and later on were divided into four parts, namely, Aswapati, Gajapati, Narapati and Chhatrapati. The Gajapatis had established their empire in Orissa.

    It is known from the Vizagpattanam & Korni copperplate inscriptions 16 of Chodaganga Dev that by 5th century A.D., eighty kings of the Ganga dynasty had ruled over Gangabadi of Kolahalpur. Gangabadi, the name mentioned in Vizagpattnam and Komi copperplate inscriptions of Chodaganga Dev is a derivative of Gangaradhi. N.N. Basu, who has translated the inscriptions of the imperial Gangas has mentioned that the first Ganga king Ananta-varman and his descendants, who ruled over Gangabada or Gangabadi were also called Rudhi Ganga. may be mentioned here that the word radhi or rudhi was applied to the Kaivarttas who inhabited the entire east coast region stretching from the mouth of river Ganges to the river Godavari in the South.

    E.Thurston has said, the Jallaries are Telugu Fishermen, Palanquin bearers and cultivators. 'Jallaries' is derived from Jala, a net. Some are fresh water fishermen, while other fish with a cast-net (Visuru Valalu) from the sea shore or on the open sea. They bear the name Ganga Vamsamu, or people of Ganga, in the same way that a division of the Kabbera fishing caste is called Gangimakkalu.

    Thurston has said elsewhere: Gangimakkalu or Gangaputra meaning children or sons of the Ganga, the Goddess of water is the name a subdivision of Kabbera. The allied Gangavamsamu or people of Ganga is a name for Jalaris. 21 The Kabberas are a caste of Canarees fishermen and cultivators. 22 The Keutas worship especially Dasaraja and Gangadevi. Mother Ganga, the water Goddess, is their chief deity and they claim that they are the descendants of Ganga. They think that the famous Ganga kings of Kalinga belonged to the different branches of their race. Kaivarttas belonging to Ganga dynasty and living in the coastal areas call themselves Jajari. They are seen in the entire east coast region starting from Midnapur to Rameswar in the south.

    The Jalaris of Ganga dynasty claim that they had built the famous ports of Peddapatna, Visakhapatna, evalpatna and Vimilipatna. The Golas claim the present day Madaguia or Odabadi as their Original abode. They think that Nrushinghanath or Simhadriraju worshipped on Simhanhchal is their Father (God). Like the Keutas or Kaivarttas they claim that they belong to Ganga dynasty and that mother Ganga or Gangamma is their mother (Goddess).

    The ganga worship and their claim of belonging to ganga dynasty by both golla and jalari fishing communities show the common ancestry and the secret behind common surnames between Mudiraj and Yadavas.

    Webmaster
    Kokolu Anka Rao
    Date : 01/12/2007
    Nagpur, Maharastra, India




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    02. HALERI (KODAGU) DYNASTY:

    The people of Mudiraj in Karnataka are known as Muddaraj or Mudduraj. The Haleri dynasty king Muddaraja ruled Kodagu region for about 54 years from 1633-1687. The Mudduraja Raja built his capital city Mudduraja Keri, which is now known as Madikeri. Muddurajakeri means Mudduraja's town. So the "Muddu Rajakeri' of those years is today's Madikeri and the community people of Muddaraja are today's Muddaraj / Mudiraj.

    The Mutharasu who built Madras, the Mutharayars who built Tanjore (Thanjavuru), TheMuddaraj who built Madikeri and the Kolis who built Mumbai ( Bombay / Bombai ) were all one and the same people and they were the ancestors of Mudiraj / Muthuraj / Muduraj of today.

    Mudiraj => Muduraj => Muturaj
    Mudhiraj => Mudhuraj => Muthuraj
    Mudhiraja => Mudhuraja => Muthuraja

    Kodagu Muddurajas and Keladi Bedar ( Valmiki) Nayakas are one and the same people
    Keladi was a kingdom in the Malnad area of Karnataka. The first king of Keladi was Chowdappa Nayaka who came to the throne in 1500. He was considered a great hero. In about 1645, the able king, Shivappa Nayaka came to the throne. During his reign, many reforms were effected in Keladi. This king became famous as a great ruler because of his far reaching administrative reforms. Shivappa Nayaka and Chennamma were important rulers of this kingdom.

    Chowdappa Nayaka of Keladi kingdom seems to indicate his connection to the people of Tuluva bunts, Balija & Mudiraju. These people are having surnames - Chowda, Chowta & chowti respectively. This gives us a clue that these Bedars / Valmikis could also be representing sections of Mudiraju Bantlu, the suicide squads of Mudiraj community. For more details see (i) Chowta surname in the web page "Surnames", (ii) Chowta dynasty in the web page "kingdoms" and (iii) Rani Abbakka in the web page "Queens" in this MUDIRAJA website.

    Chowda => Chowta = Chowti

    We can further discover one more fact that the Kodagu Muddurajas (Mudiraj) clans were non other than the Bedar Valmiki Nayakas of Keladi kingdom. While these bedars (Kannappa kula) are a subsect of Muthuraja community in Tamilnadu, the same people who are known as valmikis in Andhra & Karnataka are a subsect of Mudiraj in Andhra Pradesh.

    Tamil Muthurajas = Telugu Mudirajas = Kodagu Muddurajas = Keladi Nayakas = Valmikis = Bedars = Ramoshis

    Kodagu Mudduraja (Mudiraj) clans were Keladi Nayakas (Valmikis)
    In the 16th century, in the aftermath of the fall of Vijayanagara Empire, the Keladi Nayaks of Ikkeri consolidated power in Kodagu and established the Paleri (Haleri) dynasty (so called because of their capital in Paleri). Paleri kings, who were Lingayats of Veerashaiva faith, ruled the region for more than 200 years (1580 – 1834). The first ruler of Paleri dynasty was Vira Raja. His grandson Muddu Raja I was a popular ruler and ruled for more than 50years. He moved his headquarters to current day Madikeri in 1681. It was called Muddu Raja Keri and later shortened to Madikeri (anglicized as Mercara). Under the Paleri dynasty Kodagu attained a status as an Independent kingdom.

    MUDDURAJA & MADIKERI :
    Madikeri is the land of the Kodavas. Madikeri town falls in the Kodagu district, and is well connected by road situated at a distance of 124 kms from Mysore and about 250 kms from bangalore. The nearest airport is Mangalore. There is a frequent bus service from Mangalore to Madekeri and other places in Kodagu.

    As one approaches Madikeri, one is greeted by a wide vista of shimmering green fields, trees, and the majestic mountains. Coffee is the cash crop, which is grown here. Most of the coffee crop growers mix their crops with pepper, figs and oranges to make an extra buck. The river Kaveri which feeds the entire agricultutral belt of Karnataka and Tamilnadu orginates here. Talacauvery is the birth place of the sacred river Cauvery. The principal river is the Kaveri River, which rises at Talakaveri on the eastern side of the Western Ghats, and with its tributaries drains the greater part of Kodagu.This could be one of the main reasons cholas and gangas and even kadambas wanted to strengthen their hold on this kodagu region.

    Madikeri (Mercara), the former British headquarters, is Kodagu district's main town and Veerarajpet its ancient capital. Kodagu is a district of Karnataka state in southern India. It is often called by the anglicised name of Coorg. It is bordered by Dakshina Kannada to the northwest, Hassan District to the north, Mysore District to the east, Kannur District of Kerala state to the southwest and Wayanad district of Kerala to the south. The district headquarters is Madikeri. Kodagu lies on the eastern slope of the Western Ghats. It is a mountainous district, presenting throughout a series of wooded hills and deep valleys; the lowest elevations are 900 m above sea-level.

    In Madikeri, the most prominent landmark is the fort and the palace inside it, both built by Mudduraja of the Haleri dynasty in 1681. Now the palace has been converted to a museum. It has a large collection of artefacts, including 'hero stones' or virakkals, from different parts of Kodagu.

    The history of South India reveals that the virakkals were the memorials built for the commandos (suicide squad members) who sacrifised their lives for the sake of their kings and every one knew that Mudiraju / Bantlu / Bants were well known for their commando jobs during medieval period in South India. It is on the record that many Mudiraj warriors in Vijayanagar kingdom lead family lives without any wedlock and this could be probably due to their commando jobs and helped them to muild up their mind set to be ever ready to die for the sake of their king and country. Such a kind family status of Mudiraj warriors was given due respect by the then society.

    Madikeri derives its name from Muddhu-Raja I, the third in line of the Haleri Dynasty. The form of the name often used in English, Mercara, is derived from Madikeri by a standard transformation of the retroflex 'd' to an 'r' consonant. This dynasty was one of the first to have ruled over the whole of Kodagu region from 1600-1834 AD. Haleri dynasty's Mudduraja is credited with founding the town of Madikeri around 1680. Mudduraja enjoyed the longest reign (54 years) of the Lingayat rulers of Kodagu. He is also credited with bringing together the entire Kodagu region comprising of 12 Kombus (districts) and 35 Nads (subdivision) demarcated by Kadangas (trenches); and ruled by constantly feuding Nayakas (warlords).

    Mudduraja initially ruled from Haleri. During a hunting expedition in the present day Madikeri area, he went up a small hillock chasing wild game. He then encountered a strange phenomenon. He saw his hunting dogs beating a hasty retreat with their tails between their legs pursued by a hare! He was highly impressed by this incident and decided that he should build a Fort on this spot as it gave courage even to a meek animal like a hare to stand upto a pack of hunting dogs.

    This entire area was a thick jungle populated by wild animals. Mudduraja went ahead with the building of a Fort, which was basically a mud walled garrison. A small settlement started, and apparently, this hamlet was named after the Raja as -Muddurajakeri.

    Bale mantapa was built by Mudduraja : Unlike other temples and mantaps at Yelandur, the Bale Mantap (Mahadwara Mantap), facing the East, was built by the chieftain of Hadinadu, Mudduraja, in 1654 AD in the Hoysala style of architecture. The 300-year-old Bale Mantap near the 15th Century Gowreeshwara Temple at Yelandur in Chamarajanagar district is in a dilapidated state at present. The mantap is in a rectangular shape and has carvings on its walls. White and black stones used for the construction of the mantap add to the beauty of the carvings. The outer wall has magnificent sculptures depicting some instances in the Ramayana, the Mahabharatha, and the Shaivapurana. The carvings on the floor, and on the huge beams in front of the mahadwara are exquisite. The engravings on four pillars depict the war between Vaali and Sugreeva. The image of Mudduraja has been carved on the outer wall. Inside the mantap, there is an image of Bhuvaneshwari sitting on a lotus. Some of the stone rings hanging from the ceiling of the mantap have been damaged. There is a temple in front of the mantap with panchalingas inside the garbhagriha.

    Biligiri Rangana Betta : There is the famous temple of Ranganatha atop this hill. A copper plate record dated 1667 and belonging to Mudduraju, son of Trimalarajanayaka of Hadinadu sheds light on the history of the temple. Here these hills are mentioned as that of Thiru Venkatanatha of Bilikal (White Rock). In Sanskrit, this hill was called Shwetadri meaning white hill. This is because the hill's weathered granite cliff face appear white in colour. The Venkatanatha temple became known as Ranganatha temple after Tipu Sultan visited this temple while on a hunting expedition and described it as a temple of Lord Ranganatha. Hence, the name Biligiri Rangana Betta.

    Biligiri Rangana Betta (literally meaning - Ranganatha's Whiterock Hill in Kannada) is a lofty hillock situated at a distance of 28 km from Yelandur and 90 km from Mysore. The forest around is named Biligiri Rangaswamy Wildlife Sanctuary after this place. One can have a breath taking view of the forest around from the platform behind the temple atop the hill. There is a mysterious tradition and legend about this temple. Anyone visiting the temple can see a huge pair of sandals. Legend has it that these sandals are used by the presiding deity Lord Ranganatha to roam around these forests. Mysteriously, these sandals wear out and are replaced regularly with new ones by the villagers. The original inhabitants of these forest areas are a tribal community called Soligas (bamboo people). Even now, these people live in settlements around these forests.

    BOMBAY - KARNATAKA INSCRIPTIONS THE KALACHURYAS No. 133 (Page No 170) - (B. K. No. 21 of 1937-38 ) - CHADCHAN, INDI TALUK, BIJAPUR DISTRICT -Slab built into the prakara wall of Paramananda temple Kannamarasa ( Krishnarja )---A. D. 1067 This record is dated Saka 988, Sarvadhari, Phalguna, su. 5 Samkranti. The Details regularly correspond to A. D. 1067, February 21, Wednesday. The cyclic year, However, was Parabhava. The inscription seems to register the gift of the village Chate (Chatetana ) by a Subordinate officer of the king who obtained it from the latter. Mentions prabhu Dasa, son of prabha Rajachatta of the rajadhani Chatetana and a certain Muddaraja, The king is stated to have been ruling from Mangaliveda.

    MISCELLANEOUS INSCRIPTIONS IN KANNADA -VOLUME IX - Part - I : KALACHURYAS - No. 297-(A.R. No. 56 of 1904.) -ON A SLAB SET UP TO THE SOUTH OF THE BASAVESVARA TEMPLE AT THE SAME VILLAGE -The inscription is dated Saka 1099, Hemalambi, Ashadha, ba. Krishnangaraka-chaturdasi corresponding to A.D. 1177 June 26, Sunday. It belongs to the reign of the Kalachurya king Sankhavrmadeva ruling from Kalyanapura. With the consent of the Sinda Chief Mahamandalesvara Rachamalla, who was a feudatory of the king, the Mummurudandas of Kurugodu constructed a trikuta temple and having set up in it's the image of Gavaresvara made a grant of land, a voluntary contribution of cesses levied on every article sold or purchased in the city and of tolls, specially levied for this purpose, on every imported article. It states that Mallisetti, whose genealogy is given, set up the image of Mallikarjunadeva and made a grant of land for the service of the god. Muddaraja's genealogy is given as follows. Martandadeva of Kawndinya-gotra, his sons Soyideva, Rechadeva, Kalidasa and Muddaraja. The Mummuridandas are said to have been Banajigas, "the brave of the brave, protectors of the submissive, cruel to the wicked, good to the good and conquerors of powerful enemies".

    DODDA VIRA RAJA & VIRAJPET :
    It was a century later around 1786, that Tippu Sultan rebuilt the Fort with stone and named it as 'Jaffarabad' after his General Jaffar Ali Beg. Tippu held this fortified garrison till 1790. There are 6 circular bastions at the angles and the entrance on the east is very intricate and circuitous. Mudduraja's great-grandson Dodda Veerarajendra recaptured the Fort in 1790 and established Madikeri as the capital. The Fort and the royal dwelling within its walls were developed further by Dodda Veerarajendra. By then Madikeri too grew and became the principal town of Kodagu. The strong fort of Mercara explains the tale of bravery and battle. Original fort built by mud was replaced by "The Sword of Mysore", Tippu Sultan. Two life-size Elephants made of mortar attract every visitor entering the fort.

    After the demise of Dodda Veerarajendra in 1809, his minor daughter Devammaji was anointed Queen in accordance with his last Will and Testament. "Dadda Vira" (1780-1809 A.D.) went mad during his last years as a ruler, and executed many of his relatives. He left his 10 year old daughter in charge of his kingdom as he had no son. However, his brother Lingaraja managed to usurp the throne, and by 1811 firmly established himself as the Raja of Kodagu. Lingaraja was an avid shikari. According to an Englishman who visited Coorg during his reign, he used to shoot as many tigers as there are days in an year! Lingaraja surrounded himself with men of low intellectual calibre. He was concupiscent and had hundreds of women in his harem. He was notorious for getting good looking young women forcibly converted to the Lingayat sect and take them as a wife or a concubine. Lingaraja's son, Vira Raja II like Dadda Vira, killed many of his relatives. Thus came the advent of the British and the downfall of this dynasty.

    Dodda Veerarajendra established the town of Virajpet in 1792 to commemorate his meeting with the British General Abercrombie during their joint war against Tippu Sultan in 1791. Virajpet was a strategic place for the British troops to move from Cannanore to Mysore. Dodda Veerarajendra subsequently provided this place as a safe haven for fugitive Roman Catholic Christians who were displaced by areas controlled by Tippu Sultan. He also helped them build the beautiful St. Anne's Church, which is still a prominent landmark of Virajpet. Since this fledgling town had very few inhabitants, the Raja welcomed and settled people of all communities and religions. Settled in this town are Bengali Muslims from the North, Christians, Bunts, Gowdas, Brahmins from South Canara, Moplas from Malabar, Tamilians from Madras, Gowligas and Telugu Chettis from Andhra, Devangas and Jains from Mysore areas. Dooda Veerarajendra was liberal in granting funds and lands to these multi-faceted communities and encouraged them to settle down permanently. We therefore even today have Bengali Street, Telugu Street, Jain Street etc., in Virajpet. This town truly is cosmopolitan in every sense of the term.

    POLITICAL HISTORY OF KODAGU REGION :
    From the 2nd to the 6th century, the Kadambas ruled its northern province. The southern parts were successively connected to the Ganga Dynasty from the 4th to the 11th century. After a war with the Gangas in the 11th century, the Cholas emerged as the sole rulers of the whole of Kodagu. During the 12th century the Hoysalas, who were in Belur, Hassan district, drove away the Cholas from Kodagu. From the 14th century, the Vijayanagara Kings ruled supreme. After their fall, the local chieftans or Nayaks and Palegars, became independent and started ruling from wherever they stayed. Later on the Haleri Kings defeated them all and ruled Kodagu from 1600-1834. Haleri kings made the place Haleri, near Madikeri as their capital. Mudduraja, the third king among the Haleri kings started leveling the land around Madikeri and built a fort in the year 1681. This place was named as Muddurajakeri which later became Madikeri. Kodagu became the part of British India after 1834 A.D. From then on Kodagu came under the direct rule of the British.

    Firishta states that at the end of the sixteenth century Coorg proper was governed by its own chiefs, called Naiks, who admitted the supremacy of Vijayanagar; but they seem to have been often at feud with one another. According to tradition the country was divided into twelve Itombus and thirty-five nads. The conquest of the Changalvas by Mysore was not followed up by the acquisition of Coorg. The way thus lay open for occupation by some one of the late Changalva territory in Coorg.

    This was effected by a prince of the Ikkeri or Bednur family, who settled at Haleri, north of Mercara, in the garb of a Jangama or Lingayat priest, and ended by bringing the whole country under his authority'. His descendants continued as Rajas of Coorg till 1834. Their history to 1807 is contained in the Rdjendrandme, compiled in Kanarese under the orders of Vira Rajendra, the most distinguished of the line, and translated for him into English by Lieutenant Aber cromby in 1808 at Mangalore. Muddu Raja removed the capital to Madikeri or Mercara, where he built the fort and palace in 1681. Of his three sons, Dodda Virappa, the eldest, succeeded him at Mercara, while Appaji Raja and Nanda Raja, the second and third, settled at Haleri and Horamale.

    In the 16th century, in the aftermath of the fall of Vijayanagara Empire, the Keladi Nayaks of Ikkeri consolidated power in Kodagu and established the Paleri (Haleri) dynasty (so called because of their capital in Paleri). Paleri kings, who were Lingayats of Veerashaiva faith, ruled the region for more than 200 years (1580 – 1834). The first ruler of Paleri dynasty was Vira Raja. His grandson Muddu Raja I was a popular ruler and ruled for more than 50years. He moved his headquarters to current day Madikeri in 1681. It was called Muddu Raja Keri and later shortened to Madikeri (anglicized as Mercara). Under the Paleri dynasty Kodagu attained a status as an Independent kingdom.

    Dodda Vira Raja (also called Siribai Dodda Vira Raja) ruled from 1687 – 1736. Dodda Vira Rajendra (1780 – 1809) and Linga Raja II (1811 – 1820) also had significant impact on the history of the region. Dodda Vira Raja improved transportation by building bridges across ancient trenches. He also streamlined the administration of the region into villages, districts and appointed district headmen.

    In the 18th century, Hyder Ali had usurped the rulers of Mysore and set his sights on Kodagu. A weak ruler called Chikkaveerappa was ruling Kodagu. Hyder Ali grabbed some Kodava land in 1763 but his mighty troops were defeated by the gallant Kodavas in 1766. After Chikkaveerappa's death the Paleri dynasty was split into Paleri and Horemale and two rulers called Mudduraja and Muddaihraja came to power.

    After their death in 1770, an internal skirmish between Linga Raja I and a Devappa Raja of Paleri and Horemale respectively, gave Hyder Ali an opening. He sided with Linga Raja I and installed him on the throne and acted as his protectorate. When Linga Raja I died, Hyder Ali took direct control of the Kodavas. This enraged the Kodavas and they started heckling the Muslim garrison in Madikeri. In 1782 the Kodavas took power back from Hyder Ali. In the same year, Hyder Ali died and his son Tippu Sultan started his ambitious expansion of his kingdom.

    In 1785, Tippu attacked Kodagu, while returning from Mangalore to Srirangapattana, his capital city. He retained control of Kodagu for sometime. Tippu never could continuously hold his power in Kodagu. As soon as he turned his back on Kodagu, the local heroes revolted and took power back from the Muslim rulers. Tippu returned to reclaim control though he found the Kodavas a pesky thorn on his sides. Both Hyder Ali and Tippu were interested in Kodagu because of its abundant rice crops.

    In 1788, Dodda Vira Rajendra, who had been taken prisoner, escaped and defeated Tippu and recovered his kingdom. In 1790 Dodda Vira Rajendra signed a treaty with the British, who promised to protect his kingdom against Tippu's onslaught. Eventually, the Kodavas backed the British troops and Tippu fell in the year 1799. The Paleri rulers continued to rule until 1834, when the British exiled the last of the rajas, Chikka Vira Raja, and took full control of the region. They charged him with cruelty to his people and sedition as an excuse to annex Kodagu under the British Raj. The following are the Haleri Dynasty kings who ruled Kodagu country or Matsya desa.

    When India became independent in 1947, Kodagu (Coorg) also became a free land. In 1950 as per the new Indian Constitution, Coorg became a state. In 1956 a state reorganization took place. Coorg was merged with Karnataka and became a district in Karnataka. It has 3 taluks or districts, Madikeri, Somavarapete and Veerajapete. Madikeri is also the district headquarters of Coorg.

    The Kodagu Raja Haleri Veerarajendra Vodayar decided to sell all the Pepper, Cardamom etc. produced in Kodague to Chovakkaran Moosa alone for the services rendered to the raja by him. From this it can be understood that Haleri kings used the title Vodayar and hence the Vodayars seems remotely related to Mudiraj people.

    KODAGU - THE SCOTLAND OF INDIA :
    Kodagu is one of the most beautiful tourist places in South India. The charming little district little district of Kodagu (Coorg) nestling amidst the lush Western Ghats is popularly known as the 'Scotland of India' and the 'Kashmir of the South' for its immense natural beaut. Misty mountains, verdant valleys, serpentine streams, cascading falls, thick tropical forests and miles of spice,paddy and coffee platations makes the regions a veritable paradise for nature lovers. Coorg offers you a fascinating past, captivating natural beauty, great cuisine and aromas of the coffee plantations, oranges and honey. Coorg lies at an altitude of 1,525 m on the Western Ghats. The climate is salubrious most of the year. Only in summer does the temperature rise beyond 30C.

    From the earliest period of recorded history to the end of the 16th century, the history of Kodagu has to be traced chiefly from inscriptions. Kodagu was not ruled entirely by any one dynasty till the beginning of 17th century. Several dynasties ruled only a part of Kodagu at different times. Different parts of Kodagu, were ruled by the chieftains and local princes till about the end of 17th century and they owed allegiance to some bigger ruler outside Kodagu. The various inscriptions over stone and copper plates found in Kodagu points to a plethora of rulers dating back from 888 AD by the Ganga dynasty to 1633 AD by the Haleri dynasty. Kodagu has been ruled by the Gangas, Kadambas, Cholas, Kongalvas, Changalvas, Hoysalas and Nayakas. Kodagu Nayakas were the rulers for the first time, and they were overthrown and eliminated by the succeeding Haleri rulers. Sometime before the Kodagu Nayakas came to power the mighty Vijayanagar kingdom also had its share of dominance over Kodagu.

    Kodagu (Coorg) is the smallest district in Karnataka with wonderful and lovely natural sceneries. It is the birthplace of river Cauvery. Even though Kodagu (Coorg) is the smallest district it has it's own virtues. It is surrounded by Kerala State in the west and south, to the north by South Canara district and Hassan district and in the east by Mysore district. It is from the word "Kudu" (which means "Hilly place") the word Kodagu has come. But according to some other people it has come from the word "Kodamalenadu", which means "Steepy hills and thick forests".

    Kodemala and Kodimela are two surnames that belong to some Telugu Mudiraj caste people today. They seems to closely related Coorg or Kodagu region which is also known as "Kodamale Nadu" or "Kodimale Nadu". These two surnames seems to be resulted due to gradual modification of the country name of their ancestors. This part of the country of was ruled by a well known haleri king Muddaraja. The Mudiraj people in Karnataka are known as Mudduraja or Muddaraja.

    Kodimalenadu => Kodimale => Kodimela
    Kodamalenadu => Kodamale = Kodemala

    Madikeri hill station nestles 1525 meters (5003 feet) above sea level in Coorg/Kodagu, Karnataka. Coorg was originally called Kodaimalenadu, which means "dense forest on steep hill. Coorg is famous for growing coffee and tea plantations. It was once a summer retreat used by the British to escape the tropical heat prevalent in other parts of India. The hill top view of the green foliage and the spectacle of the evening sunsets is the ever lasting impression of that place. No wonder it is called the Scotland of India.

    Gaddige/Gadduge, the tombs of King Virarajendra, Lingarajendra and one of their court priests built in the 18th century rest in the northern corner of the town. Two smaller tombs are also located in the same area belonging to their brave and loyal soldiers. The three main tombs, with a dome in the center and turrets at each end, built separately from one another on a hillock resemble a Muslim pilgrim center. The bars of windows made of brass have fine engravings. A colorful view of the town, mostly residential areas and the flora, can be seen from a different angel.

    Raja's Seat : According to legend, the Kings of Coorg spent their evenings with their consorts here. A photographic view of the lofty mountains, grassy meadow, steep dale, wide spread paddy fields can be enjoyed from Raja's Seat.

    Mercara Palace , built in the year 1814 by Lingarajendra Wodeyar II, now houses the offices of Deputy Commissioner, the museum [earlier a Church built by the British] run by the State Archaeology Department, The Mahatma Gandhi Public library, next to the museum, offers a great choice for reader of any discipline. There are also a district prison and Mahaganapathy temple within the fort.

    Nalknad Aramane (Palace) : After escaping from Tippu sultan's troops Doddavirarajendra, a Haleri ruler built this palace at Yavakapadi in Nalknad area. Built in 1772, this simple palace famous for its paintings and carvings. Doddaverarajendra married Mahadevammaji here in 1796. While British army entered Kodagu, the last emperor of Halari family Chikaverarajendra took shelter here. Now this palace belongs to Archaeology department.

    Omkareshwara temple, deidcated to Shiva, was built in the 19th century in a mix of Gothic and Islamic styles. It was built by Lingarajendra in 1820. There is a pool in front of the temple with tons of fresh water fishes in it. The temple has four minarets around it and a dome in the center (similar to a Muslim Masjid).

    Talacauvery : Talacauvery, the birth place of River Cauvery is situated on the slopes of the Brahmagiri hills at an altitude of 4187 ft above sea level. It is 2 Kms from Bhagamandala town, which is approximately 34 Kms from Madikeri. Famous Bhangandeshwara temple attracts thousands of religious people from across India especially on every October 17th, on Tulasankramana [Cauvery Sankramana] when grand prayers are held. It is believed that wrong doings/sins are pardoned by taking a dip in the holy river or the Triveni Sangama. This place is enormously blessed with nature. One an have a panoramic view of Coorg from here. The way that leads to the place and the place itself is photogenic. Sunset and sunrise both are mesmerizing.

    KODAVAS ARE GREAT FIGHTERS :
    The Kodavas are renowned for their martial culture. The Kodavas earned a name as valiant soldiers and officers in the army. They earned a reputation as able commanders and brave fighters both under the British rule as well as post independent India. Eventually, famous sons of Kodagu became prominent members of the armed forces of India. The people of Coorg are proud of the fact that General K.S. Thimayya DSO and Field Marshal K.M. Cariappa OBE are both well known names to Indians.

    ORIGIN OF KODAVA PEOPLE :
    The Puranas refer to this land as Krodadesa or the land (desa) of the people blest by mother Goddess, River Cauvery (kod, meaning bless, and avva for mother Cauvery). The Puranic name for Coorg was also Matsyadesa (matsya, meaning fish) as is recorded in the Kaveri Purana. Down the ages, it came to be known as Kodagu and the people, Kodavas. This has further changed to Coorg. According to some sources, the word Kodagu is derived from the word "Kudu", which means "Hilly place". It was ruled by Western Ganga Muttarasa kings and could be the reason for calling it Matsyadessa as gangas were descendants of fishermen warriors from ganga river basin of North India. Virata Kingdom of Mahabharata period was one of the proper Matsya deshas and there some such Matsya countries around it who also participated in Kurukshetra war.

    The Hindu Puranas (Kaveri Purana of Skanda Purana) claim that Chandra Varma, son of Emperor of Matsya Desha and a Chandravamshi Kshatriya, was the ancestor of the Kodavas.He had 10 sons, the eldest was called Devavrata.The Kodavas were freeholder farmers and soldiers.They served as lords and vassals. The chandravamsa ( lunar lineage ) connection of Matsya Desha emperor indicates that these kings were most probably related to Uparichara Vasu, the chedi emperor and his son Vitararaja who established the first Mtsya country in North India.

    The most famous son of Kodagu is Field Marshal Kodandera Madappa Cariappa the first Commander-in-Chief (as a general) of the armed forces of free India. General Kodendera Subayya Thimayya, of the same clan as K.M. Cariappa, served as a consecutive Army chief ( as a general ).

    According to purana Chandravarma the youngest son of King Siddhartha of Matsya country from North India came on pilgrimage to Brahmagiri the origin of river Kaveri. He settled down with eleven sons married and each having more than hundred sons. The eldest son Devakanta was crowned who with all the members presented before Goddess Kaveri flowing down at Balamuri (Balumberi) in the early hours of Tulasankranthi, the time of sun's entering the sigh of Libra. During the flow the sari knot of Kaveri got turned backwards at Balamuri while she blessed the members present. All of them (Kodavas) took the first bath in the river here.

    In early 6th century BCE, Matsya was one the solasa (sixteen) Mahajanapadas (great kingdoms) mentioned in the Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya, but its political clout had greatly dwindled and had not much of political importance left by the time of Buddha. The Mahabharata refers to a King Sahaja, who ruled over both the Chedis and the Matsyas which implicates that Matsya once formed a part of the Chedi Kingdom. Meenas are considered the brothers and kinsmen of Virata, the ruler of Virat Nagar. They ruled this area (near to Virat Nagar) till 11th century CE.

    Matsya Kingdom was founded by fishermen community who later attained kingship. The Sanskrit word Matsya means fish. Satyavati, the wife of Kuru king Santanu was from this community. King Virata, a Matsya king, founded the kingdom of Virata. He was the father-in-law of Abhimanyu the son of Arjuna. The epic Mahabharata relates the founder of Matsya kingdom to the ruler of Chedi, viz Uparichara Vasu.

    Fishing was the main occupation of the people who lived near river Saraswati. After the river dried up, they migrated to river Charmanwati now known as Chambal meaning fish in Dravidian languages. Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa, was son of Satyavati who belonged to this fishermen community and yet was a Vedic scholar.

    The majority of the Kodavas live in the Kodagu (Coorg) district situated on the Western Ghats in Karnataka, India. The Kodavas have maintained a distinct identity in terms of customs, rituals, dress, food, and language from the neighbouring peoples for a very long time. Some historians suggest that the Kodavas might have migrated into their present area in the Coorg district around the 3rd century A.D. There are different theories about the origin of Kodavas. One view is that the Kodava culture resembles the culture of the ancient trading stock of Araba (Moeling 1855). Another view is that the Kodavas are descendants of Scythians (Connor 1870, Rice 1878). According to yet another view, the Kodavas belong to the Indo-Scythian race. This may prove that the Kodavas are the descendants of the Brachycephalic stock who entered into the Indus Valley during the Mohenjodaro period and migrated to the Coorg region (Hutton, as quoted in Balakrishnan 1976). These are all theories, and we do not have any definite clue or evidence to prefer one theory over another. This was the time when Kalabras invaded Tamil speaking lands in South India.

    The origin or the root of the Kodava language, however, is easily traceable. Comparative Dravidian studies have shown that Kodava belongs to the South Dravidian Language group. Linguistically, Kodava shows some deviations from the rest of the Dravidian languages.

    They are of unknown origin, and are ethnically distinct from the other people of the area. However, they have been long established since time immemorial. Kodava texts do not speak much of their origins and so there is no one definite theory to prove it. However, according to one, the 2500 year-old civilization of the Coorgs has evolved from a synthesis of people that originally lived in the region of today's Oman and Yemen. According to Yemen's history, people from there had migrated to the Coorg region around the fifth century BC. Kodavas are one of the most hospitable people in India, the doors of their homes are always open to guests. Cosmopolitan in their outlook, they make friends easily. The names of Kodava people are characteristic and include a clan name. The clan is central to Kodava culture and families trace their lineage through clans. Marriage within a clan is discouraged.

    Legend has it that during theconquest of Alexander the great, many of his soldiers stayed back in India. They migrated down south, married the natives and settled down in the hilly areas of the western ghats. That could be the secret to the valiant nature and the Greek god-like physique of the Kodavas. And the beauty of a Kodava girl is beyond description! Special Pork or Pandhi Curry and liquor keep the spirits high. Marriages are a simple affair with more importance given to social gathering than rituals. The dowry system is unknown here and the marriage ceremony is conducted without a Brahmin priest.

    The Haleri dynasty of Lingayats by tradition belonged to the priestly class. They rarely needed Brahmins to conduct poojas and other rituals. Because of this, the few Brahmins who lived in Kodagu did not have much importance in the court of the Haleri Kings.

    Kodavas have many cultural differences from other communities in southern India. Though they are nominally Hindu, Kodavas do not usually accept Brahmin priests, preferring that ceremonies are conducted by their own. The elders of the community play the role of the priests. The importance of fire god found in most of the hindu rituals is predominantly absent in the kodava culture. Usage of slokas and vedic chants is also not present. There are distinctive dresses, the men wearing wraparound robes called the Kupya (now only seen at ceremonial occasions), and the women with a distinctive style of wearing the sari. They have many distinctive practices such as carrying ceremonial knives, and martial war dances. The Kodava woman wears a sari with the pleats at the back.

    The Kodavas worship the Cauvery River and call themselves the children of Cauvery. Besides their fame as agriculturists, the Kodavas are renowned for their hospitality.

    The Coorgi people are literally termed as bold and the beautiful. They are very passionate about their language and their culture. The menfolk famous for their chivalry in the national army while the petite females are famous for their beauty. The Coorgi's are also true blue sportsmen, hunting amongst their favourite games. Their cuisine is also very distinct and unique. The culture also includes communal gatherings where drink, dance and special meat dishes seasoned with Garcinia are central attractions. Pork is their speciality and ''pandi curry'(pork curry) a hot favourite they have a very charming traditional attire. In Telugu language also PANDHI means PIG. Some sections of Telugu Mudiraj people also eat pork curry. Bhakta Kannappa who belonged to Muthuraja caste in Tamilnadu is known to hunt a pig in the srikalahasti region of present South Andhra Pradesh before he became a nayanar. Vetans or Vedans people of Muthuraja subcaste who belong to Bhakta kannappa descendancy too prefer pork curry.

    Pandhi = Pandi = Pig

    The main local language of Madikeri is Kodava Takk though most of the people here are bilingual in Kannada. Muddurajas Kodagu seems to be closely related gangas of Karnataka and Gounders of Tamilnadu in their profession of agriculture and warrior jobs.

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    Kokolu Anka Rao
    Date : 08/08/2008
    Nagpur, Maharastra, India




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    03. KAKATIYA KINGDOM :

    Historians have found some inscriptions of Kakatiyas in Gutur district of Andhra Pradesh. According to one of the inscriptions, the kakatiyas are known to belong to solar race kings. Some historians believe that the kakatiyas who worshipped Goddess Kakati (Kakatamma) were from fishermen community. The warrior koli fishermen, who worship Mumbadevi in neighbouring Maharastra are also said to belong to solar race in the lineage of emperors Mandhata and Srirama. It implies that the kakatiyas could be related to the same koli fishermen of neighboring Maharastra region. All these pieces of information seems to be correct and we can get the truth by carefully joining all these pieces of information into one piece.

    The kakatiyas are Erukalas who were a variant of bhil- koli dravidians of North India and to be precise from Sindh & Gujarat. They were Erukalas because they belonged to a community of sooth sayers / future tellers. They were fishermen too as they belonged to bhil race. They worshipped Sun as Erukalas worship Sun. In the subsequent paras, it will be revealed that Kakatiyas are Kaikadis and Kaikadis are Gaikwads of Gujarat. Gujarat is also known as Surastra. Saura means SUN. Sauratra is a place where people (bhil - kolis) worship SUN.

    Saura = Surya = Sun
    Saura => Saurastra = A country of Sun worshippers.
    Saurastra => Gujarat

    Sindhu, Gujarat & Rajastan was the homeland of Bhil - koli people who worshipped Sun and from whom the solar race warrior clans evolved. Emperor Mandhata of Mohenjo - Daro is said to be a Solar Race koli king and an ancestor of Srirama.

    The Kakatiya political connection to Rastrakutas too indicate the fact that they were most probably related to bhil - koli- mudiraj branch of warriors with hunting and fishing backgrounds. According to the story recited by ballads during Ankamma Kolupu, it is said that some Mudiraj ancestors were from Devagiri ( Maharastra ) and they belonged to Solar Race.

    Manne, Mannem and Mannemala are some of the surnames of Telugu Mudiraj community people. Manne and Mane surnames seems to have originated from Kaikadi tribe of Dravidian origin in Central India. Kaikade, Mane are some surname that exists among Kaikadis of Maharastra. Readers may like to see e-mail no. 28 in the webpage "UREMAILS" in this website written by Sharad Mane to the webmaster. Sharad Mane is from Kaikadi caste / tribe of Maharastra.

    According to some historians the kakatiyas belonged to Erukala tribe. The Erukalas are also known as Korama, Koravar, Korvar, Korwar, etc. in parts of the country. It is said the Sun is an important God of Korwas (Erukalas). We all know that Mudiraj people worship Goddess Ankamma and it is also said that Erukalas too worship Goddess Ankamma. Erukalas also worship Sun God. This indiactes that these Erukalas belong to kolarian races with the background of mother worship.

    There was one Telugu Mudiraju king by name Erikal Mutthuraju, who ruled parts of Rayalaseems around 575 A.D and he could also be from the same Erukala tribe to which kakatiyas belonged. According to K.A Nilakanta sastri and M. Venkataramayya's citations about Telugu inscriptions, Erikal Mutturaju was referred as a cola king. This is not accepted as proper by some historians.But it is a fact Cola or colee or koli is one of the 9 clans of pardhi (Erukala) tribe. The warriors of this tribe were oncer very powerful Telugu rulers. Many of them now taken the surname Redyy and that is why Erikala or Yerikala surname can be seen among Reddy community of Andhra Pradesh.

    It seems to be that this Erukula theory is not very much different from that of fishermen theory as they both belong to bhil community with primary professions of fishing and hunting. Most probably the kakatiyas were the descendants of Kaikadi branch of Yerukalas who inturn belong to dravidian bhils. Kaikadis also seems to be related Gaikwad clans of Maharastra & Gujarat region as Jadhavs and Gaikwads are said to be subgroups of Kaikadis. Some Kaikadis are seen using the title of Gaikwad along with their names. A more detailed analysis of the word " Kaikadi " clearly reveals that it was resulted due to gradual modification of the word " Gaikwad ". This means that the Kaikadi Erukalas were once part of Gaikwads of Gujarat and vise versa. Mahabharat also mentions that Erukala Ekalavya had blood relation with yadvamsi Sri Krishna through one of the brothers of his father Vasudeva.

    Gaikwad => Gaikwadi
    Gaikwadi => Gaikadi => Kaikadi
    Kaikadi => Kakadi => Kakati => Kakatiya

    The Kakatiyas emerged in the early 12th century. They were the saamantha rajas (subordinate kings) of the Western Chalukyas ruling over a small territory now called Mahaboobabad, near Warangal. Kakatiyas were closely related to Rastrakuta rulers, who inturn were related to Kalchuris kings. Mudirajas are believed to descend from Kalbhras who were a branch of Kalchuris or their variants. . The kolis and Mudirajas are one and the same people having fishing and hunting back grounds from Sindhu-Saraswati river basin in North India. Kakatiyas were also worshippers of Mother Goddess similar to mudiraj and kolis. pointing to their belongingness to koli & Mudiraj communities. Mudiraj people worship Goddess Ankamma and kolis worship Mumbadevi. Kakatiyas are also said to belong to the Durjaya family / clan.

    The name "Kakatiya" is derived from the highly revered goddess of power : Kakati Devi (Durga Matha). Kakati Devi was the goddess mother for the founding fathers of Kakatiya dynasty. Kakati could be the Goddess of Bhairavi, an other form of Durga. Yellaramma is companion of Kakatamma, the famous goddess of Kaktiya monarch. Yellarammma or Yellamma is poleramma in down South Andhra Pradesh. Poleramma is known as elder sister of Ankamma

    Many historians have stated that they found references on some pillars stating that the Kakatiyas were originated from the nomadic tribe called Erukala. Yerukalas are a variant of Bhil - koli warriors. We may say that Yerukalas are nomadic bhils who did not develop the culture of living in villages. They were more like bhil banjara tradesmen (Balijas) without any trading attitudes. The earliest reference of Yerukalas can be found in in Mahabharata, the great Indian epic. Yekalavya, the great archer from Mahabharata time, belongs to Yerukala society. Yekalavya achieves a skill level parallel to the great Arjuna despite Drona's rejection of him. As he was a member of a low caste, he was denied to study in the gurukul of Dronacharya.

    Yerukala, Yerukula, Erukala, Erukula, or Kurru is a community found largely in the Southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Karnataka. Yerukalas are indigenous people of South India. They call themselves 'Kurru'. They are called 'Yerukula' after their women's traditional profession of fortune telling (Eruka = sooth saying). Lambada, Erukala, Yanadi people belong to aboriginal dravidian races relating to bhils. Erukalas are sheduled tribe today.

    People of this community are called with different names in different parts of South India. They are called as Kuruvan or Kuruvar in Tamilnadu, Korama or Koracha in Karnataka, Kaikadi in Maharashtra, Korawa in Chattisgarh, Siddanar in Kerala and Kattu Naicker in Pondicherry. Hill Korwas of Chhatisgarh – a primitive tribe practising food-gathering, hunting and shifting cultivation. In essence, all these communities form a great big community from south india. Pahari Korwas, a primitive tribe of Chhattisgarh, found in the north-eastern region of the state. This tribe has been notified and declared as one of the primitive tribes by Govt. of India during the Fifth Five Year Plan. The word Korba could be a modification of Korwa.

    Korwa => Korba

    Both the Korwas of the Chota Nagpur plateau and the Korkus of the Satpura hills were known as Muasi, a term having the meaning of robber or raider. The Korwas have also a subtribe called Koraku, and Mr. Crooke thinks that they were originally the same tribe. Sir G. Grierson states that the Korwa dialect is closely allied to Kharia. Similarly the resemblance of the name raises a presumption that the great Koli tribe of Gujarat and western India may be a branch of the Kols who penetrated to the western coast along the Satpulra and Central India hill ranges. The Kolis and Bhils are tribes of the same country and are commonly spoken of together. Both have entirely lost their own language and cannot therefore be classified definitely either as Kolarian or Dravidian, but there is a probability that they are of the Kolarian family.

    Erukulas are a tribal population that speak Telugu, a Dravidian language. Some of them speak Yerukula bhasha. The Alternate names are - Yerukala, Yarukula, Yerkula, Yerukla, Erukala, Korava, Yerukala-Korava, Yerukula- Bhasha, Eruku Bhasha, Korchi, Kurutha, Kurru Bhasha.

    Here, we note that there was one Mudiaraja king by name Erikal Mutturaja who ruled parts of Rayalaseema in Andhra Pradesh. Katta is one of the surnames of Eruklas and this refers to Veera Pandya Katta Bomman who belongs to Mudiraj / Mutharaya community. Katta Bommana is known to belong to Kattu Nayakars. A branch of Bhils were future tellers (Yeruka = sodi = sodhi = sooth saying).

    Kattu => Katta
    Kuruva => Korava => Korawa => Korwa => Korwah
    Kuruva => Kuruba = Kurba => Korba
    Kalabra => Karabra => Kurabra => Kurubra => Kuruba => Kuruva

    Erukalas seems to be part of kalabra warriors who invaded the chola, chera and pandyan kingdoms. The Erukula population is also predominant in Andhra. Kalabhras are said to have invaded the tamil & Malayalee countries from Andhra ( Thirupathi ) region. Ultimately these Yerukalas became nomadic tribe having no fixed profession relating to village life. They might have become nomadic tribe because of their sooth saying (Eruka) profession, which demands moving from one place to another place for more customers. In Telugu language, Eruka means Sooth saying. Sooth saying is said to be a profession among Kattu Nayakars also. The very term NAYAKA was first created by Kakatiyas for their regional administrators and later the same was adopted by Vijayanagar kings who were also racially & socially belong to the community of Kakatiyas. It is a well known fact that mudirajas descended from kalabras who were inturn the descendants of kalchuris. The koravas or Yerukulas are basically part of bedars or vedars who fall under banjara or vanjara trading community. Nyayaka is generally the chief (Leader) of a nomadic tribe and also the one who gives justice.

    Nyaya = Justice
    Nyayak = Judge
    Nyaya => Nyayak => Nyayaka => Nyayakudu
    Nyayakudu => Nayakudu => Nayudu => Naidu => Naidoo
    Eruka = sooth saying = to tell information about future

    Yerukalas have been nomadic communities since the times unknown. They have been the target of the fears and suspicions of sedentary communities. The Yerukulas of Madras presidency were thus 'criminalized' in the early 20th century by the British Rulers. The Yerukulas were branded as criminals by birth under the "Criminal Tribes Act 1871", enacted by the British Rulers. Several communities relating to mudiraj people such as kolis, ramoshis, bedars were also declared as criminals by British. The bhil races are fundamentally warriors in their blood and they never accept allien commanding powers that undermine their freedom. They silently revolt in their own style similar to valmiky by robbing the alien rulers and their associated men. The became kings when they won in their fight and they became criminals when they lost in their fight. So these great bhil warriors never bothered to be labelled as criminals.

    Yerukalas were chiefly traders in grain and salt, operating between the coastal areas of the Madras presidency and the interior districts. Some Yerukulas are the basket weavers. Basket weaving has been the traditional occupation of the Erukulas. Balijas descended from balajigas or balijigas, who were basically North Indian Banjara trading community. As per Mudiraja on line research website, the balijas were part of Mudiraju bantlu. So, the kakatiyas could be part of these bant community.

    Kakatiyas seems to be the Kaikadis of Maharastra :
    Yerukalas are known as Kaikadis in Maharastra. The Kakadis are known as Korwa in Karnataka. The Kakatiya term could be a modification of the word Kaikadi. The Godess worshipped by the Kakatiyas was Kakati and seems to be known by their tribes name. The Kaikadi is a terrier dog breed named after a nomadic tribe in Maharashtra, India. They make excellent watchdogs. They can hunt hare and vermin. The Kaikadi is very similar to the whippet dogs. The Kaikadi are located mainly in the states of Maharashstra and Karnataka. Their language (also called Kaikadi) is a member of the Dravidian language family. The Kaikadis speak a language which is a mixture of Kanarese and Telugu. Some speak Marathi, greately interspersed with Telugu words. The other names of this language are - Kaikadia, Kaikai and Kokadi. They are commonly categorized as Tamil, but little is known about their specific lifestyle.

    From this it becomes clear that Kakatiyas belonged to kaikadis, a branch of Yerukulas of Maharastra region, who were expert, feriocious and ruthless hunters. Kaikadis seems to be the Kaikari tribal people of Narmada valley, where the birth of Indo-Aryan kalchuri clans had taken place. A lot of Rastrakuta kings were jain kalchur kings and they were the ancestors of mudiraj people. Even Kakatiyas were related Rastrakutas and ruled as their subordinate kings. These Kakatiyas or Kaikadis might be belonging to same people of bedars of Maharastra. Most Bedars use the title Nayak

    Kaikari => Kaikadi
    Kaikadi => Kaikadia
    Kaikadia => Kakadia => Kakatia => Kakatiya

    Kaikaris are Basket-makers and vagrants in Central provinces which is one of the main professions of Erukalas elsewhere also in other states of India. According to the British laws (most infamously the Criminal Tribes Act of 1871), tribes such as the Maghyar Doms in Bihar, the Kunjurs or Khangars in Bundelkund and the Ramosi, Mang, Kaikari or Bowrie tribes in the Narmada valley were described as habitually criminal, and adult male members of such groups forced to report weekly to the local police. In the Berar division, and in Bhandara, Chanda, Nagpur and Wardha districts. Kaikarees are S.C in the Berar division, and in Bhandara, Chanda, Nagpur and Wardha districts. The Kaikarees were known as dacoits and the establishment at Belgaum was once employed to arrest kaikarees, but the tribe fled from their old haunts. Kaikaris are an integral part of the large dravidian family of bhil, boya & koli races. Kaikaris are recognised as a Telugu caste as per the Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India.

    Kaikaree is also referred as Bowrie in Rajastan. The bowrie name is given by Rajputs who remained Marwar. Bowrie seems to be the name given to kaikarees because of their close relation with bhils. It could also possible that the bhils who dig bowries (water wells) came to be known as bowries. Bowrie is synonumous to a dacoit. Bowries were all basically related to Rajaputs at some point of time or the other. Those who came into power called themselves as Rajputs and others used to be known as bowries. The water wells dug by the bowrie people are also known as bowries. In Telugu, these bowries are known as bhavis. The water is fetched by going down the walkable steps. The water in bowries is always cool. Bhils and kolis are known as experts in water management.

    Kaikadi => Kaikari = Kaikaree
    Kaikari = Bowri
    Bhil = bhoya = Bhoyi = Bhovi = bovi
    Bovi => Bowi => Bowri => Bowrie

    The bowrees appear to have been an off-set of the bagree dacoits. They effected to be descended from Rajpoots, but in truth very little is known as to their origin. Their dialect is Gujerattee (Gujarati). A theory traces them to Chittore, the capital of Marwar, adjacent to Guzerat (Gujarat). They are believed to have been emigrated when Akbar captured that city in 1567. According to the deposition of Dhokul Sing, made 1839, the bowrees were not the people of yesterday but they are of ancient and illustrious descent. Their ancestor, Pardhee, was one of the comapanions of Sri Ram in his expedition for the recovery of Sita. Pardhee Korwas seems to be another name of these Bowrees as these korwahs were the descendants of Pardhee, the follower of Sri Rama. . This proves that kaikaris or bowries are closely related to Ramoshi Bedars and Ramoshi kolis of Maharastra. Hence, the kakateeyas by virtue of their clans name derived from kaikadias, are undoubtedly the people relating to these kaikarees / bowrees of Marwar. Even the Kakkar and Marvar subcaste people of Muthuraja / Mudiraja community of Tamilnadu also belonged to the Marwar region. These people of who form part of Ambalakarar & Mukkulator relating Mutharaya community were also designated as criminal tribes by the British during their rule in India.

    Ramoshi = Bowrie = Kaikari = Kaikadi = Pardhi Korwa

    The Pahadi Korwas ( Kaikadis ) inhabiting the hilly regions of Jashpur and Sarguja districts of Madhya Pradesh were a hunting community for centuris and they were so fierce once that they had struck terror in the hearts of the plainsmen. Such was their power and dominance that even the Britishers had failed to subjugate them completely. The history books describe the Korwas of Madhya Pradesh as a "criminal tribe". It is a stigma they have lived with for generations, simply because the British found them too unruly to be civilised. Independence has made no difference as census reports of the Indian Government continue to describe them as criminals.

    They are most savage and terrifying," observed Col Philip Dalton, a surveyor during the British Raj. The Korwas have long been hounded out from their homes in the plains and have turned into forest-dwellers in the Sarguja range. Various clans trace their descent to a particular tree or animal. The Hazeda Korwas, for instance, belong to the bamboo tree, the Mudiyas are from a canine lineage while the Ginu Korwas are said to have descended from an ant hill!. The Korwas are expert hunters and love to kill a bird flying or an animal running. Before setting out on a hunt, they worship their bows and arrows while seeking the blessings of Lord Shiva and Goddess Durga. They are also very fond of dacoity and proceed on expeditions, often accompanied by their women.

    Kaikadis are found mainly in Akola, Amravati, Bhandara, Buldana, Nagpur, Chandrapur, Wardha and Yavatmal districts of Maharashtra. This region of Maharastra lies just in the adjacent Northern parts of Warangal region of Andhra Pradesh. These Erukalas of Maharastra are seen using their surname as "Kaikade". There was one Kaikade Maharaj of Pandharpur, who met Khapti Maharaj in his ashram. Khapti Maharaj is said to have cured the back ache of Rastra Sant Tukdoji Maharaj, who often used to meet him in his ashram.

    Kaikadi => Kaikade

    The Kaikadis follow the Hindu Law of Inheritance and profess Hindu religion. They worship Hindu gods, chief among them being Bhavani, Bahiroba, Tukai, Yamai, etc., and observe all of the leading Hindu holidays. They believe in witchcraft and soothsaying. The Kaikadis either burn or bury their dead. They go on pilgrimage to Hindu sacred places in the State and take vows or offer animal sacrifices. They revere Hindu as well as Muslim saints.

    Basket-making forms the chief occupation of the Kaikadis. Baskets of various sizes of bamboos, branches, leaves, stalks of the tarvad tree, babhul twigs, cotton and tur stalks are made. Such baskets are smeared with cow-dung and are used for storing grain.

    The Kaikadi are predominantly ethnic religionists (95%), following their ancient traditions and religions. Their religion is primarily animistic; that is, they worship a variety of inanimate objects. Many of the Kaikadi are also involved in ancestor worship. They believe that the spirits of deceased ancestors are alive and need to be fed and tended. These spirits must be properly appeased, or else they will become hungry and dissatisfied and turn into evil spirits. The influence of Hinduism is very strong among the Kaikadi, and many of their religious practices have become mixed with Hindu beliefs. Some respect all life and eat only vegetables, while others will gladly eat meat from sacrifices in the temple. Their Hindu beliefs and worship piligrim centers are almost same as that of bedars. They worship Thirupathi Venkateswara and Kolhapur Maha Laxmi. The Balji worship of Bedars and Kaikadis indicate that they were part of kalabhra warriors who inveded Tamil & Kerala countries from Thirupathi (Vengadam) region.

    Erakala, Kaikadi, Korwa (Korwah) are a variant gypsy tribe, bearing an evil reputation as professional criminals and infesting the country between the Krishna river and Narmda river. Kaikadis fall under S.C status today. Apart from basket weaving, and stone cutting, the fortune telling (sodhi) is another main professions of Kaikadis. As a class of people, they are orderly in nature. They are divided into Jadhavs and Manes, who eat together but do not intermarry. They speak Marathi with a mixture of other words. They were "hereditary thieves" and "robbers" but have now taken to other pursuits. Gadhge Maharaj had a chief disciple by name Kaikadi Maharaj.

    The Kaikadis, once a wandering tribe, are now settled in villages. They have a number of endogamous divisions like the Kamathis (basket-makers), Makadvalas (wandering and exhibiting monkey's games), Kaijis (flute players) and others.

    The Korwas are one of the scheduled tribes of Central India. They live in the hills, valleys, and forests of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. They speak a Munda language, also called Korwa, which belongs to the Austro-Asiatic language family. There are two very distinct tribes among the Korwas: the Diharia (or Kisan), who are farmers, and the Paharia (or Benwaria), who live in the hills. These two tribes do not inter-marry.The Korwas were a big community near Korba in Chattisgarh. The district comes under Bilaspur division and is inhabited mainly by tribals including the protected tribe Korwas (Pahadi Korwa).These people built forts and were ruling Podi-Uprora, Lafa, Chaiturgarh, Kosgi, Chhuri etc. They used to fight with the neighboring places to increase their Zamidari. A king named Ghughus belonging to community of Korwas, ruled over Ratanpur.

    Kakatiyas of Bastar :
    Bastar region is infested with people Koravas or Korwas who are part of Telugu Erukulas and Maharastra Kaikadis to whom the Kakatiyas are believed to belong. Interestingly, the royal family of Bastar believes that Kakatiya King Pratap Rudra's brother, Annam Deo, left Warangal and established his kingdom at Bastar , Chhattisgarh around the late 14th century. The great Kakatiya King Pratap Rudra's brother, Annam Deo, left Warangal and established his kingdom at Bastar,around1424 AD. In the early 15th century, the Kakatiya royal Annam Deo crossed the Godavari and fled into Bastar, after his brother, King Pratap Rudra Deo of Warangal was defeated and slain by Ahmad Shah Bahmani. The Kakatiyas have been described as 'a cadet branch of the Chalukyas.' After Annam Deo it has witnessed the rule of Hamir Deo ,Pratap Raj Deo ,Rajpal Deo,Dalpat Deo etc. It was during the reign of Dalpat Deo that the capital of their kingdom was shifted to Jagdalpur. These Kakatiyas ruled over Bastar until the Indian Union was born in 1947. The viradavali of the Bastar Maharaja, to this day refers to him as 'Chalki-bans' meaning of the Chalukya line.

    Dantewada, 86 km from Jagdalpur, is more famous for its Danteswari Mai temple, Bastar's most venerated shrine. Built by King Annam Deo, who established the Bastar kingdom in the 14th century after fleeing Warangal in Andhra Pradesh following a Muslim invasion, the temple, at first glance, looks more like a tiled rectangular building; the black stone image of Durga, ornamented with silver, stands in the sanctum sanctorum that may be entered by men only after they wrap themselves in a dhoti. The tile-roofed antechamber is lined with black-stone images of gods and goddesses, mostly brought from Barsur.

    According to myth the king of Bastar Annam Dev attacked on Sihava for getting Hiradevi. So Dharam Dev came to Kanker with his family. In his absence Annam Dev won the Sihava fort.

    Kakatiyas of Warangal
    Warangal or Ekasilanagaram as it was called then, was the ancient capital of The Great Kakatiyas who ruled the Andhra province from approximately 1110 AD to 1321 AD. The Kakatiya reign is said to be the brightest period of the Telugu land with the Kakatiya rulers extending the empire beyond Warangal all th way upto Raichur, Karnataka. Warangal embellished their reign, as the metropolis of Andhra(Deccan) region, standing the testimony of time for nearly a millenium (more than 800 years). The stalwarts of the Kakatiyan Dynasty united all the Telugu kings under one administration and are the most brilliant monarchs ever to rule the Andhra region right up there with the Satavahanas.

    Kakatiya dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083CE to 1323CE. The Kakatiya's ascent to power can be traced to the reign of the Western Chalukyas. It was one of the great Telugu kingdoms that lasted for centuries.

    Kakartya Gundyana, a subordinate of the Eastern Chalukyan monarch, Amma II (945 CE-970 CE), established the Kakatiya dynasty. The dynasty's name comes either from its association with a town known as Kakatipura (since the kings bore the title "Kakatipuravallabha") or from their worship of a goddess called Kakati. Kakatiyas belonged to the Durjaya family/clan.

    Gundyana sacrificed his life in the service of the Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna II while fighting against the Eastern Chalukyas. The grateful Krishna II placed Gundaya's son Eriya in charge of Kurravadi near Warangal. Eriya made Kakatipura his capital.

    Eriya's grandson was Kakartya Gundyana. Gundyana's son and successor was Betaraja I. Betaraja's son and successor was Prola I. Prola's son and successor Beta II ruled between 1076 CE and 1108 CE. Hanumakonda became the capital of the Kakatiyasduring the rule of Beta-II.Prola II the younger brother of Beta II was the most famous among the early Kakatiya rulers. Prola II, who ruled from A.D.1110 to 1158, extended his sway to the south and declared his independence.

    Prola-II's eldest son ans successor was Rudra. He was also known as Prataparudra-I.. During the years 1176-82 CE the battle of Palanadu was fought. Rudradeva rendered military assistance to Nalagama's faction. In this battle, the military strength of Velanadu had got weakened. Exploiting the situation, Rudradeva led his forces into coastal Andhra and conquered up to Srisailam and Tripurantakam in the south. Rudra (A.D.1158--1195) pushed the kingdom to the north up to the Godavari delta. He built a fort at Warangal to serve as a second capital and faced the invasions of the Yadavas of Devagiri.

    Rudra suffered defeat and death in his encounter with Jaitrapala I. After Rudradeva's death and the imprisonment of his nephew Ganapati in the hands of the Yadavas, his younger brother Mahadeva ascended the throne and ruled the kingdom for a short span of about three years (1196-1198 CE). Recherla Rudra, the commander-in-chief of the Kakatiya ruler, saved the kingdom from crumbling. Ganapatideva was set free by Jaitrapala due to political considerations like his desire to secure himself against an attack from Warangal in the event of a conflict with the aggressive Hoysalas in the south.

    Ganapati Deva ascended the throne in A.D.1199. Ganapatideva's reign lasted for 62 years. It is one of the most brilliant epochs in the history of Andhradesa. He was the greatest of the Kakatiyas and the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. He put an end to the rule of the Velanati Cholas in A.D.1210. He forced the Telugu Cholas of Vikramasimhapura to accept his suzerainty. He established order in his vast dominion and encouraged trade. Though Ganapatideva was alive until 1269 CE he handed over the threads of administration to his daughter Rudramadevi in 1262 A.D. itself and retired from active politics.

    As Ganapati Deva had no sons, his daughter Rudramamba succeeded him in A.D.1262 and carried on the administration. Some generals, who did not like to be ruled by her (woman), rebelled. She could, however, suppress the internal rebellions and external invasions with the help of loyal subordinates. The Cholas and the Yadavas suffered such set backs at her hands that they did not think of troubling her for the rest of her rule. Rudramadevi died in the month of November, 1289 CE., fighting battle against the rebel Kayastha chief Ambadeva.

    Prataparudra succeeded his grandmother Rudramamba in A.D.1295 and ruled till A.D.1323. Among Kakathiyas , Prataparudra, grandson of Rudramamba was a great ruler and pushed the western border of his kingdom up to Raichur. He pushed the western border of his kingdom up to Raichur. He introduced many administrative reforms. He divided the kingdom into 75 Nayakships, which was later adopted and developed by the Rayas of Vijayanagara.

    In his time the territory constituting Andhra Pradesh had the first experience of a Muslim invasion. In A.D.1303, the Delhi Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji sent an army to plunder the kingdom. But Prataparudra defeated them at Upparapalli in Karimnagar district. In A.D. 1310, when another army under Malik Kafur invaded Warangal, Prataparudra yielded and agreed to pay a large tribute. In A.D.1318, when Ala-ud-din Khilji died, Pratapa Rudra withheld the tribute. It provoked another invasion of the Muslims. In A.D.1321, Ghiaz-ud-din Tughlaq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country then called Tilling.

    He laid siege to Warangal, but owing to internal dissensions he called off the siege and returned to Delhi. Within a short period, he came back with a much bigger army. In spite of unpreparedness, Prataparudra fought bravely. For want of supplies, he surrendered to the enemy who sent him to Delhi as a prisoner, and he died on the way. Thus ended the Kakatiya rule, opening the gates of the Telugu land to anarchy and confusion yielding place to an alien ruler.

    The Kakatiya period was rightly called the brightest period of the Telugu history. The entire Telugu speaking area was under the kings who spoke Telugu and encouraged Telugu. They established order throughout the strife torn land and the forts built by them played a dominant role in the defence of the realm. Anumakonda and Gandikota among the `giridurgas', Kandur and Narayanavanam among the `vanadurgas', Divi and Kolanu among the `jaladurgas', and Warangal and Dharanikota among the `sthaladurgas' were reckoned as the most famous strongholds in the Kakatiya period. The administration of the kingdom was organized with accent on the military.

    Though Saivism continued to be the religion of the masses, intellectuals favoured revival of Vedic rituals. They sought to reconcile the Vaishnavites and the Saivites through the worship of Harihara. Arts and literature found patrons in the Kakatiyas and their feudatories. Tikkana Somayaji, who adorned the court of the Telugu Chola ruler Manumasiddhi II, wrote the last 15 cantos of the Mahabharata which was lying unfinished. Sanskrit, which could not find a place in the Muslim-occupied north, received encouragement at the hands of the Kakatiyas. Prataparudra was himself a writer and he encouraged other literature.

    The Kakatiya dynasty expressed itself best through religious art. Kakatiya art preserved the balance between architecture and sculpture, that is, while valuing sculpture, it laid emphasis on architecture where due. The Kakatiya temples, dedicated mostly to Siva, reveal in their construction a happy blending of the styles of North India and South India which influenced the political life of the Deccan.The most important of these temples are those at Palampeta, Hanamkonda and the incomplete one in the Warangal fort. The temple at Palampeta, described as the `brightest gem in the galaxy of Medieval Deccan temple architecture', was constructed by Recherla Rudra, a general of Kakatiya Ganapati, in S.1135 (A.D.1213). The figures in the temple are of a heterogeneous character comprising gods, goddesses, warriors, acrobats, musicians, mithuna pairs in abnormal attitudes and dancing girls. The sculptures, especially of the dancing girls, possess the suggestion of movement and pulsating life. A striking peculiarity of this temple is the figure-brackets which spring from the shoulders of the outer pillars of the temple. The figure-brackets are mere ornaments and represent the intermediate stage between their earlier analogues at Sanchi and the later examples at Vijayanagara.

    The Thousand-Pillared Temple at Hanamkonda, built by the Kakatiya king Rudra in A.D.1162, is similar in style and workmanship to the Ramappa temple. This temple, dedicated to Siva, Vishnu and Surya, is star-shaped. The Nandi pavilion, in which a huge granite bull still stands, the beautiful entrances to the shrine, the pierced slabs used for screens and windows, and the elegant open work by which the bracket-shafts are attached to the pillars are the other most interesting features of this temple.

    The temple in the Warangal fort, believed to have been built by Kakatiya Ganapati, was constructed making use of large slabs. The floor of the shrine is beautifully polished and shines like a mirror. An interesting feature of this temple is the four gateways called `Kirti Stambhas' which face the four cardinal points of the compass. In their design the gateways are reminiscent of the `toranas' of the Great Stupa at Sanchi. The architecture and sculpture of these temples are thus conventional to a degree but no one can deny their magnificence nor can any one fail to see the rich imagination, patient industry and skilful workmanship of the builders of the temples of the Kakatiya period.

    After the fall of Kakatiyas, uncertainty prevailed over the region. Several small kingdoms came into existence, Musunuri Nayakas occupied Warangal from Muslims and ruled between A.D.1325--1368. The fall of Kakatiya kingdom and its annexation to the Tughlak empire made the Hindu feudatories to unite themselves to liberate the Andhra country from alien rulers. A movement was started at Rekapalli on the bank of the Godavari under the leadership of Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka and his cousin Kapaya Nayaka and succeeded in driving away the Muslims from the Telugu country in A.D.1328. Kapaya Nayaka became the ruler in A.D.1333, after the demise of Prolaya Nayaka, and Warangal was once again the capital of the Telugu Country.

    The Musunuri Nayaks were dethroned by Recherla Chiefs and ruled the entire Telangana from A.D.1325 to 1474 with Rachakonda as their capital. The coastal area was ruled by the Reddis of Kondavidu between A.D.1325 and 1424. ADDANKI was the first capital of reddy rajas which was later shifted to Kondavidu. There was also another branch of Reddis at Rajahmundry. In due course, Reddi kingdom disappeared in the hands of Vijayanagar kings, and Gajapatis of Orissa in the frequent battles with each other. The Gajapatis of Orissa with Cuttack as their capital extended their territory far into Telugu land by conquering the Reddis of Rajahmundry in A.D.1448. They also occupied some parts of the Bahmani kingdom. But, Vijayanagar king, Krishnadevaraya, occupied the entire Telugu region that was in the possession of Gajapatis. The Reddis and Recherla chiefs were the patrons of learning. The renowned poet Srinatha, and one of the three great poets who wrote the Mahabharata in Telugu, Errapraggada lived in that age.

    Warangal's fort, lying southeast of the present-day city, was once surrounded by two walls, traces of the outer wall remain, as do the four stone gateways ('sanchar') of the inner wall. A thousand-pillared temple, built in 1162, is located within the city itself. Warangal is now a commercial and industrial center.

    Prola Raja of the Kakatiya dynasty founded the place in the 12th century AD, but some identify it with Worakalli, the capital of the Adeva Rajas of Tuluva Andhra or Telengana in the 8th century AD. Warangal or Varankal is believed to be the Korun Kula of Ptolemy, while another name is Akshalinagar, evidently Yeksilanagar mentioned by Raghunath Bhaskar in his Aravachan Kosh.

    The ancient name of Warangal was known to be Orugallu or Omtikonda on account of huge boulder like hillock situated near the swayambhu Siva Temple and is also called "EKASILANAGARAM". In course of time, it was called as "Orugallu", and finally known as Warangal.

    Historians have deciphered writings on the walls of temples describing the names and gotrams (family groupings) of some ancient Raju rulers and the contributions made by them to the temples and towns. One such ancient inscriptions of Kakatiya Dynasty particulars are as shown below:

    No. 395. (A. R. No. 94 of 1917.) On the huge Nandi pillar lying near the ruined temple in Malkapuram, Guntur Taluk, Guntur District. (Published in the Journal of the Andhra Historical Research Society, Vol. IV, pp. 147-64.) S. 1183. (Durmati)

    Gives a detailed account of the Kakatiya family and of the foundation and pontifical succession of the Golaki-matha of the Saivas and states that king Ganapatideva promised the village of Mandara in the Velanadu-Kandravati country to his guru Visvesvara Sivacharya and that Ganapati's daughter Rudramadevi made a formal gift of that village along with the village of Velangapundi, that Visvesvara Siva established a new village with the name of Visvesvara-Golaki and peopled it with person of different castes brought from various parts of the country, that he also established the temple of Visvesvara, a Sanskrit college, a matha for Saivas, a choultry for feeding people without distinction of caste and creed, a general land a maternity hospital, besides some other things and that he made grants of land for the maintenance of all these institutions. Gives a detailed description of the administration of the trust and of the village affairs. Incidentally, it mentions a large number of other religious and charitable institutions established by Visvesvara Siva in several other places. Kakatiyas are described as belonging to the Solar race of Kshatriyas.

    These kakatiyas ( Kaikadis ) indeed seem to belong to Solar race warriors as they were related to the people of Mudiraj - koli - Bedar - Ramoshi community block, who accepted Sri Rama as their master. These people are part of dravidian bhil races to which not only Valmiki belonged but also the solar race emperor Sri Rama belonged.
    Ramappa Temple
    Ramappa Temple was built at Palampet near Warangal in Deccan and influenced by Chalukya and Hoysala architectural styles. It is near the ancient engineering marvel that is the 13th century Ramappa tank. Ramappa Temple also known as the Ramalingeswara temple, is located 77 km from Warangal, the ancient capital of the Kakatiya dynasty, 157 km from Hyderabad in the state of Andhra Pradesh in southern India.

    An inscription in the temple dates it to the year 1213 and said to have been built by a General Recherla Rudra, during the period of the Kakatiya ruler Ganapati Deva. This medieval temple is a Shivalaya (where Shiva is worshipped) and named after the sculptor who built it rather that after its presiding deity, Ramalingeswara. This beautiful temple, an example of brilliant Kakatiya dynasty art, was built on the classical pattern of being lifted above the world on a high star-shaped platform. The temple is so strong that it is still intact after numerous wars, invasions and natural calamities. There was a major earthquake during the 17th century which shook the Ramappa temple and the other nearby temples.

    This breathtakingly beautiful temple with brilliant Kakatiya art has been rightfully described as the "brightest star in the galaxy of mediaeval temples in the Deccan". It documents the glory and grandeur of the Kakatiya kingdom with rich intricate carvings on walls, pillars and ceilings brackets and ceilings. Starting at its base to its wall panels, pillars and ceiling are sculpted figures drawn from Hindu mythology. The special features of this temple include 12 breath- taking life size female fiququres of black basalt carved with considerable skill. Characteristic of the Kakatiya Sculpture is the Nandi carved out of a stone at the eastern portico of this temple. The Ramappa temple is a superb example of their love for art, music and dance. It is built with bricks so light that they are able to float on water. This inscription mentions three shrines to Rudreswara, Kateswara and Kameswara, of which the latter two are in ruins.

    Floating bricks of Ramappa Temple : The main attraction of Ramappa temple is the floating bricks and a warrior queen. These people who made the floating bricks for the construction of Ramappa Temple were not different race from those who built Adam's bridge between Rameswaram and Srilanka to fight Srirama's war against demon Ravana . These Kakatiyas are said to be Erukalas ( Kaikadi branch ) and part of Koli - Bhils ( Vanaras ) who are are known for their expertise in hydrology and water management. They were the same people who built great cities of Harappa and Mahenjodaro in Sindhu River basin. Kakatiyas and Vijayangar kings undertook the construction of rural lakes and canals for irrigation. Kolis in the North India are also known as experts in water management.

    Ramappa Temple Lake : As the tradition of Kakatiya rulers, a tank was excavated adjacent to the temple, which is called the Ramappa Lake . Ramappa Lake is situated about 1 Km away from Ramappa temple near Palampet in Venkatapur Mandal. The lake holds a great scenic beauty, with its serene surroundings, giving a mystical air to the temple. The ancient Ramappa tank dating back to the period of Kakatiyas is a well conceived one where an earthen dam, about 2000 feet long connects a semi cicrular chain of hills to form a lake. Ramappa Lake is a magnificient example of irrigation work of Kakatiya Rulers constructed in 13- Century A.D. during Ganapathi Deva's time. Its water is spread over an area of more than 82 Sq.Kms with lush greenery all around. The lake is over looked by beautiful hill ranges in the background providing a spectacular view especially at Sunset time.

    Pakal Lake : Pakhal 50km from Warangal, is situated amidst undulating forest- clad hills and dales Pakhal Lake, a popular retreat, was completed around 1213 AD by the Kakatiya dynasty. Set around the shores of this lake is the Pakhal wildlife Sanctuary covering an area of 900sq. km. Its dense forest shelter tiger, leopard animals and birds. The best season to visit Pakhal is October- March.

    Recharla Rudra : Rudra was one of the generals of Ganapatideva. Recherla Rudra was Commander-In-Chief (Senani), of Kakatiya king Ganapathi Deva's army. He had built, supervised the construction of Ramappa Lake (1156) and Ramappa Temple (1213), both are intact even today. Recherla Rudra, the commander-in-chief of the Kakatiya ruler, saved the kingdom from crumbling after the death of Mahadeva and the captivity of Ganapati.The people having Recharla gotra are there in Mudiraj, Velama, Kamma and also Mala communities. Malas are said to be equivalent to kapus in ancient times but they were pushed down in socio-economic ladder after some clash with kapus. Since Kapu / balija represent Mudiraju bantlu during medieval times, the malas could be representing konda ( hill = Malai => mala ) kapus. It is understood that many konda kapus assumed the title of Reddy. These Reddys got B.C or lower status and enjoyed govt. previllages.

    Origin of Kaikadis
    According to one of the legends about the origin of Kaikadis ( Kaikads ), they are said to be the descendants of the ever angry and revengeful Parasuram. Renuka was the wife of Jamadagni and mother of Parasuram. One day she failed to turn the holy sand of ganges into pots and carry water home for performing daily spiritual rituals by Jamadagni muni. The muni observing the failure of Renuka, and suspecting his wife to be guilty of a liaison with a Dher, had them both beheaded by his Parashuram. After that Parashuram implored his father to suspend his wrath, and to show mercy to his mother by restoring her to life. At his entreaty, the sage relented, and desired Renuka's trunk and head to be brought in contact. Parashuram, in his haste, adapted Dher's head to the trunk of his mother, which so enraged the irascible sage that he cursed his son and doomed him to the procreator of the vole race of Kaikadis. Renuka, who came to life with male head, became the patron diety of the tribe, under the name of Ellamma.

    The tutelary God of Kaikaris ( Kaikadis ) is the Nag or Cobra who is worshipped at marriages and on the day of Nag-Panchami. They also worshi Khandoba, the Maratha God of war. Kaikaris make bamboo baskets. Khandoba is said to be the South Indian God of Skanda (Kartikeya), the God of thieves such as bedars, vedars, ramoshis, etc relating to Mudiraja - Mutharaya clans. The Kaikaris eat flesh including pork and fowls, but not beef. when a Kaikari woman commits fornication with a man of another caste, she may be restored to her original status by having her head shaved at a river. Their social staus is low.

    Kaikadi => Kaikari => Kaikaree => Kaikadee => Kaikade

    Kaikadis are a tribe from Marathwada- central and western Maharashtra. Jadhavs and Gaikwads of Maharastra are said to be sub groups of kaikadi tribe. Some kaikadis are seen using Gaikwad title with their names. The Baroda Royal House the Gaikwads originate from Gawalas or Gwalas or cowherders. The Jadhavs came in Maharasthra from Gujarat and they were descendetnts of King Subahu. The Jadhav dynasty of Maharashtra was founded at Anjaneri, a Jain pilgrimage center near Nashik. A Jadhav king renewed the famous Jain temple of Chandraprabhu near Nashik. Later they ruled from Devgiri. There is a Jain temple on the fort of Devgiri which belongs to this dynasty. The Jain Harivansh Puran and Jain Pandav Puran give lot of information regarding Yadavs.The Yadav Dynasty of Halebid (Karnataka) was great follower of Jainism. This makes it clear that Gaikwads, yadavs, jadhavs, kurubas, kuruvas, koravas, korwas, kaikaris, kaikadis and erukalas are all related tribes of bhil - banjara - koli dravidians. In Telugu language, Kaapala means to protect ( to look after ). Inn Tamilnadu the village protectors were known as kavalgars and Andhra they were known as Kapu

    Gaai = Gai = Cow
    Kaapala => Kaavala => Kaawala =Kawal = to protect
    Kaapala => Kapala => Kapu
    Kawala => Kavala = > Kavalgar

    Gai + kawala = Gaikawala
    Gaikawala => Gaikwala => Gaikwal => Gaikwad
    Gaikwad = One looks after ( protects ) cows.
    Note : Gaikwads seems to be the descendants of Bhil Eruklas, who handled animal herds of royal courts in gujerat.

    Gaai = Gai = Go = Govu = Cow
    Waala = Wala = fellow = owner
    Govu ( Telugu ) = Gaai (Hindi) = Cow ( English )

    Go + Wala = Gowala => Gwala => Gvala
    Gowala => Gowlla => Golla
    Golla = One looks after cows.

    Even during the Great Wars of Shivaji and Sambhaji, Gaikwads have served the Maratha Empire and they were even given the Jagirs by the Raje Shivaji and Raje Sambhaji. Some Gaikwad regions are also found in places of Marathwada also of Maharashtra. Gaikwads of Baroda were termed for their Foresight in Education where the greatest example would be of The Great Man of Honour in Intellect, Bharat Ratna Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar for offering a Scholarship for Education when all the Bhramins denied rudely to grant Ambedkar, the Scholarship.

    Gaikwads were the erstwhile rulers of Vadodara. Vadodara is also known as Gaikwadi Town. The ruling Gaikwads had developed the port at Okha during the early part of 20th century. The history of Okhamandal upto 1800 seems to be uneventful but since this date, until their final extermination or submission the Vadhelas and Vaghers came up repetedly against to the British and the Gaikwads. The Gaikwads had their own Navy in order to check in piracy and for providing protection to their shores. Lord Wellesly (LW) obtained control over the Gaikwars of Baroda in 1802. The Gaikwars of Baroda were the Patels of Davli, a village near Talegaon near Pune. Within a couple of years of 1813, the Gaikwars became one of the Allies of the British. Gaikwars always had in their service Muhammadan sardars and Arab and Rohilla mercinaries, whose descendats were supported by the state.

    The whole Gomati ghat at Dwaraka was once renovated with fixing Chobari stones brought from Rajula during Gaikwadi rule. Gaikwars were the confidential servants of Dhabaru family. The Gaikwars always bury their dead, the corpse being laid naked on its back with the feet pointing to the south. Gaikwars worshi their ancestors. Gaikwadi state in Gujarat had several declared ceriminal tribes. Ravishankar 'Maharaj' managed to get the practice of hajari (reporting to a police station) abolished from the Gaikwadi state for the 'criminal castes'.

    Kaikadis or Kaikaris are also known to belong to Gujarat which is main home land of major Bhil - koli tribes who built Hapappa & Mahenjodaro. The very name KAIKADI, itself seems to be a modification of the title GAIKWAD. People having Gaikdi surname are there in Warangal district of Andhra Pradesh and they could be the people whose ancestors were Gaikwad clans from Gaikwadi state. There are also people having Gaikwadi surname in Karnool, Andhra Pradesh. It could be possible that a branch of Gaikwads who were basically cowherders ( Gwallas / Gollas / Yadavas ) might have merged into bhil - Erukala hunting community. It could also be possible that branch of bhil hunters took to the profession of looking after cows & goats ( animal husbandry ) and became yadavs. In Telugu Yeddu / Yaddu means Ox. The tribe who took to the profession of looking after Oxen might have come to be known as Yadu vamsis.

    Gaikwad => Gaikwadi
    Gaikwadi => Gaikadi => Kaikadi
    Gaikwadi => Gaikwari => Gaikari => Kaikari

    Yaddu = Ox
    Yaddu => Yadu => Yadav
    Yadavas are those drvidian bhils who used to look after Oxen, cows, goats and sheep herds.

    From the above, it becomes clear that Kaikadis or Kaikaris are originally the Gaikwads belonging to Yadava clans. These clans are also known to have close relations through matrimonial alliances in Tamilnadu. The Velirs ( Yadavas ) and Mutharayars of Tamilnadu maintained such matrimonial relations and there are several common surnames among Yadava and Mudiraj communities in Andhra.

    Pardhi Korwas : Erukalas are also known as Korwas, pardhis, bowrees, etc. The pardhis belong to the great predatory bawari tribe of Gujerath, scattered under different appelations all over India and very ancient and, illustrious descent.

    They are said to be the descendants of one Ummur Singh Pardhee, who accompanied Sri Rama in his expedition for the recovery of Sita from the clutches of demon Ravana of Srilanka. The Baori tribe were originally rajapoots and their ancestors came from Marwar and they were at the head of nine clans or gotes or gotras, as follows - Tomur alias Tunwur, Guhlote, Soolnukhe alias solunkee, Dubas alias Dabee, Pawar alias powar , Dhundhura alias Dhandul alias Dhumdara or colee or koli, Chowhan, Budharah, Gordhee and Dhandul, and they came from the Deccan country, and of their having taken up their habitation in these localities, and their reason for doing so was that the head of their ancestors was a man named Ummur Singh, and his title of that of Pardhee, who eat every animal without scuple, and his occupation was that of hunting; he used to eat the meat of animals, and birds of every desciption, except that of cow, peacocks, and cocks. On return from Sri Lanka with victory, he settle in Duccan country near chittoorgurh, with the permission of Sri Rama, to hunt and live in the forests.

    There are 42 nomadic tribes in Maharashtra. One of them known as "PARDHIS" are branded as bandits since the days of British Rule. Every time a theft, robbery or dacoity takes place, all the Pardhi males in the adjoining places are rounded up and taken into police custody. Pardhis have no permanent abodes. They live in make-shift tents, moving from place to place. The Pardhis, however, are an extremely close-knit community with social codes, customs and norms of their own. Murder, assault, beating, torture, etc. are all taken in thier stride as a way of life by the Pardhis. Their family codes are extremely severe. The government had recognised Pardhis as a "criminal caste".

    The pal- Pardhi are a community of hunters. The Pardhi community has traditional skills in relation with wildlife and animal behavior. The name of the community is derived from two words pal and pardh. Pal means tent and pardh means hunters. Thus the people who love forest products and live in tents are the pal pardhis. They say that their forefathers from Rajastan, mainly from Chittorgarh area where Rana Pratap fought with Mughals and fled to the jungle.

    For over eighty years under British rule in India, the entire Pardhi tribe were classified 'criminal' based on anecdotal evidence from corrupt police. Police were given sweeping powers to arrest them and watch over their movements. Banabai is from the Pardhi community, one of the 150 'denotified' tribes which were branded 'criminal' under British law after they rebelled against the British Raj. Even though independent India repealed the Criminal Tribe Act in 1949, officially removing the criminal label, they still face discrimination.

    Phase Pardhi or Phasse Pardhi are a tribe in India. The tribe often faces harassment by Indian law enforcement agencies. The tribe is found mostly in Maharashtra and parts of Madhya Pradesh. The Phasse are a sub tribe of the Pardhi caste. Pardhi is the term for "hunter". The community says they are driven to crime due to discrimination and the abject poverty they are in. Often landlords take advantage of this and use the Pardhis to carry out crimes. The Pardhis, who have sub-tribes like Bawadiya, Mogia, Chidimar and Bahelia, were branded as "criminal" tribes in 1871 by the British for their hunting and poaching activities. In 1952, the tribe was denotified as "criminal" and named a nomadic tribe. The Muthracha (mudiraj) were also listed under denotified tribes and this cate was shifted to B.C group.

    Pardhi community traces its belongings to Rajasthan a few hundred years down the history. Having fought for Maharana Pratap against Moguls, the community was displaced from their homeland due to Mogul intolerance after the defeat of their king. Thus, having taken to Nomadic life since centuries, today this community finds itself to have taken refuge in some regions centered about Marathwada. Their gradual descent from the north to south has manifested in their dialect which is a mix of Marwari, Gujarati and Marathi.

    History has it that the Pardhis played an active role in sustained decentralized resistance against the British. And hence, the British put the tag of criminal on anyone born in this community, and also on those who kept any associations with them. Ironically, as reward for their patriotism, they were labeled a criminal tribe officially and gradually got isolated from the mainstream of the society. The Pardhis, nevertheless, are very sharp, brave and highly skilled warriors and craftsmen. Being a warrior tribe they are generally cold-blooded which makes some of them dreadful dacoits.

    At one time things were different: the Pardhis were entertainers and animal handlers ( Gaikwads ) in the royal courts, and were sometimes rewarded for their performances with grants of land - grants which now have no legal validity. The kaikadi name of erukalas was due to corruption of Gaikwad (Yadavas). Sahitya Akademi award-winning writer Lakshman Maruti Gaikwad, whose books chronicle the pain and anguish suffered by his community, the Pardhis, continues the struggle against this injustice.

    The Pardhi Bhil are a migrant people, scattered over a wide area of central India in the states of Andrah Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, and Maharashtra. Their language, Pardhi, is one of the Bhil languages. The Pardhi were scattered into other areas, taking whatever jobs were available. Today, the Pardhi Bhil consist of many distinctive sub-groups. Pardhis are of two types one is Phasse Pardhi and another is Gaon Pardhi. Phasse Pardhi are basically involved in hunting and Gaon(villlage) Pardhis are involved with in stone work. Originally Phasse Pardhis were located in Gujurat, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. Gaon Pardhis are basically from Rajasthan. They are followers of Maharana Pratap. When Maharana Pratap died these peoples suffered a great deal. They migrated to Maharashtra and started works like stone brugging and farming. Gaon Pardhis are found mostly in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra and in districts like Buldana, Akola and Amravati. Many of the Pardhi Bhil live scattered throughout the Bombay region. They have become a wandering tribe of game and bird hunters, living in primitive huts that are made of mud and sticks. Those who live in Kutch, (northwestern Gujarat), enjoy catching snakes, and many of them have become snake charmers. Many Pardhi groups make and sell baskets, while others make black-stone vessels.

    The Gardi community is a group of sub castes such as Bhils, Laman, Vanzara, Pardhi, Mahadeo Koli, Masan Jogi and other Maratha subcastes living in the Deccan between Burhanpur on banks of Tapi up to Hyderabad in Telangana region. The major part of Gardhi subcaste communities have settled in Mathawada region of Mahararashtra bordering Hyderabad and Telangana regions, some of their rituals they claim to have originated 250 years ago from Gardhi traditions. Some castes in the Pardhi community of Burhanpur worship Ibrahim Khan Gardi as well as Suleiman Khan Gardhi in their rituals & ballads. Pardhi community have developed special aptitude to handle weaponry such as guns and pistols as well as dynamite. Their forefathers, the Gardhis, were essentially musketeers serving as personal guards of the Peshwas with an extreme sense of loyalty to their masters. The same trend continues with the Pardhi community.

    Erukalas :
    Yerukala is a community found largely in the Southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Yerukalas are indigenous people of South India. They call themselves 'Kurru'. They are called as 'Yerukula' after their women's traditional profession of fortune telling (eruka chepputa). People of this community are called with different names in different parts of South India. They are called as Kuruvan or Kuruvar in Tamilnadu, Korama or Koracha in Karnataka, Kaikadi in Maharashtra, Siddanar in Kerala, Kattu Naicker in Pondicherry and the Korwas of Central India. Erukalas are inter-state nomads. In essence, all these communities form a great big community from south india. The gothras among all these communities is the same, i.e Kavadi, Sathupadi, Maanupadi and Mendraguthi.

    The people of Erikala tribe can be seen nearby Nalamalla forest, at their hamlet at Lingala Mandal, in the Mahbubnagar district of Andhra Pradesh, located some 170 km from Hyderabad. The Erikala tribals, part of India's Scheduled Tribes (ST) -- Indian communities that are accorded special status by the Constitution of India --, earn their livelihood mainly by making bamboo products, such as bamboo baskets, fences or hand fans. The 4.2 million ST population constitute about six percent of the total population of Andhra Pradesh

    Ahukuntika clan is a gypsy community in Srilanka. Ahukuntika gypsy community is said to be from Telugu speaking areas, who have migrated to Srilanka more than 400 years back. Ahukuntikas belong mostly to kurava, vaddera and Yerukala castes. They are mostly visible in the districts of Anuradhapura, Puttlan and in Colombo. There are around 410 families of this gypsy community. Their occupations include snake charming and their women are engaged in fortune telling/palm reading, 'saasthare'. For the last 15 years or so, this nomadic community is gradually becoming a sedentary community.

    The Yerukalas are considerable population, almost 6 lakhs as of today, they are spread out thinly in the state of Andhra Pradesh. According to the Census data reports of 2001, literacy rate of Yerukalas in Andhra Pradesh is 45.4%, highest among the ST population of Andhra Pradesh. Yerukula community is believed to have the second largest tribal population in the State. There is a significant increase in the literacy rate. The town of Pulivendula has a sizable colony of Erukalas, a scheduled tribe, some of whom were known for their unruly ways. The town of Pulivendula has a sizable colony of Erukalas, a scheduled tribe, some of whom were known for their unruly ways.

    There is one Erukala settlement by name Stuartpuram near Bapatla in Andhra Pradesh. Stuartpuram is known as a well known place for thieves of all varieties. They were known to stop trains on Vijayawada - chennai route going by the side of their settlement and rob the passangers in broad day light. Most of them are convertede to Chritianity. But still they visit Tirupati and tonsure their heads as per the practice their Hindu ancestors. This is the beauty of Indian tribal customs & practices that they accept every religion that comes on their way but they will never try to discord and disrepect their ancestors way of living. These are the Indian Tribal people who really created Hinduism that preaches freedom of worship and true reflection of God in all existence.

    Yerukalas worship Hindu benevolent Gods i.e. Lord Venteswara, Narasimhaswamy, Narayanaswamy and Rama. The Yerukalas are a spirit haunted and ghost-ridden people and attribute every disease or misfortune to the action of some malevolent spirits and ancestral ghosts. The influence of evil spirit is averted by sacrificing goats, pigs, fowls etc. They worship benevolent Gods, which are common Gods in Hindu pantheon and appease malevolent deities such as Ankamma, Kollapuramma, Sunkulamma, Poleramma and Ellamma. The Yerukalas celebrate Hindu festivals such as Sankranthi, Sivarathri, Sreeramanavami, Dasara, Ugadi (Telugu New Year's Day).

    It is said that Boyas ( Bhils ), Chenchus, Yanadis, and Koravas were the children of Nishudu (Nishadha ?). While Boyas are known to be the legitimate children, the others are known as illigitimate children of Nishudu. Ethnically Korwas or Korvas of Karnaraka are a branch of Eruklas. But it appears that while Korwas are predominantly Shiva worshippers, the Erukalas are predomintly Vishnu worshippers. Further, the worship of Goddess Ankamma by Mudiraj people and also by Erukalas provides us with a clue that they belong to the same militant warrior dravidian races of India.

    The Yerukalas seems to be a kind of Bhil - banjara - vanjara tradesmen similar to Banijigas and Balijas whose earliest profession was trade & commerce. While balijas and Mudirajas gradually settled down in villages by accepting village related professions, the Erukalas continued to with their nomadic life style. The Yerukala tribe is divided into a number of functional and endogamous sub-divisions and each such sub-division is named after the commodity, which they traded in and the occupation they adopted. The sub-divisions of Yerukula are Dabba Yerukala (those who make baskets from split bamboo), Eethapullala Yerukula (Date twigs) (those whom make baskets from wild date leaves), Kunchapuri Yerukala (those who make weaver's combs), Parikamuggula Yerukala (sooth sayers and beggars), Karivepaku Yerukala (hawkers of curry leaves), Uppu Yerukala (salt hawkers).

    People having surname Chavata are among Erukalas. The surname Chawata & Chowti belong to Balija and Mudiraju (Telugu Bants). The Balijas were part of the sections of Mudiraju Bantlu during medieval times. The Chowtas and Chowta dynasty on Western Coast of Karnataka belonged to Tuluva Bunts. The Chavada surname among Erukalas points to the hidden fact that these people belong to Mudiraju warrior block with fishing and hunting backgrounds. The Erukalas due to their non-settlement in civilised village socities, continued to be with their characteristic militant warrior behaviour which is known as criminal behaviour in modern society.

    The Yerukalas, a gipsy tribe who live by making wicker baskets and the like, will eat rats, cats, the village pig and almost anything they can get ; and yet, strange to say, they are not looked upon as unclean in the same way as the Panchamas are considered to be. They are even allowed to draw water from the caste wells, a privilege that is denied the outcast, who must not even go near or look into a well that is used by caste people.

    Erukalas were hunters and moved around with arms such as axes, swords, knives and arrows. The Erukalas of Bellary, the Kallars of Madurai & Tanjore and the Bedars of Karnataka & Maharastra are closely related tribes of Mudiraja block with militant behaviour. Ancient Erukulas also have Ayurvedic knowledge similar to many other bhil tribes of India. Chenchus, Sugalis and Yerukalas are the main tribes inhabiting the Nallamalais forest in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India. Fifty seven plants species are enumerated for their medicinal uses in curing diarrhoea, dysentery and skin diseases. Yerukalas are semi nomadic - tribe also known as korava or koracha in Nalgonda. Their main occupation is Basket making and piggery.

    The Yerukalas are one of the most subjugated sections of Indian society who have been the victims of historical dislocations, unconventional occupations, colonial legacy and social stigma. Instead of celebrating the militant and heroic heritage of these warrior community people who were designated as 'criminal tribes' by the British rulers, the independent India continues to ill-treat them. With cruel irony constant harassment in fact drives some of them to crime. It may be noted here that many tribes who were declared as "criminal Tribes" by British, belonged to various subcaste and sections of Mudiraj and their variants in India.

    Erukalas have their own language in which they talk to each other. In fact, they even speak to their animals in that language. It has a script which is similar to Kannada. Their words seem to contain a mixure of Tamil, Telugu and Kannada. In Andhra Pradesh the Lambada language which is spoken by many, never found its way into the curriculum. Similarly, the Koya and Gond languages were destroyed by Telugu linguistic nationalism. Erukalas also call their language Oodra. Oriya means North. It confirms that Erlukalas are Bhil - koli dravidians who invaded South in the name of Kalabhras having Jain & Buddhist links. These Erukala bhil kalabras who were related to Chandragupta Mourya and Ashoka initially moved upto Southern borders ( Thirupathi ) Kalinga kingdom and settled there as soldiers and suicide squad members. They invaded the Brahmin influenced chola, chera, and pandiyan countries after the collapse of Kalinga kingdom, after its collapse due to assasination of the last Mourya king by a Brahmin minister.

    Koravars:
    Korava is another name of Erukalas in Tamilnadu. There are around 30 different castes with names which sounded and looked like Koravar. And almost all the academics (sociologists and anthropologists alike) have agreed and accepted that Koravar is just one big community with same Gotras and surnames. Irulas, Korambas, Sboligas, and others—are the existing microscopic remnant of a pre-Dravidian people in Nilgiris. The deity of the Koramas of Madras consists of five branches of the sacred Neem tree and a cocoanut, which are kept in a brass pot. The Koravar people are divided into small communities and became minorities with no real strength. There are an estimated 12 lakh members of the community spread over Tamil Nadu.

    A section of koravas, called koot ( dancing ) or kothee (monkey" kaikars. It is possible that kaikadis of Central proviences are identical with Koravas, who have migrated thither. The last Muhammadan prince who reigned over Mysore is said to have employed a regular battalion of the korava men in time of war, not for the purpose of fighting, but to infest the enemy's camp in the night, stealing away the horses and other necessaries of the officers, and acting as spies.

    Tribial Research Centre, Ooty, Tamilnadu has conducted ethnological study on this community and their cultural anthropological framework and revealed that Koravaror, Kuravan or Koravans or Kuravans are all belonged to the same community of `Koravars.' The study also revealed that the traditional occupation, rituals, dialect, kinship terms etc. of Koravar community had several tribal characteristics. The ST status for these people is not extended to all s of Tamilnadu. In some other places in South India, they are also known as Koracha, Korachar, Korama and Korava.

    In Tamilnadu the watchmen are mostly from Kallar, valayar and Koravar communities and this points to the hidden fact that they are racially one and the same people but divided in society because of different socio-economic levels among them. Kallars and valayars are already known as subcastes of Mutharayar community in Tamilnadu. The fact that the presence of Telugu chettiyars with Koravar gotram indicates that some of the Erukalas / Koravars occupied high level administrative posts duriing medieval times. Recharla were related to Kakatiyas. The Recharla gotra among Mudiraj, velama and kamma undoubtedly points to the fact that kakatiyas primarily belonged to Mudiraja hunting & fishing community because of their professional and Goddess worship backgrounds.

    . Korwas
    Korwa is a kolarian ( koli) tribe of Chota Nagapur plateau. The Korwas are one of the wildest tribes of India. the Korwas, who always carry bows and arrows with them. The Korwas are one of the Scheduled Tribes of India.

    Kolarian = Koliyan = Koli

    Korwa is another name used to refer to the Erukalas in India. Korwas are primarily a primitive tribe of Chhattisgarh, found in the north-eastern region of the state. Pahari Korwas, one of the social groups of Korwa Scheduled Tribe is still living at primitive stage. Isolated by the extensive forests and different terrains, the Pahari Korwas inhabiting this region, have preserved their traditions, custom and material culture, which are in all respect different from the life of those tribes who are leading a settled life. The Pahari Korwas of Chhattisgarh, a primitive tribe, have a much lower access to basic services in comparison to the Meenas of Rajasthan.

    Korva => Korwa => Korwah
    Korva => Korwa => Kora => Kori

    Hill Korwas are one of the four primitive tribes of Chhattisgarh. They are spread in Sarguja, Raigarh, Jashpur, Raipur and Bilaspur districts of Chhattisgarh. The area has a number of primitive tribes such as Korwas and smaller groups of Baiga. They live in hilly forest areas isolated from the impact of modern civilization. Their name "Hill Korwa" derives from the fact of their preference in living in hills. A majority of them are illiterate, poor, superstitious, and lack trust in modern system of medicine. The Korwas hang rags on the trees which form the shrines of the village-gods. The Korwas of Sarguja have periodical sacrifices to Kali in which many buffaloes are slaughtered. Koris a branch of kolis and mudiraj people are known as kolis in South India.

    Hill- Korwas drink most popular drink known as Hadia which is prepared from the flour of rice, Gondly or mahua. From Mahua flowers liquor is also prepared but the Hill-Korwas prefer hadia to liquor. The Korwas and Rajis live on wild fruit and tree roots. In Hindi language, Pahadi means Hill and in Telugu language it means Konda. It is said that Gond people got their name from Konda. Orissa , Chattishgarh and Madhya Pradesh states are inhabited by Gond tribes. This region is also known as Gondwana plateau. Racially pahari - korwas and gonds may be the same people. Tribes like the Erukalas, Koravars, Korwas, Koras, Gonds, and Khonds are Dravidians.

    Konda = Pahadi = Pahari = Hill
    Konda => Gonda => Gond
    Konda = Khond

    Ambikapur is a small census town in the Surguja district of the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. It is around 350 km north-east of Raipur. Among the indigenous tribes who live in this rural area are the Pandos and Korwas. Ambikapur is connected to the capital of Chhattisgarh Raipur via a rail route and by highway. The Pahadi Korwas, inhabiting the hilly regions of Jashpur and Sarguja districts of Madhya Pradesh were so fierce once that they had struck terror in the hearts of the plainsmen. Such was their power and dominance that even the Britishers had failed to subjugate them completely. Known as one of the most 'primitive' tribes in India, the pahari korwas were primarily a hunter and gatherer community living a nomadic life, indulging in slash and burn agriculture, hunting and gathering herbs as they moved along from one place to another. Having been traditional hunters for centuries, the tribesmen are now in a dilemma, as they struggle to adapt themselves to the changing circumstances through farming. The depleting forest cover had already dealt a heavy blow to their natural living.

    In the hills of Amarakantak in Chattishgarh dwell some of the most primitive of the Madhya Pradesh tribals, the Hill Korwas and Pandavas (Pandos). For Pandos, the local tribals and descendants of the Pandavas, it is a fighting for survival and for Korwas, the descendant of the Kauravas, it is a losing battle for water in Surguja district. With large-scale deforestation, the Pandos are threatened seriously. The situation of Korwas is no better. Of the few thousands Korwas in the country, the largest population is in Surguja. Major population in sarguja comprises tribal population.

    Kauravas & Pandavas : Among these primitive tribes are Pando and Korwa , who are still living in forest, the Pando tribes believes themselves as the member of "Pandav" clan of epic Mahabharat. Korwa tribes believes to be member of "Kauravs" of Mahabharata. This indicates that Kauravas and Pandavas were of indigineous Drvidians or mixed race warriors belonging to Bhil - Koli races.

    Korba district comes under Bilaspur division and is inhabited mainly by tribals including the protected tribe Korwas (Pahadi Korwa). The Korwas were a big community. These people built forts and were ruling Podi-Uprora, Lafa, Chaiturgarh, Kosgi, Chhuri etc. They used to fight with the neighboring places to increase their Zamidari. A king named Ghughus belonging to community of Korwas, ruled over Ratanpur. After this, the kingdom belonged to the Rajput King Ratan Singh. Ranga and Banga were, Somar Kshatriyas, who the commander of the Army under raja Ratan Singh.Yogeshwar Dayal Singh belonged to their fourth generation.

    HISTORY books describe the Korwas of Madhya Pradesh as a "criminal tribe". It is a stigma they have lived with for generations, simply because the British found them too unruly to be civilised. Independence has made no difference as census reports of the Indian Government continue to describe them as criminals. They are most savage and terrifying," observed Col Philip Dalton, a surveyor during the British Raj. Various clans trace their descent to a particular tree or animal. The Hazeda Korwas, for instance, belong to the bamboo tree, the Mudiyas are from a canine lineage while the Ginu Korwas are said to have descended from an ant hill!. But the common strand that binds them together is their faith in Khuria Rani. "The goddess is believed to have protective powers," "A goat, coconut, red hen, milk, vermillion and lighted lamp are offered on every auspicious occasion to appease the deity. Before the British banned human sacrifice, the Korwas sacrificed a Brahmin male child to the goddess every year. Even today, no Brahmin enters the temple of Khuria Rani.". The Korwas are expert hunters and love to kill a bird flying or an animal running. Before setting out on a hunt, they worship their bows and arrows while seeking the blessings of Lord Shiva and Goddess Durga. They are also very fond of dacoity and proceed on expeditions, often accompanied by their women.

    The Korwas are one of the scheduled tribes of Central India. They live in the hills, valleys, and forests of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. They speak a Munda language, also called Korwa, which belongs to the Austro-Asiatic language family. There are two very distinct tribes among the Korwas: the Diharia (or Kisan), who are farmers, and the Paharia (or Benwaria), who live in the hills. These two tribes do not inter-marry. The Korwas and Bhotias have a custom by which on the death of the elder brother the younger brother can claim the widow.

    Korwas also live in Noth Estern proviences of India. A few of these people live in the low scrub jungle of South Mirzapur. The true Korwa neither sows nor reaps; he lives in the forest with his sharp spud digs up the edible roots which, with fruits of jungle trees, consists of his food. He uses bow and arrow to hunt animals and birds for food. Korawis of the pure unmixed dravidian race.

    Korchas
    The Erukalas are known as Korcha, Koracha, Korama in Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Telangana and some other Southern regions in India. As per some available information, the Brinjaris and korchas were salt carriers. Before the days of trains, the wandering Korachas and Lambadis lived by trading with the west coast. The Korchas come under the same caste category of banjaras in Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh and they are from bant / bunt origins to which some sections of Mudiraj also belong.

    These korchas were once the vanarajas ( kings of forests ) and they are artisans today. They are treated like criminals in their own home land as they simply earn their livelihood by making bamboo baskets. They were branded as the criminal tribes by the modern society, which exploits the forest resources in a more reckless manner. Take the case of the Korachas, a scheduled caste group resident in Shimoga District of Karnataka. They have traditionally eked out their livelihood making baskets using bamboo available in the forest. In recent years, these artisans have been deprived of their access to bamboo. Forest officials had taken stringent measures to stop them from cutting bamboo shoots in the forest. They have been branded as the enemies of the forest and have been made to appear as being the tribals solely responsible for the depletion of the forests. Security guards make special efforts to catch these artisans when they cut and transport the bamboo in a clandestine way, which they are forced to do in order to survive.

    Koramas / Kurumas / Kurubas
    Koramas were traditionally nomadic grain traders and basket-makers. The Koramas call themselves as Korama-Settys. In certain districts of Karnataka, they come under S. C category.

    The Koracha, Korama or Korava are a numerous wandering tribe, who carry salt and grain from one market to another by means of large droves of cattele and asses, and also make bamboo mats and baskets. The women are skilful in tattooing

    Kumhar-Yemkala are the Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India. Kumhar seems to be kuruma / korama and Yamkala sounds like Erukala. Korama, Kuruma and Kuruba seems to be some what related tribes belonging to the same aboriginal dravidian races. As Dr. Ambedakar has said that Kurubs may the kalabhras to which Eruklas too belonged. Here we may also note that Kaikadi Erukalas are related to Yadava Gaikwads and the Kurubas are also said to be yadavas. From this we can conclude that korama or kuruma are the same as kuruba by race and they be different by profession as per geographical reasons.

    Erukala = Koracha = Korama
    Korama => Kuruma => Kuruba
    Erukalas - they primarily evolved into hunters and basket makers.
    Kurubas - they primarily developed into sheperds.

    The appelation Koracha or Korcha appears to be of later date than korava and is said to derived from the Hindustani Kori (sly), korri nigga ( sly look) becoming corrupted into Korcha. There are people who are known as koris and whose trditional profession is weaving and considered to be a variants of kolis. Sant Kabir is said to belong kori community. This once again proves that erukalas are part of bhil-koli dravidian warrior tribes.

    The 'Kuruban' are honey gatherering tribe and they live near Nagarhole (Rajiv Gandhi) National Park is 93 Km south west of Mysore, between Kodagu ( Coorg ) and Mysore districts. Kurumba language belongs to dravidian family under subgroup Kodagu. The Kodagu was ruled by Mudduraja (Mudiraj ) clans. The Moopans who form a subcaste of Mutharayars in Tamilnadu also belong to this kuruban category. The alternative names of kurumba language are - Kurumbar, Kurubas, Kuruban, Kurumba, Palu Kurumba, Kuremban, Kurumban, Southern Kannada, Kuramwari, Kuruba, Kurumar, Kuruma, Kurumvari, Canarese Kurumbas, Korambar, Kurubar, Kuruman, Moopan and Kurumans.

    Kurubars are shepherds and traditional blanket weavers. The population of Kurubar manufacture cumblis or coarse blankets, of wool imported from Davangere, Kankuppa and Madaksira. Sir Walter Elliott tells us that the Kurubars and Santals, barbarous hill-tribes of Central India, are noted for veracity. It is a common saying that a Kurubar always speaks the truth. Kurumba, Kuruba, Kurubar, Kuruva are Castes / Sub-castes / Synonyms against item 118 of Bcakwars .Castes in Pndicherry.

    Kapp (1985) identified seven distinct Kurumbas tribes in the Nilgiris on the basis of region of residence. They are Alu Kurumbas, Palu Kurumbas, Mudugas, Betta Kurumbas, Jenu Kurumbas, Mullu Kurumbas and Urali Kurumbas. The Alu Kurumbas speaks Tamil dialect mixed with more Kannada words. The Kurumba are divided into many exogamous phatries, which are further divided into clans. They practice cross-cousin marriage. They follow the custom of burial with elaborate funeral rituals, which differ according to sex, age and rank. The Kurumaba were hunters, shifting cultivators, labourers and basket waevers. They recognize a village headman called 'Maniagara' who preside the Kurumba tribal council.

    The kurumbars are also known as koragas in some places. The Koragas are one of the most primitive tribes, living in Kasaragod ( Kasaragode) and manjeswar Taluks in Kerala.Their major stalk lives in Karnataka. The traditional occupation of these people is basket and skepe making. They are financially, educationally and culturally backward. Koragas are excellent basket and mat makers and live in woodland areas in India. Tribal communities of Tulunadu like Koragas and Mansas were practicing spirit worship but were not supposed to take the role in Pooja related matter. Rao pointed out that Koragas were once Sun worshippers. This is perfectly in line with the declaration of kakatiyas through inscriptions that they belonged to solar race.

    Gaikwads, Gwalas, Yadavas, Kurubas and erukalas have common racial and warrior strands. Though they are racially the same people, they are divided in nthe pretext of different names and minor differences in their professions, and reduced them to minorities in the modern society and thereby doing a great injustice to this great aboriginal warrior people. They were the warrior and militant rulers of ancient India prior to the arrival aryan races in India and even after that for many centuries. Kakatiya dynasty stands as one of the finest examples for the greatness of this Erukala - yadava block of communities.

    The kurubas and kurumas are racially one and the same people but kurubas seem to be socially a developed lot compared to kurumbas. The Kurumba of Nilgiri hills are treated entirely different from other community names like Kuruman, Kuruban or Kuruba. There is a confusion of names in regard to this tribe, that is the reason, Government of India, recognized them under the name 'Kurumbas' and to avoid confusion, it declared that, those Kurumbas who are living only in Nilgiri district are categoriyed as Scheduled Tribe and included them in the list of Primitive Tribal Groups.

    Kurumbar or Kurumans or Kurubaru caste are shepherds of South India. They are indigenous people of India. Even though they are called in different names like Kurumans, Kurumbar, Kurumba, Kuruba and these names are synonyms and one and the same. They speak Kuruman tribal Kannada language.

    Korava => Gorava

    The Kurubas in Karnatakas are also known as Goravas in some places. They worship mylara lingeswara in bellary districts of Karnataka. 'Goravas' are found in pilgrim centres like Anegondi (Raichur), Karimani (Belgaum), Kubatour (Shimoga), Devara Gudda, Hadagali Devihosur (Dharwad), Mylapur (Bidar), Mannu Mylara ( Bellary) and Mangasule (Belgaum). Most famous centres are Mudukthore in the Mysore district and Mylarapatna in the Mandya district.

    The caste relation of Hakka Raya & Bukka Raya with Kakatiyas
    There are many who claim that Hakkaraya & Bukkaraya belonged to Kannada kuruba community. Kurubas are known to be the yadavas. It is already proved that kakatiyas are kaikadi erukalas whose origins are also hidden in Yadava Gaikwads of Gujarat & Maharastra.

    The fact is that the kakatiyas and also Hakka & Bukka belonged to the great dravidian warrior block of kuruba - Kurumba - Kuruma - Korama who had the common origins in bhil - kolis. Here we may note that while the Koramas are hunting community of Erukalas, the Kurubas are sheep herd community of yadavas. The difference between them lies in their geographical profession but not in their race. Kakatiyas can be treated as bant - Erukalas, if we see them from Telugu speaking Warangal regions and the same Kakatiyas be considered as yadava - Erukalas, if we see from kannada geographical region. It is also said that Sangama Raya, the father of Hakka & Bukka migrated from Warangal to Bellary to work with Kampilaraya. Bellary as such was a predominantly Telugu region during medieval times. While the Kurumba - Erukala kakatiyas were primarily the hunting community, the Kurumba - Kuruba rayas were predominantly sheperds. With these facts we may now say that Hakka & Bukka belonged to the kurumba / kuruba community to which Kakatiyas also belonged and both clans were also Telugu in their origins.

    Erukala = Korama = Kuruvan = Kuruvar
    Korama => Korava => Kuruva => Kuruba
    Korama => Kuruma => Kurumba => Kuruba

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    04. VIJAYANAGAR EMPIRE :

    The Vijayanagar kingdom was established by Sangama brothers Hakkaraya and Bukkaraya by laying foundation on the banks of Tungabhadra at Hampi in the region of present day Bellary districts. Later this kingdom was expanded into an empire and ruled by Saluva, Tuluva and Aravidu dynsty rulers. There are several inscriptions and reference to some of these rulers naming them as Udayars. The Udayars who ruled Vijayanagar empire and the Wodayars who ruled Mysore areas were all one and the same people.

    The Hampi region of the country was once populated with majority community of warrior and agricultural job oriented Telugu speaking people. The remaining people were from Tulu and Kannada speaking communities. Most of these people irrespective of their language were known as bants / bunts. The Mudiraj people in this parts are known as bants. The Mudiraj bants were well known to be the members of suicide squads / commandos employed by Vijayanagar kings for do or die jobs. At common man level agriculture, sheep rearing and fishing was their base profession. These were the warrior race people who came down to South India and established their administrative control as kings and chieftains with their own standing army. These people were originally the Mutharayars and Muttarasars who in course of time modified their names to Mudaliyars and further to Udaiyars. Today these Udaiyars are mostly known as Kapus, Naidus and Balijas.

    Mutharayars => Muthariyars => Muthaliyars => Mudaliyars
    Mudaliyars => Mudayars => Udayars

    Further, Agamudayars of Mukkulathor clans of South India are also Udatars only. These Agamudayars in some parts of South India use the title Mudaliyars. Mukkulathor is a trinity of three ancient clans / caste groups consisting of Kallars, Maravars and Agamudayars. Along with Agamudayars, Maravars, Kallars, Kaikkolas also served in the army of Chola Empire. A majority of Kallar and Maravar clans include Ambalakkarars which is a subcaste of Muthuraja. Nakarattars or Nattars are Kallars or part of Kallar group of clans. Thus we can say that Udayars are Muthurajas or a variant of Muthurajas medieval times.

    The Kallar, Maravar and Agamudaiyar communities constitute the Kshatriya or warrior class of TamilNadu, South India. They are all believed to have originated from an ancient people called kalabhrar. Later they intermixed with the defeated chola, chera and pandyan clans and became one with them. Kallar, Maravar, Agamudaiyar basically are the Pandiya and chola caste who ruled the pandiya nadu and chola nadu. Agamudaiyar formed the police force and did security jobs. They bascially stood guard for Temple, Farm lands, Nadan hamlets. They are called servai in Thirunalveli, Thoothukudi districts. According to historians, the Kodumbalur Mutharayars were the descendatns of Kalabhras / Kalabrar who invaded Chola, Chera and Pandyan kingdoms and imprisoned their kings.

    Kallan or Kallar denotes a caste group, which is part of the Mukkulathor, now a dominant caste in the southern districts of Tamil Nadu. Maravar and Agamudaiyar are the other components of the Mukkulathor community. The Chola country of Tanjore is stated to be the original abode of the Kallars before they migrated to the Madurai region, the then Pandya kingdom. Agriculture was said to be their major occupation.

    Agamudaiyar, a caste belonging to the Mukkulathor community who generally use Thevar as their surname also use the Mudaliar surname. "Kallarum, Maravarum, Agamudaiyarum mella mella vanthu vellalar anaarkal"- so goes the saying in Tamil. Kalar, Maravar and Agamudaiyar, the three powerful martial castes from South Tamilnadu assumed Vellala ID with the accumulation of wealth.

    There is also a surname" Mudayar / Mudaiyar " which we can see now-a-days, though not in a large number. Some Pillai people also call themselves as Mudiyar. The Surname " Mudayar " seems to be a modification of " Agamudayar ". For more details on Mukkulathor, readers may refer to chapter on "Muttu Ramalinga Devar & Mukkulathor" under menu "Various Names" in this website.

    Agamudayar => Aga Mudaiyar => Mudaiyar => Mudiyar
    Agamudaiyar => Aga mudiyar => Mudiyar

    Agamudayar => Aga Mudayar => Mudayar => Udayar
    Mudayar => Mudaiyar => Mudiyar

    It is believed that the Maravar people, the Agamudayars, Thanjai Cholarkula Kalla Nattars, Pandiya Vellalars, Chola Vellalars, Chera Vellalar, Vellala Mudaliyars, Agamudaya Mudaliars and Udayars have all descended from Kallars. Agamudayar is also known as Agam Padaiyar or defending soldiers (or in pure Tamil, Agam udayar means: Agam - prestige, Udayar - having) indicating a specialization as soldiers/ rulers. Kallars, Maravars and Agamudayars formed an indispensable part of ancient Tamil armies and fought in a number of famous battles and skirmishes. However, it has frequently been doubted that most of the ancient Tamil kings themselves might have been Mukkulathors. Ancient tamil warrior castes like Kallar,Maravars and Agamudayars claim that they are the descendants of the Pandyas. Great kings like the Marudhu Pandiyar brothers were thevars to be exact Agamudayars. Agamudayars often classify themselves as Rajakula-Agamudayars and Thevar-Agamudayars. Muthuramalinga Thevar, one of the icons of the Freedom Movement, is credited with unifying the Kallars,Maravars and Agamudayars and reforming the Mukkulathor social system.

    SOME REFERENCES OF VIJAYANAGAR RULERS AS UDAYARS :
    According to another inscription, King Harihara early in his reign expelled the Muhammadans from Goa; and the last inscription of his reign at present discovered[78] mentions that one Bachanna Udaiyar was then governor of that place.

    The name of the Penukonda fort is mentioned as Ghangari in inscriptions. Penukonda was the second capital to the Vijayanagar kings and was called as "Ghanagiri" or "Ghanadri". The numerous inscriptions at the place states that king-Bukka I of Vijayanagar entrusted the province of Penukonda to his son Vira Virupanna Udaiyar in whose time the Penukonda Fort was built.

    The large tank at Anantapur town, which is fed by the Pandameru river, is said to have been constructed in 1364 byChikkappa Udaiyar, Diwan of the king of Vijayanagar. The town was built in 1364 by Chikkappa Udaiyar, Diwan of the king of Vijayanagar, who named it after his wife Ananta.

    Among the inscriptions of the kings of Vijayanagara, a record (No. 562) from Tevur in the Tanjore District dated in the reign of Devaraya II sets out in detail how of the officials of the king to whom the right of collecting the taxes was leased out, used coercive measures against the subjects, subjects, especially the members of the Valangai and Idangai classes. The inscription also describes the enquiries periodically conducted by different officers from the time of Devagalnayan Bukkana Udaiyar thereby indicating that the malpractices were going on for a pretty long time. Similar records of the period containing references to oppression are found in several places of the Tamil country.

    Kampana Udaiyar, a prince of this line, drove the Muslim sultan out of Madurai and set up a dynasty of his own, one subordinate to the court of Vijayanagar. The immediate effect in Madurai of this victory was the reopening of all of the Siva and Vishnu temples. Kampana Udaiyar’s dynasty lasted until 1404. The rule was continued by Vijayanagar-appointed governors who had the titles, such as "Nayaka".

    Madurai Sultanate was defeated in 1378 by Kumara Kampanna Udaiyar, the Vijayanagar General. Soon Madurai was placed under the rule of the Nayaks.

    The Madurai sultanate (now under tremendous stress) is liberated by Kampana Udaiyar, a prince of the Vijayanagar kingdom, in 1365.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XVII - INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 – 1904 : Kampana Udaiyar II - No. 179. (A. R. No. 159 of 1904). Viruppalappandal, Cuddalore Taluk, South Arcot District. On the north wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the Madhyas-thanathesvara temple. Kampana Udaiyar S. 1291, Saumya : 1369 A.D. Kampana Udaiyar is stated to be the son of Vira Bokkana Udaiyar. The details of date given, viz., Saka 1291, Saumya, Tula su. 13, Sunday, Uttirattadi correspond to 1369 A.D., October 14, Sunday, the nakshatra Uttirattadi having ended at 92, the previous day. This inscription records the remission of the levy of nattu-viniyogam on the kani land, Virapalanendal in Araivarisaipparru belonging to Nayanar, Pennorubaga-mudaliyar of Maruttur, by the Nattar in Vadagarai in Magadai-mandalam.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XVII - INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 – 1904 : No. 183. (A. R. No. 163 of 1904). Tiruppalappandal, Cuddalore Taluk, South Arcot District. On the north base of the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the Madhyasthanathesvara temple. Kampana Udaiyar. S. 1291 : 1369 A.D. - Kampana Udaiyar is referred to as the son of Vira Bokkana Udaiyar. The details of date given viz. Saka 1291, saumya, Tula su. 11, Friday, corresponds to 1369 A.D. October 12. (See No. 179 above). - This inscription records an agreement by the Nattavar of Tiruvayppadi in Magadaimandalam to conduct the 7th day festival for god Tirunagisvaram-udaiya Nayanar of Tiruppalaippandal. Vanduvarapati-samayakkanakkan figures as the signatory of the record.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XVII - INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 – 1904 : Viruppana Udaiyar - No. 256. (A. R. No. 234 of 1904).- Singavaram, Gingee Taluk, South Arcot District.On the north base of the central shrine in the ruined Adivaraha Perumal temple. Viruppana Udaiyar Kshya : 1386 A.D.- This inscription is dated in the reign of Viruppana-Udaiyar, son of Vira Bokkana-Udaiyar. This dated in Adi [June-July] of Kshaya. It records the making over of Perran and his brother Ramandai as tiruvilakkukudi to god Panri Alvar, by the nattar and Samaiyamudalis of Kalavai-parru. It mentions Vanduvarapati-chchamayavlean as the signatory.

    NSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1906-07 – VIJAYANAGARA -Kampa II- No. 494 (Page No 375) - (A. R. No. 494 of 1907) - Kuttalam, Mayuram Taluk, Tanjavur District Uttaravedisvara temple – on the south wall of the same mandapa - This is dated Saka 1303, Durmati, Rishabha, ba. 6, Wednesday, Avittam (A.D.1381, May 15) and mentions Kampana-Udaiyar at about the end. This is much damaged and seems to record a remission of some taxes consequent on a draught and famine (?) in the country during the (previous) year Raudri.

    INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1906-07 – VIJAYANAGARA - Virupaksha - No. 156 (Page No 125) -(A. R. No. 156 of 1907) -Mallangudi, Tirumayam Taluk, Tiruchirappalli District - On a stone set up in the village - This is much damaged. It belongs to the Vijayanagar king Viruppana-Udaiyar (Virupaksha I) and is dated in the cyclic year Pingala (which corresponds to Saka 1299,) Ani 14. It seems to record an instrument of assurance addressed to the Tandirimar of Kalvasal-nadu, Kananadu and other places declaring Malaiyalangudi to be a place of refuge for all of them. It corresponds to the Anjinanpugalidam “the asylum for the fear-stricken” of other inscription.

    INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1906-07 – VIJAYANAGARA - No. 158 (Page No 126) -(A. R. No. 158 of 1907) -Naganathasvami temple-on the east wall of the mandapa In front of the central shrine Devaraya II : Saka 1343 - This is dated in Saka 1343, Plava, Margali, 3, su. 6, Sunday, Avittam (A.D. 1421, November 30) in the reign of Devaraya Udaiyar, son of Ariyaraya (Harihara). It stops with the mention of Tirumeniyalagiyar Vi[dai-navalan]devar Senbagarayan alias Vijayalaya . . . . . . . of Suraikkudi in Tennarruppokku a division of Adalaiyur-nadu of Keralasinga-valanadu, who was probably a local chief.

    INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1906-07 – VIJAYANAGARA - Krishnadevaraya -No 53 (Page No 180) - (A. R. No. 53 of 1907.) - Putalapattu, Chittoor Taluk, Chittoor districtOn the north wall of the mandapa in the siva temple Krishnadevaraya :Saka 1438 : 1516-17 A.D. - This is dated in saka 1438, Isvara, Tula, su. 14, Mondya, probably corresponding to A.D. 1517, September 28. Details are irregular. It registers an agreement among the merchants (Ayyavali Pekkandar) and sundry tradesmen from several places carrying on their profession in the Navalan-perunteruvu (street) at Puttalaippattu in Paluvurkottam, a division of Tondaimandala, fixing the rate of mangamai import payable by them to the temple of Bhimisvaram-udaiyar-Nayanar at the place on the different articles of merchandise. These are specified as follows :cattle, cotton yarn , cotton cloth , cotton wool, areca-nut, pepper, silk yarn, oil, cumin seed, sesamum, jaggery, salt, turmeric, sugar, ghee, buffalo, and ginger.

    Madurai was under the control of the Sultans (called the Madurai Sultanate) from 1323 to 1378 until it was conquered by Kumara Kampanna Udaiyar, the Vijayanagar General. Soon Madurai was placed under the rule of the Nayaks. Viswanatha Nayak (1533 - 1564) the founder of the Nayak dynasty took great interest in expanding this temple. During the reign of Krishnappa Nayak (1564 - 72), his Dalavoy (Minister - General), Ariyanatha Mudaliyar, and his son, Kalattiyappa Mudaliyar, added many new structures to this temple.

    Tirukachur, 50 kms south of Chennai, has 59 inscriptions pertaining to the period of the Chola rulers - Kulothunga Chola I, Rajarajadeva, Kulothunga III and Sundara Pandyan and Veera Pandyan besides Viruppana Udaiyar and Narasinga Rayar of the Vijayanagar Kingdom.

    Eventually the whole southern coast came under Vijaynagar—the Prince Virupanna Udaiyar even led a campaign to Sri Lanka and extracted tribute from its ruler.

    Mahamandalesvara Medinisvara Gandan Kattari Saluva Dharanivaraha Narasimha Raya Udaiyar. These are not the titles of a sovereign. (Hultzsch, "South Indian Inscriptions," i. 131, No. 116).

    Contents of an Inscription at Srirangam Temple :
    An inscription in the second Prakara (Raja Mahendran Veedhi) records that 'Gopanna took the image of Ranganatha from Tirupati to Chenji, his capital and after the defeat of the Muslims, restored the image to Srirangam and had it installed with Lakshmi and Bhoodevi'.

    While the idol of Ranganatha was at Thirumala the Vijayanagara chieftains, Veerakampanna Udayar, Saluva Mangu, Koppanarya etc., took all the efforts and installed Lord Ranganatha's idol at Srirangam on 6th June 1371 AD.

    Further Gopanna Udayar is said to have donated to the temple through Uttamanambi, 52 villages at an expense of 17,000 gold pieces. Saliva Mangiu, another Vijayanagar General, is said to have gifted to the temple 60,000 madas of gold.

    Gopanna Udayar and Saluva Mangu were co-Generals with Sangama kings and both seems to be Udayar community. Saluva Mangu is also said to be the great grand father of Saluva Narasimha Raya who established the line of Saluva dynasty rule in the Vijayanagar kingdom. In some of the incriptions Saluvas are said to be Udayars.

    An inscription of the year 1473 A.D. (II. 50) gives full particulars of an endowment of Dommarappatti village in Kalavaiparru sub-division of Padaivedu Rajyam by Salva Narasimharaya Udaiyar. This endowment was more specifically for the celebration of a new festival called Dola-mahotsava Anna Unjal Tirunal.

    This festival is mentioned for the first time in an inscription of the year 1468 A.D. (II. 31, 16-3-1468). It shows that it fell during the Kodai Tirunal. Saluva Narasimharaya Udaiyar had constructed the Nirali mantapam in the middle of the Swamipushkarini sometime before 1468 and instituted the Floating festival with which everyone is now familiar.

    One of the branches of Cholas called them as Udayars :
    In A.D.1033 (10th year) during the viceroyalty of Sri Sangavanmar Udayar Chola Ilangeswara, the officials of high office (perunguri perumakkal) of Rajraja Chathurvedimangalam encompassing the Rajendra cholavalandu and Rajavitchadira valanadu at the present Kantalai in Trincomalee district, met at the Siva shrine known as Muththangai temple, and diiscussed and approved the plans for inprovising more facilities from the irrigation channel named Vikkrama Chola vaikkal named after one of Rajendra's titles.

    Raja Rajakesari RAJADHIRAJA I Vijayarajendra Virarajendra Varman Ahavamally Kulantaka Kalyanapurangondachola 1018/1054, Co-Regent 1018/1044, defeated the Western Chalukya forces in a battle at Dannada on the river Krishna, married Rani Trilokyam Udaiyar, and had issue, two sons (names unknown). He died at the Battle of Koppam in 1054.

    Udaiyar and Yadava dynasties descended from herders. Tevar kings descended from Marava and Kallar hunters. The upper Kaveri basin became a rich agricultural terr King Sounthara Pandiyan of Madurai Nagar wishing for good immigrants to dwell in his Kingdom, requested King Erajapooshana Cholan and in Kaliyuga era, year 3808, Thanvanigars migrated to Pandiya Nadu. They first settled in Ilayathankudi and were called 'Nagarathars'. Ilayathankudiar retained Ilayathankudi Kovil. To the others, King Sounthara Pandiayan granted Mathoor Kovil, Vairavan Patti Kovil in Kaliyuga era, year 3813. Irraniyur Kovil, Pillayar Patti Kovil, Illuppakkudi Kovil in Kaliyuga era, year 3815. Soorakkudi Kovil and Velangudi Kovil in Kaliyuga era, year 3819. Vairavanpatti Kovil Nagarathar comprise of three pirivus namely, 1. Peria vahuppu, 2. Theivanayagar vahuppu 3. Pillayar vahuppu with two sub pirivus, 3.1. Kalanivasa ludayar and 3.2. Maruthentirapura mudayar . All three are brothers. ( Nagarathars = Nakarattars => Nattars )

    In the 15th year (of the reign of the above mentioned king ) under the order (according to theletter) of Manu Masiddarasar , Aand... Kilan (alias) Tiruvaranga Mudaiyar gave, free of tax, to the above mentioned goddess .. .. Of arable land.

    Webmaster
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    date= 11/11/2007
    Nagpur, Maharstra, India.

    SANGAMA DYNASTY :

    The Sangama Dynasty was founded by Harihara I and Bukka. The credit of the foundation of the Vijayanagara kingdom goes to the initiative taken up by the five sons of Sangama, "a petty Chief of noble traditions, claiming descent in the Yadava ( Bunt Kuruba ? ) lineage". They were Harihara, Bukka, Kampanna, Marappa and Muddappa. Due to the decisive role played by the first two, only their names are associated with the event. They were Bhavana Sangama's sons, and belonged to the Kuruba clan. They were the founders of the Sangama dynasty, the first among the four dynasties that ruled Vijayanagara. Harihar and Bukka were sons of Sangama, one of the chiefs at the court of the Hoysala ruler. This dynasty ruled for about 150 years till 1486, when one of their chiefs Narasimha Saluva deposed the last ruler of Sangama dynasty and seized the throne. In 1452, Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya was given the title Mahamandaleshwara of Chandragiri during the reign of Mallikarjuna Raya. His father Saluva Gunda was the governor of Chandragiri in present Andhra Pradesh state.

    Under the Sangama Dynasty (1336-1485), most regions of southern India, in the modern states of Karnataka, Andhra, Tamilnadu and Kerala, came under the authority of Vijayanagara as provinces of a rapidly growing kingdom.

    One theory states that Bukka and Hakka were born from the Kuruba clan and commanders of the King of Warangal's army, where after the King of Warangal was defeated by Muhammad bin Tughlaq, he captured both Bukka and his brother as prisoners and send them to Delhi were both were forced to follow Islam. However, Bukka and Hakka eventually escaped and retained their Hindu traditions and founded the Vijayanagara Empire under the influence of the Brahim sage Vidyaranya.

    This theory may be true as these brothers belonged to Hampi region in Bellary districts which was predominantly Telugu speaking areas in those times and hence they might be the treasurers in the court of Kakatiyas who were Telugu kings. Even most of the capital cities of Vijayanagar empire were located in Telugu speaking lands including Hampi which was a Telugu region in those medieval period. Even today, one can see Telugu speaking natives in these regions.

    Harihara, the first emperor extended the Vijayanagara lands from Kaveri to Krishna, though he continually come into conflict with the Bahamani sultans. Afterwards he was succeeded by his brother Bukka, who continually expanded the emperor throughout south India. Bukka's successor, Harihara II, continued Bukka's campaign through southern India and managed to take control of coastal Andhra between Nellore and Kalinga and conquer the Addanki and Srisailam areas as well as most of the territoy between the peninsula to the south of the Krishna River. Harihara II also managed to conquer many Indian ports such as that of Goa, Chaul, and Dabhol. After Harihara II died the throne was in conflict between Virupaksha Raya, Bukka Raya II, and Deva Raya of which Deva Raya eventually would come out as victor. Then came Devaraya-II as successor. After Deva Raya II, his incompetent successors would eventually lead to the destruction of the dynasty with the Bahamani Kingdoms continually taking over much of the Vijayanaga territory.

    Harihara I was succeeded by Bukka I who emerged as the most distinguished amongst the five rulers (Panchasangamas) of the Sangama dynasty.

    Kings of Sangama Dynasty :

    Deva Raya II succeeded his father Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya after his short uneventful two year reign (Nuniz noted differently that his reign was for 25 years) was a monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire . Unlike his father, Deva Raya II was an effective and successful monarch. Perhaps the greatest of the the Sangama dynasty rulers, he patronised some of the famous Kannada and Telugu poets of the time.

    By the time of Virupaksha, the Saluvas of the eastern coast and the Tuluvas of the western coast ruled their hereditary estates in practical independence.

    References to Sangama dynasty kings as Udaiyars :
    Harihara I. and Bukka were the first two kings and were brothers, while the third king, Harihara II., was certainly the son of Bukka.

    It will be remembered that the first king of Vijayanagar, Harihara I., was an old man (Nuniz says "very old"), and reigned seven years. His successor, Bukka, his brother, reigned thirty-seven years according to Nuniz, and perhaps, therefore, it would be best not to assume too great an age for Harihara I. However this may be, it would appear that when the peaceful monarch Harihara II., son of Bukka I., came to the throne, his father must have died at a very advanced age, and he himself must have been by no means young.

    he Vijayanagara empire was nascent at the later half of this period of exile, and the ruler of the time was Harihara-II whose son was virUpAksha, a steadfast devotee of Lord Sriranga. He had an able and equally committed vassal in Gopanna Udaiyar, at Chenjee ('SinGha-rAya-puram').

    According to one inscription, King Harihara early in his reign expelled the Muhammadans from Goa; and the last inscription of his reign at present discovered mentions that one Bachanna Udaiyar was then governor of that place.

    Kumara Kampana was the son of the third of the five brothers of Bukka. Kampana Udaiyar came on his Southern campaigns, destroying Tulukkans, established a stable administration throughout the country and appointed many chiefs ( Nayakkanmar ) for inspection and supervision in order that worship in all temples might be received regularly as of old.

    Acoording to some other sources, Kumara Kampana war the son of Bukka-I and the first Vijayanagar cpmmander to conquer Madura region.

    In 1372, a mysore General Kampana Udaiyar reduced the Muhammadan invaders of Madura to submissiuon, and it is further stated that this General was an agent of Bukka Rayar, the first Rayar of Vijayanagara kingdom. Bukka became king of Vijayanager in 1350 AD.

    There are several records of Bukka-I in Nellore District. In 1351, Vira Sayana Udayar “Lord of eastern Ocean” ruled at Udayagiri Pattana, made donations at Mopur, Pulivendla Taluk, Cuddapah district, in the honour of his father Kamparaja and his mother Manga Deva Amma.

    In 1365, Sangama-II, the son of Bukka issued issued a copper plate charter giving the village of Sitragunta to 28 Brahmans . After Sangama –II, Savana Udayar, the son of Kampana-I came as next gorver of Udayagiri, In 1369, Bhaskara Bhavadura, son of Bukka-I was the governer. In 1377, Harihara-II, son of Bukka-I figures in Kanigiri Taluk.

    Kampana Udaiyar, a prince of this line, drove the Muslim sultan out of Madurai and set up a dynasty of his own, one subordinate to the court of Vijayanagar. Kampana Udaiyar’s dynasty lasted until 1404.

    The Madurai sultanate (now under tremendous stress) is liberated by Kampana Udaiyar, a prince of the Vijayanagar kingdom, in 1365.

    In 1335 harihara declared independence from Delhi Sultanate, thus starting the glorious period of Vijayanagara kings (1336 - 1565). He established the kingdom with his brother, Bukka - I. The vijay nagara kingdom starts war with the neighbouring muslim kingdoms. The Madurai sultanate was liberated by Kampana Udaiyar, a prince of the Vijayanagar kingdom, in 1365.

    The stone inscriptions of the Thiru Kareesa Nathar temple (of the village) , dated 952 years ago, tell us that this village was known as Kalavai alias ‘Ulagalantha Chozha Chaturvedi Mangalam. Kalavai is a small village in Vellore district. The stone inscriptions of the Thiru Kareesa Nathar temple (of the village) , dated 952 years ago, tell us that this village was known as Kalavai alias ‘Ulagalantha Chozha Chaturvedi Mangalam ‘ Inscriptions further testify that Kambana Udayar of Harihara Bukka Vamsam who visited the temple in around 1380 A.D also arranged for the consecration work of the temple.

    Virupana Udaiyar was the son of Harihara-II and governer of Tamil country. There are several inscriptions of Viruppana Udayar (or Virupaksa II), the second son of Harihara II, in the Srirangam temple ranging between the dates 1383 and 1396.

    The Vamsaprabhavam says further that this Uttamanambi collected another sum of 5,000 gold pieces from Viruppana Udayar (younger brother of Harihara II and third son of Bukka I) and purchased with it 13 more villages for the temple.

    Another record in the temple dated 1409 mentions Mahamandalesvara Vira Bhupati Udayar (son of Bukka II and grandson of Harihara II) as the donor.

    Eventually the whole southern coast came under Vijaynagar—the Prince Virupanna Udaiyar even led a campaign to Sri Lanka and extracted tribute from its ruler. By the 16th Century Sri Lanka had come under Portuguese control.

    The Penukonda Fort near Hyderabad itself was built during the reign of the son of King Bukka-I, Vira Virupanna Udaiyar.

    The numerous inscriptions at the place states that king-Bukka I of Vijayanagar entrusted the province of Penukonda to his son Vira Virupanna Udaiyar in whose time the Penukonda Fort was built.

    A record of Vijayanagar king Vira Viruppanna Udayar-II son of Ariyappa Udayar ( Harihara-II ) – records remission of taxes to the temple.

    In this the king is called "MAHAMANDALESVARA, son of Vira Bukka Udaiyar, Lord of the four seas."

    INSCRIPTION COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1908-09 - vijayanagara - Vira Savana-udaiyar - No. 180 - (A. R. No. 169 of 1909.) - Sangramanallur, Udumalaipet Taluk, Coimbatore District -Rock at Kovilturai in the same village. Mahamandalesvara Vira-Savana-Udaiyar : Siddharthi, Dhanus-ba. 5 : Tuesday, Magha=1379 A. D. November 29, f.d.n. 10. The cyclic year falls in Saka 1301. This inscription is damaged in some places. It records a settlement arrived at amongst themselves, relating to the enjoyment permanently of certain lands already in the possession of the Mahajanas belonging to Agaramputtur alias Srimadhavach-chaturvvedimangalam which was separated from Tenmur Ottaikkumindan in Karaivali-nadu.

    INSCRIPTION COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1908-09 - vijayanagara -Harhara-II- No. 375 -(A. R. No. 354 of 1909) -Olakkur, Tindivanam Taluk, South Arcot District in the same place -Ariyanan-Udaiyar ( Harihara II) : Vibhava, Panguni, 10 th = 1388-89 A.D. This inscription records the following order made by the uravar and the tanattar of Ulakkaiyur alias Rajamahendra-naluur to the Kaikkolar of the street around the temple of the god Tiruvagattisvara-mudaiya nayinar. It states that the Kaikkolar who had previously deserted the street might reoccupy the street again and continue their profession of weaving. While levying tax on them, a lease amount of 4 panam towards tarikkadamai, vasalpanam, sodi, sula-vari, val-vari, talai-arikkam, natta-vari, pala-vari, pudu-vari, pala-kanikkai and other taxes and one panam towards tax on cotton threads, (both) totaling to 5 panam, on every loom should alone be received for each year from the year Sukkira.

    (INSCRIPTION COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1908-09) - vijayanagara - Vira Rayana-udaiyar - No. 727 (Page No. 521) - (A. R. No. 676 of 1909) - Tirunedungalam, Lalgudi Taluk, Tiruchirappalli District Same wall. Vira-Rayana-udaiyar, son of Bhupati-udaiyar: S. 1334, Nandana, Mithuna (Ani) ba. 9, Friday, Revati=1412 A.D., June 3. This inscription is damaged in some places. It records a gift of land, made by the king, in Tirunedungalam a certain stone-mason named Tambikkunallur, son of Sonnavannanseyyar, who had attended to the construction and repairs to the temple of the god of the place several times. It also records a gift of house to the same mason.

    INSCRIPTION COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1908-09 - vijayanagara - Harihara III - No. 140 - (A. R. No. 132 of 1909) - Komaralingam, Udumalaipet Taluk, Coimbatore District - On the south wall of the Karivaradaraja- perumal temple - Harihararaya-udaiyar: Saka 1332=1411 A. D. The inscription gives the details of date viz., Khara, Adi 10, which may correspond 1411 A. D., July 8 (Monday). The Saka year was 1333. It records a royal danapatra (deed) to the Srivaishnavas and Porulala-dasa, the Sthanikan of the temple of Emberuman kariyapiran at Agaram Kumarangabhiman alias Paridarasahodarach-chaturvedi mangalam, communicated to them by the king's agent Tiruvaliyalvan of Bhargava-gotra belonging to Perumarudur. The deed related to the grant of 20 ma of land on the outskirts of Tiruvalandurai and some amount of pon in lieu of the irai and siddhayam in respect of this land as tiruvidaiyattam to the god Kariyapiran. It is stated that of this land one-third portion was to be deducted as it was assigned to the god Kumarangabhimisvaram-udaiyar at Melaik-Kannadipputtar.

    (INSCRIPTION COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1908-09) - vijayanagara - Devaraya I -No. 418 - (A. R. No. 397 of 1909.) - Siddhalingamadam, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Aroct District North wall of the same verandah. Vira -Devaraya-Udaiyar: Saka 1329, Sarvajit, Mesha (Chittirai,) su-3, Wednesday, Rohini=1407 A. D., April 11, But the week-day was Monday. This inscription states that Sirringur was situated on the southern bank of the Pennai rivar and was a brahadeyam in Kurukkaik-kurram in Maladu in Irasarasa-valanadu. It records that the sabhai of Vinodanallur in the same nadu had bought some land from the Tirunamattukkani land of the temple of Tiruppulippagave-nayanar of Sirringur for digging an irrigation channel and while digging, a land to the extent of one and half a ma was found in excess. In lieu of this, the above mentioned sabhai gave away some fields from the nanjai land of their village to the tanattar of the temple. This gift is termed as tiruppani-parru (i.e. the land given for temple repairs).

    (INSCRIPTION COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1908-09) - vijayanagara - Devaraya-I - No. 330 - (A. R. No. 312 of 1909) - Tirukkachchur, Chingleput Taluk, Chingleput District Same wall. Viruppana-udaiyar, son of Ariyana-udaiyar : Dundubhi, Singa (Avani), su. 5, Svati, Wednesday=1442 A.D., August 11. The week day was Saturday. - This inscription records the gift of food and all other upadhis due to them from the temple, made by the manradis and the samaiyak-kanakkan of Irandayiravelipparru, as sarvamanya-iraiyili to two families, one headed by Alagan alias Narpattennayirakkon and the other headed by his younger brother Kannalan employed as tirununda-vilakku kudi in the temple of the deity Tiruvalaikkoyiludaiya-nayanar at Tirukkachchur in Sengunra-nadu in Kalatturkottam in Jayangondasola-manadalam. These two families were enjoyed to look after the services of tirununda-vilakku in the temple, hereditarily. The signatory was Vanduvarapati, who was the Samayakkanakkan.

    INSCRIPTION COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1908-09) - vijayanagara - Devaraya-I - No. 331 - (A. R. No. 313 of 1909) -Tirukkachchur, Chingleput Taluk, Chingleput District Same wall. Vira Virupana-udaiyar: Raktakshi, Mina (Panguni) su. 6, Friday, Anusham=1445 A.D. February 26, f.d.t. 66, f.d.n. 77 - This inscription records a gift of the food and the upadhis due to them from the temple, as the gift of the nadu made by the manradis by Kamban, son of Kobatarayan and the other headed by Periyamudai, one headed by Kamban, son of Kobatarayan and the other headed by Periyamudali, son of Alappirandan-kon, who were employed to attend to the services connected with the nanda lamps and that connected with the taking out in procession the image of the deity of the temple in the same Tirukkachur mentioned in No. 330 above. These families should sender these services hereditarily. The same Vanduvarapati, the Samaiyakkanakkan who figures in No. 330 above, also figures here, as the signatory.

    INSCRIPTION COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1908-09) - vijayanagara - Viruppana Udaiyar - No. 716 (Page No. 508) - (A. R. No. 665 of 1909) - Tirunedungalam, Lalgudi Taluk, Tiruchirappalli District Same wall. Viruppana-udaiyar, son of Ariyana-udaiyar : S. 1306, Raktakshi, Simha (Avani) su. 2, Friday, hastam=1384 A. D., August 19, f.d.n. 09 - This inscription is damaged in several places. It records a priti-dana parivarttanai (i. e., exchange) of lands given by a number of persons (names given) of Kiliyur-nadu in [. . . .] puram in Pandikulasani-valanadu in favour of a certain Saykkudaiyan Nachchinarkkiniyar-nayakar alias Nayanar . . . . Aludaitteva-nayanar belonging to the adimattiram of Senkamalapporpada-nayanar of the lineage of Meykandadeva-nayanar. It is stated that lands given in exchange were of the extent of 6-1/2 plus2ma (totaling to 132ma) and were located in various places such as Kallikudi, Adainjiyur, etc, and that the exchanged area was called Tadanapuram in the same nadu and it was given to the above-mentioned person to provide for the repairs, worship and festivals in the shrine of the god Nayanar (name lost) set up in the enclosure (tiruchchurri) of the temple of the god Tirunedungunram-udaiya-nayanar in Vadakavi-nadu in Pandikulasani-valanadu. It is stated that the gift was a tirunamattukkani.

    The names of the persons who gave this pritidana and who had affixed their signatures at the end are as follows: Sakkudaiyan Ponnambalachchokkar Nayan Pandiyadaraiyar, Sendappillai Kurukularayar, Nachchinarkkiniyar Suriyadevar, Punar Sendar, Tirunelveli-udaiyar Kurukularayar Tavapperumal, and Nayakar Tirumanikkamalai-udaiyar, Alagaiy Pillaiyar Villavarayar Kuttap-Perumal, etc., The accountant of the nadu Iriniyurudaiyan Ilaiyanarayanapperumal and the representative of the adimaittiram of Senkamalapporpadamalagiyar of the lineage of Poykandaganra Meykandadevar-nayinar, Saykkudaiyannayakan Aludaittevan also figure as signatories.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XVII - INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 - 1904 : VIJAYANAGARA - Kampana Udaiyar II -No. 179 - (A. R. No. 159 of 1904) - Tiruppalappandal, Cuddalore Taluk, South Arcot District. On the north wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the Madhyas-thanathesvara temple. Kampana Udaiyar S. 1291, Saumya : 1369 A.D - Kampana Udaiyar is stated to be the son of Vira Bokkana Udaiyar. The details of date given, viz., Saka 1291, Saumya, Tula su. 13, Sunday, Uttirattadi correspond to 1369 A.D., October 14, Sunday, the nakshatra Uttirattadi having ended at 92, the previous day. This inscription records the remission of the levy of nattu-viniyogam on the kani land, Virapalanendal in Araivarisaipparru belonging to Nayanar, Pennorubaga-mudaliyar of Maruttur, by the Nattar in Vadagarai in Magadai-mandalam.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XVII - INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 - 1904 : VIJAYANAGARA - Kampana Udaiyar II - No. 183 - ((A. R. No. 163 of 1904) - Tiruppalappandal, Cuddalore Taluk, South Arcot District. On the north base of the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the Madhyasthanathesvara temple. Kampana Udaiyar. S. 1291 : 1369 A.D -Kampana Udaiyar is referred to as the son of Vira Bokkana Udaiyar. The details of date given viz. Saka 1291, saumya, Tula su. 11, Friday, corresponds to 1369 A.D. October 12. (See No. 179 above). This inscription records an agreement by the Nattavar of Tiruvayppadi in Magadaimandalam to conduct the 7th day festival for god Tirunagisvaram-udaiya Nayanar of Tiruppalaippandal. Vanduvarapati- samayakkanakkan figures as the signatory of the record.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XVII - INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 - 1904 : VIJAYANAGARA - Kampana Udaiyar II - No. 695 - (A. R. No. 639 of 1904) - Ramagiri, Tiruvallur Taluk, Chingleput District. On the north wall of the central shrine in the Valisvara temple. Kampana Udaiyar (II) : 1365 – 66 A.D - The details of date, i.e., Visvavasu, Mithuna 10, Monday and Rohini are irregulr. The cyclic year Visvavasu falls in S. 1287 (1365-66.). This inscription records the gift of land as sarvamanya for lamp to the deities Tiruvalisvaramudaiya nayinar and Bhairava Nayinar in Ninraiyur-nadu in Kunravattanakottam, a sub-division of Jayangondachola-mandalam. Below the inscription is another fragment in characters of about the 12th century. It cities the 6th regnal year of a certain king (name lost) and seems to record a gift given by the Nattavar of Ninraiyurnadu.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XVII - INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 - 1904 : VIJAYANAGARA - Kampana Udaiyar II - No. 698 - (A. R. No. 641 of 1904) - Ramagiri, Tiruvallur Taluk, Chingleput District. On a pillar in the mandapa of the central shrine in the Valisvara temple. Kampana Udaiyar II. 1370 A.D -The cyclic year Sadharana fell in Saka 1292. This records the gift of the pillar by Visanar, the younger brother of Pillappar.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XVII - INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 - 1904 : VIJAYANAGARA - Kampana Udaiyar II - No. 753 - (A. R. No. 696 of 1904) - Tirumullaivayal, Walajapet Taluk, Chingleput District. On the north wall of the first prakara in the Kharapurisvara temple. Kampana Udaiyar. 1372 A.D - The details of date viz., Saka 1294, Paridhavi, Kanni, su. 7, Sunday, Mula correspond to 1372 A.D., September 5, Sunday f.d.n. '16. The damaged inscription seems to record the gift of money by Ponnulan Mallinathat of Ponnur and a transaction by the mabasabha consisting of the Bhattas and Visisthas of Kaviripakkam alias Vikramachola-chaturvedimangalam, a free-hold taniyur) of Paduvurkottam, in Jayangondasola-mandalam.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XVII - INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 - 1904 : VIJAYANAGARA - Kampana Udaiyar II - No. 758. - (A. R. No. 701 of 1904) - Tirumullaivayal, Walajapet Taluk, Chingleput District. On the east wall of the first prakara in the Kharapurisvara temple. Kampana Udaiyar. Saka 1391 : 1469 A.D - The details of date viz., Mesha su 9, Saturday, Hasta are irregular. This badly damaged inscription seems to record the sale of a number of houses by the Maharudarar Sri-mahesvarar and Kaikkola-mudalis, who had assembled in the temple of Tirukkarapuramudaiya Nayanar at Tirupparkada, for meeting the expenses of taking out the deity mudaliyar in procession.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XVII - INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 - 1904 : VIJAYANAGARA - Harihara II -No. 754 - (A. R. No. 697 of 1904) - Tirumullaivayal, Walajapet Taluk, Chingleput District. On the east wall of the first prakara in the Kharapurisvara temple. Harihara II. 1382 A.D -The date discussed here points to the identity of the King Ariyanna-Udaiyar with Harihara II. The details of the date viz., Saka 1304, Dundubhi, su. 14, Sunday, Sadaiyam will correspond to 1382 A.D. August 24 if the month is Simha as indicated by the combination of the paksha, thithi and star. The thithi ended however at 45 of the previous day. This inscription records the gift of land as Kaniyatchi, by the trustees (sthanattar) of the Tirukkarapuram-udaiya nayanar temple at Tirupparkada, to the inhabitants of Tirupparkadal in return for contributions towards the expenses of the services to the deity.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XVII - INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 - 1904 : VIJAYANAGARA - Viruppana Udaiyar - No. 256 -(A. R. No. 234 of 1904). - Singavaram, Gingee Taluk, South Arcot District. On the north base of the central shrine in the ruined Adivaraha Perumal temple. Viruppana Udaiyar Kshya : 1386 A.D - This inscription is dated in the reign of Viruppana-Udaiyar, son of Vira Bokkana-Udaiyar. This dated in Adi [June-July] of Kshaya. It records the making over of Perran and his brother Ramandai as tiruvilakkukudi to god Panri Alvar, by the nattar and Samaiyamudalis of Kalavai-parru. It mentions Vanduvarapati-chchamayavlean as the signatory.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XVII - INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 - 1904 : VIJAYANAGARA - Bukka II - No. 611 - (A. R. No. 566 of 1904) -Tiruvaur, Nagapattinam Taluk, Tanjore District. At the right side of the entrance into the western gopura of the second prakara in the Tyagarajasvamin temple. [Devaraya II]. S. 1362 : 1440 A.D - This record mentions Mahapradhana Lakkanna Dannayaka Udaiyar. The details of date given viz., s. 1362, Raudra, Bhadrapada ba. 1, Monday, Revati, regularly correspond to 1440 A.D., September 12, '48 ; '83. It records the erection of the gopura as a service to god Valmikanatha by Nagarasar, son of Siddarasar, of Vasistha gotra and Asavlayana sutra, for the merit of Lakkanna – Dannayaka.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XVII - INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 - 1904 : VIJAYANAGARA - Bukka II - No. 612 - (A. R. No. 567 of 1904) - Tiruvaur, Nagapattinam Taluk, Tanjore District. At the left side of the entrance into the western gopura of the second prakara of the Tyagarajasvamin temple [Devaraya II]. 1440 A.D -This is a Kannada version of No. 611 above.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XVII - INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 - 1904 : VIJAYANAGARA - Bukka II - No. 722 - (A. R. No. 665 of 1904) - Tirumullaivayal, Saidapet Taluk, Chingleput District. On the south wall of the central shrine in the Masilamanisvara temple. Devaraya II. 1424 A.D - The cyclic year Krodhin cited in the inscription fell in Saka 1346. The paleography of the record would not militate against this. The details of date, viz., Krodhin, Arpasi 2 may correspond to 1424 A.D. September 30, in which case the king may be identified with Devaraya II. This inscription records the gift of 4000 kuli of land by Orri Mannan alias Udaiyar Orri- Arasar and Arasuperumal alias Kadavaraya for conducting certain special festivals in the Kadavarayar tiruttoppu (sacred grove) and at the Asangadagandan-mandapa in the temple of Tirumullaivayal-udaiya-nayanar. The land was given away with irrigation facilities from the donor's lake (periyeri). lso mentions the measuring rod Asangadagandan-kol.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XVII - INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING 1903 - 1904 : VIJAYANAGARA - Virupaksha III - No.718 - (A. R. No. 661 of 1904) - Ramagiri, Tiruvallur Taluk, Chingleput District. On the entrance into the ruined gopura in the Valisvara temple. Virupaksha III. 1480 A.D - In the details of the date given viz., Saka 1 '17, Sarvari, ba. 7, Monday, the Saka year does not agree with the cyclic year. The mention of the king Virupaksha as the son of Gajavettai-Pratapa-Devaraya and the mention of Narasingarajudaiyar who may be identified with the Saluva chief of that name, enables us to identify the king with Virupaksha III (1465 – 1485 A.D.) Hence the cyclic year Sarvari may be equated with 1480 A.D. This damaged inscription seems to record a gift for lamp and flower offerings to vayirava-nayinar and other deities in the temple of Tirukkarikarai-udaiyar, for the merit of Narasingaraja-udaiyar and Obalayaraja.

    SALUVA DYNSTY :

    Elugu Rayudu was the last ruler of Saluva dynasty with Podili as his capital city in the present Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Elugu surname belongs to Mudiraj community and Elugu Rayudu was a Mudiraj chieftain during Saluva dyasty rule of Vijayanagar empire. There is one village Elugu vari palem with considerable population of Mudiraj community near Podili in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh. The Mudiraj people having Elugu surname can be seen in this village even today.

    Further, it has come to light that the Tamil Muthuraja surname ALAGAN and Telugu Mudiraja surnsame ELUGU are one and the same. "Alagan" seems to the gradual modification of the surname "Elugu".

    Elugu => Elugan => Elagan => Alagan

    Origin of Saluva Dynasty kings :
    The Saluva Dynasty was created by the Saluvas who by historical tradition were natives of the Kalyani region of northern Karnataka. The Gorantla inscription traces their origins to this region from the time of the Western Chalukyas and Kalachuris of Karnataka. The term "Saluva" is known to lexicographers as "hawk" used in hunting. In Telugu language also, "Salava" means "hawk". They later spread into the east coast of modern Andhra Pradesh, perhaps by migration or during the Vijayanagara conquests during the 14th century. The earliest of the Saluvas, traces their origin from the Chalukyas.

    It is a well known fact that some sections of Mudiraj people are related Kalyana kingdom ruled by Kalchuris and Western Chalukyas. More details can be seen under "Goddess Ankamma" in this website MUDIRAJA. Ravaddeva Raju and Kommaraju who worshipped Goddess Ankamma in the Kalyana kingdom are said to be the ancestors of some sections of Mudiraj of Andhra Pradesh Today.

    Saluvas were the descendants of Mangaldeva :
    The earliest known Saluva from inscriptional evidence in the Vijayanagara era was Mangaldeva, the great grandfather of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya. Mangaldeva played an important role in the victories of King Bukka Raya I against the Sultanate of Madurai. His descendents founded the Saluva Dynasty and were one of the ruling lines of the Vijayanagara Empire of Southern India.

    Saluva dynasty Ruled Vijayangar Empire after Sangama Dynasty :
    The Saluvas of Vijayanagara were originally the Kalachuris of Northern Karnataka. They were the chieftains in the Sangam Dynasty. At the end of the fifteenth century the Vijayanagara Empire was sinking in chaos and lawlessness. As a redeemer, Saluva Narasihma Deva Raya (1485-1491 A.D) in 1485 A.D took over the kingdom from the negligent emperor Proudha Devaraya of Sangama Dynasty

    This kalchuri connection of Saluvas proves that they were Mutharayar - kalabhra related kings. It is already explained in the webpage "Kalabhras" in this is website that Mutharayar kings were the descendants of Kalabhras and Kalabhras were the descendants of Kalchuris.

    The kings who succeeded Devaraya II were quite incompetent and allowed the empire to disintegrate. To add to this, there was pressure from Bahmani Sultans. The Portuguese were also rapidly trying to establish themselves on the west coast and in the ports along it. The glorious rule of Devaraya II of Sangama Dynasty was followed by a period of decline and disruption when there were weak rulers, foreign inroads, political murders and usurpations leading to changes of dynasty. Thus, for a short time the Saluva dynasty was in power.

    The defence of the kingdom had been largely in the hands of Saluva Narsimha of Chandragiri, and by 1485 he had seized power and managed to stay any further disintegration.

    When Virupaksha was murdered by one of his sons—who was in turn murdered by his brother—that Saluva Narasimha (reigned 1485–90) stepped in to remove the new ruler and to begin his own dynasty. The Vijayanagar minister, Saluva Narasimha, who usurped the throne in A.D.1485 could successfully counter these forces. Thus the Saluva line of kings came to rule Vijayanagar. However, he had to spend a good deal of his time and energy putting down many rebel chieftains. He died in A.D.1490 leaving his two sons to the care of Narasanayaka of the Tuluva family, a trusted general. Narasanayaka assumed himself the power as a regent in A.D.1492 keeping the real rule under tutelage. Narasanayaka died in A.D.1503 and by that time he had established his authority effectively over the whole of his extensive dominion. His son, Vira Narasimha, succeeded him as the regent and proclaimed himself as a ruler in A.D.1506, thus inaugurating the third dynasty.

    To save the mighty kingdom of Vijayanagara from these dangers, Narasimha Saluva deposed his worthless master and acquired the throne for himself in 1485 AD. The SANGAMA dynasty thus saw its end through the 'First usurpation'. An efficient ruler Narasimha regained the territories that were lost and won the support of people, nobles and grandees. He placed Immadi Narasimha Saluva on the throne as he was badly wounded in a battle. The affairs of the state was still managed by him as its de facto ruler.

    Owing to weak successors the Sangama Dynasty founded by Harihara and Bukka declined in 1490AD. In place of this came the Saluva dynasty which ruled from 1490-1505AD. This dynasty was founded by Narasimha who snatched the power from Virupaksha II the last Sangama ruler. Three kings of Saluva Dynasty ruled from 1485 to 1505 after which the Tuluva Dynasty claimed the throne. Weak successors resulted in the decline of this dynasty and paved the way for the Tuluva dynasty. By 1503 the Saluva dynasty had been supplanted by the Tuluva dynasty. The following are the Saluva kings who ruled Vijayanagar kingdom after the end of Sangama dynasty rule.

    The whole southern coast came under Vijaynagar—the Prince Virupanna Udaiyar (Virupaksha ?) even led a campaign to Sri Lanka and extracted tribute from its ruler.

    Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya
    Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya (1485–1491 CE) was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Saluva Dynasty. A patron of the Madhwa saint Sripadaraya, he authored the Sanskrit work Ramabhyudayam. In 1452, he was given the title Mahamandaleshwara of Chandragiri during the reign of Mallikarjuna Raya. His father Saluva Gunda was the governor of Chandragiri.

    The Chandragiri historic place is 12 kms from Tirupati. A beautiful fort was built in 1000AD and was developed by Saluva Kings of the Vijanagara Empire. Raja Mahal and Rani Mahal are fine specimens of architecture (no timber is used in the entire construction).

    Mallikarjuna (1446-1465) was a weak ruler and during his reign the Gajapatis captured Rajamahendri, Udayagiri and Chandragiri. The Bahamanis came very near the capital in 1450. These reverses caused the decline in the fortunes of the Sangama dynasty. Taking advantage of troubled condition in the empire, Virupaksha, the cousin of Mallikarjuna usurped the throne.

    Virupaksha II (1465 – 85) was a weak and unworthy sovereign. He precipitated the disruption of the empire, which was undermined by the insubordination of the nobles and officers of the state on the one side and by the in roads of external enemies on the other. Sultan Muhammad Shah III sent his Prime Minister Mahamud Gawan to conquer the whole of the Konkana coast including Goa, Chaul and Dabul. The rule of Virupaksha became unpopular and roused the whole empire to indignation and rebellion. The King was killed in 1485 by his own son. The total disruption was averted by Saluva Narasimha, an able general who ended the rule of the Sangama dynasty.

    Saluva Narasimha (1485 – 1491), the saviour of Vijayanagara, had begun his career as the Mahamandaleshwara of Chandragiri in about 1452, in the reign of Mallikarjuna. After the death of Mallikarjuna, Narasimha tried to consolidate his power by conquering Masulipatana, Kondavidu and Udayagiri. In 1485 he became the first ruler of Saluva Dynasty, with the support of the governors of the empire.

    After the death of Virupaksha Raya II and arrival of Prauda Deva Raya as the new monarch of Vijayanagar, the empire plunged into neglect and anarchy. Seeing that a military coup was the only hope to save the kingdom, he despatched the son of Tuluva Isvara, Tuluva Narasa Nayaka to the imperial capital of Vijayanagara. The incumbent king Prauda Raya feld thus starting the rule of Saluva Narasimha. The writings of Nuniz gives a graphic account of how Narasa Nayaka went to Vijayanagara and found it completely unguarded, even all the way to the harem.Thus came the end of Sangama dynasty rule in Vijayanagar Empire.

    During the short span of six years Saluva Narasimha tried to restore the empire to its past glory; but his success was not complete. As king, Saluva Narashima tried to expand the empire, though he continually faced difficulties caused from rebelling chieftains. By 1491, he lost Udayagiri to Gajapati Kapilendra while the Chiefs of Ummattur in the Mysore region, Saluvas of Hadavalli and Santharas of Karkala from coastal Karnataka region, Srirangapatna and Sambetas of Peranipadu in Cuddapah still remained threats to the empire.

    Purusottamdeva- Suryavamsi King (1467 -1497) and successor of Kapilendradeva,who rejected the claim of his eldest son Hamvira in preference to Purusottam - struggled in the south against Salva Narasimha of Vijayanagar.

    Saluva Narashima's war with the Gajapatis over Udayagiri in 1489 proved disastrous when he was taken prisoner and released later after giving up the fort and surrounding areas. Purushottam sent his army to occupy Udayagiri which had been taken away by Saluva Narasimha. Udayagiri was occupied and Saluva Narasimha was taken captive.

    Tradition reveals that king Purusottamadeva invaded Kanchi, the capital of Vijayanagar ruler Salva Narasimha and captured princess Padmavati of Kanchi - later on he married her.

    However he was successful at conquering the western ports of Kannada country of Mangalore, Bhatkal, Honnavar and Bakanur. This success enabled him to trade for swift horses with the Arabs. Narasimha improved the condition of cavalry, army in general, and transformed the peace – loving farmers of Vijayanagara into a nation of warriors, infused fresh vigour into the body politic and rescued the state from destruction.

    Saluva Narashima eventually died in 1491. However, at the time, his sons were too young to ascend to the throne. Because of this, the sons were left to the care of Narasa Nayaka, a loyal general and minister from the Tuluva family. It was only when Narasimha Saluva -II died in 1505 AD, another usurper Vira Narasimha, deposed the last ruler and seized the throne for himself.

    At the time of Narasimha's death his two sons were too young too rule. Therefore, he entrusted the Kingdom to the care of his trusted general and minister Tuluva Narasa Nayaka. Prince Timma (1st son of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya) was murdered by a minister and Saluva Narasimha II was crowned by Narasa Nayaka. When the new King turned hostile to Narasa, he was removed to Penugonda where he remained in confinement. Narasa Nayaka now ruled Vijayanagara like a sovereign.

    During the brief Suluva rule (1485-1505 A.D) Narasimha Raya the first Suluva emperor, during a tour of his dominions passed through Pudukkottai country on his way to Madurai. Vira Narasimha Nayak, the Tuluva usurper and the general of Saluva Narasimha-I, led a campign against the Pandya chiefs and marched through Pudukkottai.

    Sri Vyasaraya was Rajaguru of the Vijayanagar Empire. The Empire went from Saluvas to Thulavas. But Sri Vyasaraya Tirtha remained the Rajaguru for these two dynasties. Sri Vyasaraja Tirtha a great philosopher and was devoted to Lord Anjaneya.

    The Madhura Vijayam of Ganagadevi refers to Kampana's expedition against the Sultanate of Madura during the reign of his father, Bukka I. The incident is also mentioned in the Saluvabhyudayam of Rajanatha Dindima I and Ramabhudayam of Saluva Narasimha.

    Thimma Bhupala
    Thimma Bhupa, ( 1491 CE) was the son of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya, the King of Vijayanagara Empire. Prince Thimma succeeded his father in 1491 but was soon murdered by an army commander during a period of political unrest in Vijayanagara. He was succeeded by his younger brother Narasimha Raya II.

    Immadi Narasimha Raya
    Narasimha Raya II (1491 - 1505 CE) was the second son of King Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya. He came to power following the assassination of his elder brother Thimma Bhupala. Though he was a crowned king of Vijayanagara Empire, the real power lay in the hands of the empire's able commander Tuluva Narasa Nayaka. In 1505, Narasimha Raya II was murdered in Penukonda where he had been kept in confinement by Tuluva Narasa Nayaka.

    1496 - with out the support of the Delhi Sultanates [which felll to the Rajputs] to the north the Deccan Sultanates are defeated by Tuluva Narasa Nayaka the Supreme General and Regent, under Narasimha Raya II of the Saluva Dynasty. In 1505 - Narasimha Raya II of the Saluva Dynasty dies without Heir.

    Subordinate kings of Saluvas :
    The last Kadamba king of Chandavar, who called himself a descendent of Banavasi Kadambas, was a subordinate of Saluva or Salva king of Gersoppa according to an epigraph of 1378 C.E.

    Saluva Thimma was chief Minister of Sri Krishna Deva Raya :
    Saluva Thimma also known as Thimmarusu was a great personality, trusted personal caretaker and the chief minister of Sri Krishna Deva Raya of Tuluva Dynasty who ruled Vijayanagar Empire.

    The Gajapati army was met at Kondavidu where after a siege of a few months, Krishnadevaraya along with Saluva Timmarasa inflicted another defeat on Prathaparudra. Saluva Timmarasa took over as governor of Kondavidu thereafter. An inscription at Kondavid glorifying Saluva Timma states that he took the fortress on Saturday, June 23, A.D. 1515.

    Saluvas belonged to Udaiyar community :
    Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya was also referred as Salva Narasimharaya Udaiyar in some inscriptions found at Thirupathi. The Udaiyars are closely related to Mudiraj people.

    The Ramabhyudaya of Saluva Narasimha, a later emperor of Vijayanagar, before telling the story of Rama, speaks about the ancestors of the author. There Kampana's campaign against the Moslem rulers in the south is mentioned and the roles of Gopanna and Saluva Mangu, two generals who assisted the Prince are stressed. Of these Saluva Mangu was an ancestor of Saluva Narasimha.

    In some of the inscriptions found at Thirupathi, Saluva Narasimharaya was also reffered as Udaiyar. Tiruppalli Odai Tirunal or Floating Festival is mentioned for the first time in an inscription of the year 1468 A.D. (II. 31, 16-3-1468). It shows that it fell during the Kodai Tirunal. Saluva Narasimharaya Udaiyar had constructed the Nirali mantapam in the middle of the Swamipushkarini sometime before 1468 and instituted the Floating festival with which everyone is now familiar. The Vasanta Tirunal which Saluva Narasimharaya instituted in 1468 A.D. was improved into a grander festival by Tirumalaraya. An inscription of the year 1473 A.D. (II. 50) gives full particulars of an endowment of Dommarappatti village in Kalavaiparru sub-division of Padaivedu Rajyam by Salva Narasimharaya Udaiyar. Inscription V. (168) states that Tirumalarajayya constructed the Anna Unjal mantapam and V. 171 specifically mentions that the food offering was during Narasimharayan's Anna Unjal Tirunal which shows that the festival was being celebrated uninterruptedly from the days of Saluva Narasimharaya.

    Gopanna who was one of the co-generals of Saluva Mangu, the great grandfather of Saluva Narasimharaya of Vijayanagar empire was also a Udaiyar. An inscription in the second Prakara (Raja Mahendran Veedhi) records that 'Gopanna took the image of Ranganatha from Tirupati to Chenji, his capital and after the defeat of the Muslims, restored the image to Srirangam and had it installed with Lakshmi and Bhoodevi'. Gopanna Udayar is said to have donated to the temple through Uttamanambi, 52 villages at an expense of 17,000 gold pieces. Saluva Mangu, another Vijayanagar General, is said to have gifted to the temple 60,000 madas of gold. Udayars are today a related community of Muthurajas in Tamilnadu.

    Inscriptions indicate that the Gopanna Udaiyar defeated the occupying forces in the year known as 'bandhupriya', which corresponds to 1371 in the Julian calendar. Some historians believe this inscription is in error and that it should be 'bahupriya', meaning 1360.

    It is observed that some other Saluva kings of Vijayangar empire were also referred as Uaiyars. INSCRIPTIONS AT AND NEAR VIRINCHIPURAM - NO.116.INSIDE THE FRONT GOPURA, TO THE LEFT, SECOND INSCRIPTION - Date: the Nanda year (i.e.,Saka 1395) mentions about a King: the illustrious mahamandalesvara Medinisvara Gandan Katta[ri] Saluva Dharanivaradha Narasimharaya-udaiyar (of Vijayanagara) and a Donee: Udaiyar Varittunai-nayanar of Tiru-Virinchipuram. Remark: The inscription mentions some nayaka, the son of another nayaka; the names of both are obliterated.

    While the idol of Ranganatha was at Thirumala, the Vijayanagara chieftains, Veerakampanna Udayar, Saluva Mangu, Koppanarya etc., took all the efforts and installed Lord Ranganatha's idol at Srirangam on 6th June 1371 AD.

    THE SMALL and little-known suburb of Madambakkam, situated close to Tambaram, is home to a very ancient temple dedicated to Lord Siva, known here as Lord Dhenupureeswarar. There are some epigraphs of Jatavarman Sundara Pandya and rulers of the Vijayanagara age like Kampana Udaiyar, Devaraya II and Sadasiva Raya.

    These Udaiyars were very closely and actively involved in the development of Thirupathi Balaji temple shrie from the very beginning including Saluva Narasimharaya and other other kings of Vijayanagar empire who came after Narasimharaya. This could be due to their association and belonginingness to Thondamans who were originally the natives of Thirupathi region.

    Who are Udaiyars ?
    Udaiyar is also a south Indian title. According to oral history, the status of functionaries such as mudaliyars, maniyagars and udaiyars are not clear-cut. There are two schools of thought. According to one school, the offices of mudaliyars and maniyagars were higher than that of vidanes. Some others explain that the office of Udaiyars replaced the office of mudaliyars at some stage. However, the generally accepted and more plausible view is that the office of udaiyars was below that of the office of vidanes. Oral history provides evidence that of the udaiyar's principal duties conducting coronial inquiries into un-natural deaths was one of them. Udaiyars were also referred to as guardians of the peace. The fact however remains that there were functionaries called udaiyars.

    The administrative unit larger than the village was the district (Mutha ?), which is comprised of several villages. For this, the English colonial administrators initially appointed higher functionaries called Mudaliyars. It is common practice for the later year Karainagaran progeny to loosely attach titles such as Mudaliyar and Mudali to their ancestors whether in fact they held this office or not. Most vellalah families used the generic title of Mudali in the kalveddus. This practice had caste connotations, and did not necessarily refer to the title of any office held.

    The Agam udayar actually belong to the Mukkulathor community, which also includes the Kallars and Maravars. These three communities together known as Mukkulathor generally use "Thevar" as their surname. But later the Agam udaiyars (the most upward community among the three) slowly migrated towards the northern part of Tamil Nadu, settled there, changed their caste name to Thuluva Vellala. So in reality Thuluva vellalar is just the renaming of Agam udayar. The Agam udaiyars changed their name to Thuluva Vellala. As early as 13th century, Agam udayars were using Mudaliar title.

    Mukkulathor is considered as a subcaste of Muthuraja (Mudiraj) in Tamilnadu. Mudaliyars are only a variants of Muthariyars. Mukkulathor or Mukulathaar is used to refer to the trinity of ancient royal lineages. It can be roughly translated as "people of the three clans", a reference to the three aristocratic clans (Kallar, Maravar and Agamudayar) which have supplied the Tamil country with most of its royal dynasties and warriors. Mukkalathors are reverently addressed to as "Thevars," meaning "Great Lord" by other Tamils. Thevars of ramanthapuram district are given the title Servai ( Muthuraja ). There are various sub-castes of Kallars amongst whom the Ambalakarar ( Muthuraja ) is the most important.They were a warklike people who strongly resisted every British attempt to subjugate them. They are found in Madurai and Sivaganga districts.

    Mutharaiyars => Muthariyars => Muthaliyars => Mudaliyars

    Kallar, Maravar, Agamudayar, Vellalar, Agamudaya Mudaliar or Udayars all originated from the ancient Tamil race called kalabhrar ( Kalabhras ) of the ancient Indian subcontinent. From kalabar first people are called as piranmalai kallar according to place the title changes as maravar, agamudayar, cholarkula tanjore kalla nattar, pandiya vellalars, chola vellalars, chera vellalar or (having pillai, Mudaliar title), vellalamudaliyars, agamudaya mudaliars or udayar etc. Historians have broadly agreed to the fact that the people Mutharayars and its subcastes are the descendats of Kalabras who occupied all the well known and well established South Indian dynasties such as Chola, Chera and Padyan and ruled for about 200-300 years during which period Jainism and Buddhism flurished and reached to glorious postion.

    Kallars, Maravars and Agamudayars formed an indispensable part of ancient Tamil armies and fought in a number of famous battles and skirmishes. However, it has frequently been doubted that most of the ancient Tamil kings themselves might have been Mukkulathors. prominent Mukkulathor comnmunities like the Maravars were referred to be historians of the Sangam Age and despite the absence of concrete evidence, the similarity of culture and traditions make the possibility that Chola and Pandya kings might have hailed from the Mukkulathor community quite real.

    Mudaliar also Mudaliyar, Mudali and Moodley in Tamil language literally means a person of first rank in a feudal society in south India. According to Vijaya Ramaswamy in mudali in the 13th century referred to a title and not specific castes. People from all castes were awarded this title by the kings. Many Brahmins, Warriors, Poets and Sages were awarded this title in various countries. However in recent times the Mudaliar surname is widely used by people belonging to various castes originally from Tamil Nadu, India and in the Tamil diaspora across the world. Most Mudaliars are Tamil people with Tamil as their mother tongue.

    Kallar, Maravar, Agamudaiyar basically are the Pandiya and chola caste who ruled the pandiya nadu and chola nadu. Agamudaiyar formed the police force and did security jobs. They bascially stood guard for Temple, Farm lands, Nadan hamlets. They are called servai ( Muthuraja ) in Thirunalveli, Thoothukudi districts. Maruthu Sagothararkal are marked for their guard of Kalayar koil against the war with British. They are scaterd all through Pandiyan Territory mainly to all temple cities.

    Agamudaiyar = Agama + Udaiyar

    The Vijaya Nagara Empire in Sinhala / Srilanka was in a way, a foreign power, since the tax collectors and military chiefs were Telegu lords. The Kingdom of Jaffna, which was divided into various provinces with subdivisions of parrus (literally meaning property or larger territorial units and ur or villages, the smallest unit, was administered on a "hierarchical and regional basis". The mudaliyars functioned as judges and interpreters of the laws and customs of the land. It was also their duty to gather information of whatever was happening in the provinces and report to higher authorities. Maniyam was the chief of the parrus. He was assisted by mudaliyars who were in turn assisted by udaiyars, persons of authority over a village or a group of villages. They were the custodians of law and order and gave assistance to survey land and collect revenues in the area under their control.

    Udaiyar title was also used by Chola kings who were a variants of Muthurajas in Tamilnadu. There are plenty of inscriptions at Tiru Karambanur Divya Desam temple that suggest generous donations by many kings to the temple. They include Chola king Udaiyar Rajadhiraja Devaraja Kesarivarma, Pandya king Nayanar Sundarapandya Devan and residents of Gunaseela mangalam, to name a few.

    There was a Chola king at Kachipuram called the Aayarithu Parikonda Cholan (the Chola king with a thousand horses meaning cavalry). There also seems to have been a branch of the Chola family that lived in the North of the traditional Chola country in the Kaveri delta who rose to power with the vacuum of power further south. This is not unlikely because several centuries later we see the rise of Telugu Chodas or the Nayakas or the Wodeyars (or Udaiyars as the Cholas called themselves) of Mysore emerging as local kings with different names but with strong Chola antecedents and history. Mysore city was the capital of the princely kingdom of the Wodiyars. The Wodeyars of mysore are known to be Yadavas (Bants) who migrated to South from Gujarat.

    After the death of Tipu at the battle of Seringapatam in 1799 AD, the English restored Mysore to its old Hindu dynasty of Wodayars, and a boy of 5 years, Krishnaraja, was installed on the throne. The gold varahans of the Wodayar dynasty bear the king's name in Sanskrit on one side and the figures of Siva and Parvati on the other.

    The Wodeyar dynasty (also spelt Wadiyar-by the British) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Mysore from 1399 to 1947, until the independence of India from British rule and the subsequent unification of British dominions and princely states into the Republic of India. The spelling Wodeyar/Wodiyar is found in most records and is used by the royal family members themselves.

    Udayars => Wodayars => Wodeyars => Wodiyars
    Udaiyar => Udayar => Vodayar => Vodeyar => Vodeya

    A stone inscription was placed in front of the tomb of Biddanda Bopu at the instance of His Highness the Maharaja Sri Virarajendra Woodiyar in full and generous recognition of the honest and faithful service rendered by him (Bopu) with clarity of mind, body and thought even in times of danger to his life itself. The Mysore kingdom was ruled by a succession of Wodeyar rulers for the next couple of centuries. However, the kingdom remained fairly small during this early period and was a part of the Vijayanagara Empire. Later, after the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, the Kingdom of Mysore became independent and remained so until 1799. The Kingdom of Mysore came under the British during the reign of King Krishnaraja Wodeyar III (1799-1868). His successors changed the English spelling of their royal name to Wadiyar, and took the title of Bahadur.

    Kodagu or Coorg was ruled by Mudduraja ( Mudiraj ) kings. The prominent rulers were Mudduraja (1633-87), Lingaraja (1775-80) and Virarajendra Wodeyar (1789-1809). Kodagu was annexed by the British in 1834. The Kodagu highland region, with Madikeri as its headquarters, became independent from the Nayakas in the late 17th century. Briefly occupied by Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan in the late 18th century, it regained independence under the local Haleri ruler, Virarajendra. Chikka Virarajendra was the last ruler of the Kodagu (Coorg) kingdom in South India. His actual name was Vira Rajendra, but this was the name of his uncle as well; as both of them were rulers of Kodagu, the prefix Chikka (Kodava Takk for Younger) is used as a distinguisher. In 1834 CE, the ruler was deposed and exiled by the British; his kingdom was annexed into British India as a separate chief commissionership. His tomb, and that of his successor Lingarajendra, are located in a compound enclosed by embankments at the north of the city.

    From this it is evident that some Mudduraja ( Mudiraj ) kings of Kodagu used Wodayar as their title. These Mudduraja Wodayars could possibly belong to Bant / Bunt / Kuruba branch of Mudiraju.

    The Mudiraj and Yadavas (Udayars / Wodayars) are both the descendants of the children born to Yayathi and Devayani. While Yayathi's son Yadu is said to be the forefather of Yadavas, the forefather of Mudiraj is not recorded any where except that Mudiraj are the children of one the brothers of Yadu.

    Yadavas are from Yayathi trhough Yadu : It is said that after Krishna's death (3102 BC), a catastrophe occurred at Dvaraka in which the city and all its inhabitants were engulfed by the ocean. Only a few members of the race who were absent from the city were saved. The present rajas of Vijaya-nagara and Mysore maintain that they are living descendants of the Yadavas. Hindu mythology states that Yadava are a descendant of Yadu, one of the five Aryan clans mentioned in the Rig-Veda. The founder of this race, Yadu was the son of Yayati and Devayani, and ruled over the country west of the Jamuna River, adjoining the Kurus. According to Hindu mythology, Yadvas are the descendants of Yadu,the eldest son of king Yayati and was banished from ruling by his father because he refused to fulfil Yayati's wishes and became a rebel. Yadu and his descendants started ruling in places that are assumed to be referred to in the scriptures as Jambudwipa. Yadu is also said to be the half-brother of Puru - the founder of the Paurava line of the Chandravansa (lunar dynasty) - to which Kurus and Pandus belonged. Later on, the Yadus overthrew many Puru rulers.

    Mudiraj are from Yayathi through one of the brothers of Yadu : According to the legend, Devayana was the daughter of Sukracharya, the priest of daityas ( demons and giants.ne day went to a well with Charmanishta, the daughter of daitya king. There arose a querrel between two of them, and Charmishta pushed Devayana into a dry well. Then she was luckly rescued by king Yayathi. Sukracharya complained to Daitya king, who made his daughter become a servant to Yayathi's wife. By her marriage, Devayana bore two sons to Yayathi. Subsequently Yayathi became enamoured of Charmanishta, by whom he had an illegitimate son puru. Hearing this Sukracharya cursed Yayathi that he should be subject to old age and infirmity. Yayathi then asked his children to take on this curse on themselves, but all refused except his illegitimate child Puru. Yayathi accordingly cursed his legitimate sons born to Devayana that they should only rule barren land overrun by kiratas. One of the cursed sons, Durvasa by name, had seven children who were specially favoured by Goddess Ankamma. One of the seven sons had a child named Ravadeviraju, which was thrown into a well as soon as it was born. The Naga Kannikas of nether regions rescued the infant , and tended it with a great care. One day while Ankamma was traversing the Nagalokam ( world of Nagas ), she heard a child crying, and sent her vehicle, a jackal ( Nakka) to bring the child, which however, would not allow the animal to take it. The Goddess accordingly carried off. The child grew up under care, and eventually had three sons named Karnam Raju, Gangi Raju, and Bhuapathi Raju, from whom Mutharayas are descended. In return for the Goddess for protecting and bringing up the child, she is regarded as a special tutelary diety of the people of Mutharacha caste.

    Udaiyars were persons of authority over a village or a group of villages. They were the custodians of law and order and gave assistance to survey land and collect revenues in the area under their control.

    It appears that while Muthaliyar was the administrative head of a Mutha (group of villages) , the Udayar was the head of a village. This indicates that Udayars were some what equivalent to kapus of Telugu speaking lands and these people are related community to Muthurajas. Kapus were professional rivals to Mudiraj in some regions and at the same time they were matrimonially aligned in some other regions. In Telugu language and may be in other dravidian languages, URU / OORU means village. The term "Udayar" could probably be a modification of the word "Urayar".

    Uru = Village
    Raya = Raja = Racha = King = Ruler = Administrator
    Uru + Rayar = Urayar = A village Admninistrator.
    Urayar => Udayar => Udaiyar

    Udaiyars seems to be variants or closely related to bunt / bant mudiraja / Kuruba community of South India who founded and ruled the Vijayanagar kingdom. Most of the kurubas were bunts and kuruba is equivalent to Yadava in Telugu. The people of Bant Mudiraju sections were mostly the people who brached out from Kuruba community in Rayalaseema and Bellary districts and joined Royal courts leaving their traditional sheep rearing jobs. This might be a reason why Saluva Narasimharaya -II was often referred as Immadi Narasimha Yadava Raya.

    Tamil Jains or Samanars use various titles such as Udayars in Senji, Jains in Kancheepuram, Mudaliars in Tanjavur and Chettiars in the Kumbakonam area. In Theneripatti majority farmers are Udayars and Muthurajas. The mysore udayars were a small tributaries under Hoysalas. Hoysalas came from Melapas, hill chiefs in the Soseyur forests. Udaiyar and Yadava dynasties descended from herders. Tevar kings descended from Marava and Kallar hunters. The Udaiyars of Mysore and the Nayakas of Madurai remained unsubdued, while beyond them sundry west coastal states and Ceylon were never subjected to direct Mughal pressure. Some historians believe that ancestors maravars came down from North India to South India and they could be the Kalabras. In North Indian Sanskrit language and Hind, the word "Mara" means "kill".

    Mara = kill / die
    Maro = To kill / suicide
    Maravar = Killer / Suicider

    Thirupathi Balaji Hindu pilgrim center was popularised by Saluva kings :
    In spite of their saivite origins the Saluva rulers became great patrons of Vaishnism and accepted LORD VENKATA OF THIRUPATHI as their family Deity.

    The political situation in South India became extremely volatile leading to great unrest among the people and repeated changes in the monarchy. After sometime, Salva Narasimha (who was the ruler of Mulbagal and greatly devoted to Sripadaraja Tirtha) became the emperor of the fledgling Vijayanagar kingdom. During this period, the priests of the Tirupati Venkateshwara temple had degraded themselves to grossly corrupt practices much to the harassment of the visiting pilgrims. After receiving numerous complaints, Salva Narasimha sent his soldiers to bring the corrupt priests to his court at Chandragiri. When the puffed up priests refused to obey the command of the king, the outraged soldiers killed all the priests of the temple. Due to this incident, the worship at the temple was almost stopped and Salva Narasimha was severely afflicted with the sinful reactions of killing the Brahmanas. Salva Narasimha became extremely sick and bed-ridden. In this precarious situation, the distressed queen called for Sripadaraja Tirtha from Mulbagal. Sripadaraja Tirtha came to Chandragiri and miraculously delivered the king from all his sinful reactions restoring him to normalcy.

    The latter part of the biography of Vyasa Tirtha(Vyasayogicarita, chapter IV.) gives a brilliant account of the arrival of Vyasa Tirtha, at the court of Saluva Narasimha at Candragiri, and the grand reception that they had there for him. Being worshipped by the king bathed in presious jewells, pure gold and silver powders, and presented with all kinds of oppulences befitting such a worthy 'acarya'. Vyasa Tirtha spent a couple of years there in this way being honoured by the king.

    According to the commentator Somanatha, Vyasa Tirtha returned to Candragiri for a while after 1498. He evidently did so at the request of Saluva Immadi Narasimha, the son and successor of Saluva Narasimha, untill Narasa Naque became defacto ruler of Vijayanagar soon after the settlement which he concluded with King Tamma Raya, in 1498.

    Later, Salva Narasimha begged Sripadaraja Tirtha to become his rajaguru and also take up the worship of Lord Venkateshwara at Tirupati. Sripadaraja Tirtha then called for Vyasa Tirtha to take up this task. Vyasa Tirtha came to Chandragiri and was gorgeously received by Salva Narasimha. His grand reception is very nicely described by Somanatha kavi in his book Vyasa yogi carita. Salva Narasimha accepted Vyasa Tirtha as his spiritual master and requested him take up the worship and administration of the Venkateshwara temple. Thus Vyasa Tirtha went to Tirupati and engaged in immaculate worship and management at the temple for a period of twelve years.

    After making appropriate arrangements for the worship of Lord Venkateshwara, Vyasa Tirtha went back to Vijayanagar where he was eagerly received by Salva Narasimha. After sometime, Salva Narasimha passed away and his eldest son Timmaraja became the emperor of the Vijayanagar kingdom.

    Saluva Narasingaraya of Vijayanagara Dynasty who ruled between 1445-1490 A.D. made remarkable efforts to develop Tirumala temple. He got a Mantapa constructed to perform "Unjalseva" which commenced in 1473 A.D. In connection with utsavas, Sevas and Naivedyas he made many changes by increasing their number. He was also responsible for the construction of four mantapas on four sides of Tirumala temple which are used and decorated at the time of "Vasantotsvam".

    During Pavitrotsavam the Deity Himself acts as the dynamo generating power by the recitation of Mantras, the Vedas and the Puranas. Its celebration in Tirumalai is mentioned for the first time in an inscription of the year 1464 A.D. The Tamil wording of the inscription does not make it clear whether the festival was instituted only in 1464 A.D. or whether the donor, Sriman Mahamandaleswara Medinimisara-ganda Kattari Saluva Mallayadeva Maharaja merely caused the festival to be celebrated in his name.

    An inscription of 1494 A.D. (II 127, 5-6-1494) states that Vasantotsavam was celebrated for Sri Govindaraja in Tirupati for three days in Chittirai month commencing from the day of asterism Chitta. The Vasanta Tirunal which Saluva Narasimharaya instituted in 1468 A.D. was improved into a grander festival by Tirumalaraya. An inscription of the year 1473 A.D. (II. 50) gives full particulars of an endowment of Dommarappatti village in Kalavaiparru sub-division of Padaivedu Rajyam by Salva Narasimharaya Udaiyar. This endowment was more specifically for the celebration of a new festival called Dola-mahotsava Anna Unjal Tirunal.

    Tirumala Raya Mandapam : Adjoining the Ranga Mandapam on the western side, and facing the Dhvajasthambha Mandapam is a spacious complex of pavilions known as the Tirumala Raya Mandapam or Anna Unjal Mandapam. It consists of two different levels, the front at a lower level and the rear at a higher. The southern or inner portion of this Mandapam was constructed by Saluva Narasimha in 1473 AD to celebrate a festival for Sri Venkateswara called Anna Unjal Tirunal. This structure was extended to its present size by Araviti Bukkaraya Ramaraja, Sriranga Raja and Tirumala Raja.

    In 1485 A.D., due to the invasion of Bahmani Kings Saluva Narasimha Raya went to Vijayanagara along with his army. He suppressed the revolt and was sworn in as king at Vijayanagara. During his absence a Vaishnava devotee by name Kandadai Ramanuja lyengar was chosen by Saluva Narasimha Raya to supervise me temple activities. He restructured the rituals of Tirumala and Tirupati temples as per the norms of Vaishnava temples. Doing "Abhisheka" with turmeric water for goddess Lakshmi residing on the right side of the chest of Lord Venkateswara was started by him in 1496 A.D. Singing of Tamil pasurams in the temple also commenced during this period.

    Great saint poet Tallapaka Annamacharya who was a friend of Saluva Narasimha composed nearly thirty two thousand kirtanams out of which twelve thousand sankeertanams are available. The saint-poet had composed over 32,000 songs in praise of Lord Venkateswara and His consorts on palm leaves, which were replicated on copper plates during the reign of Saluva Narasimharaya of Vijayanagara dynasty. However, copper plates containing only 12,000 songs could be salvaged. The TTD management preserves these plates at its archaeological museum, near Govindarajaswamy temple here.

    The Govindaraja temple received wider attention with the advent of Vijayanagara rule over Tondamandalam. The Govindaraja temple came in for greater patronage during the rule of the Saluva dynasty of Vijayanagara. A certain Appapillai built a mantapa in front of the kitchen in 1506 AD where the devotees drop their offerings.

    Pillai is known to be one of the surnames of Tamil Muthuraja community. The Muthurajas and Mudirajas are one and the same people.

    Muthuraja <=> Muduraja <=> Mudiraja

    In 1130 A.D. the idol of Lord Govindaraja Swami was brought from Chidambaram and it was consecrated in the temple, which later became popular as "Govinda Raja Swami Temple". In 1180 A.D. a temple was constructed for Ramanujacharya at Tirumala and later it became customary to offer a share of all Naivedyas of Lord Venkateswara to this idol of Ramanujacharya.

    In 1481 A.D. a wealthy man by name Narasimha Raya Mudaliyar got constructed the Kodandarama swami temple at Tirupati in honour of the king Saluva Narasimha Raya.

    The Sampangi Pradakshinam contains several interesting mandapams like the Pratima Mandapam, Ranga Mandapam, Tirumala Raya Mandapam, Saluva Narasimha Mandapam, Aina Mahal and Dhvajasthambha Mandapam.

    Sree Venkatachalapathi Thirumala Devar idol believed as Swayamboo, worshipped by Saluva Narasimha Raya of Vijayanagar, after the ruin of the city was brought to Cochin by Swami Vijayeendra Tirtha of Kumbakonam Mutt in 16th Century A. D.

    The Saluva line of kings built some tanks in the temple area of Srisailam in present Indian state of Andhra Pradesh..

    Coins of Saluva dynasties :
    Silver tara, Vijayanagar feudatory in Uttara Kannada, Saluva dynasty (1486-1505), South India - Gold tara (or half-fanam). Deer standing left, semi-circle with a dot inside above (crescent moon and star?) / Brahmi letter "Ra" (corrupt and only partially seen). 5mm, 0.2 grams. - The attribution of these coins is somewhat tentative - they are sometimes found in the Uttara Kannada (Gerusoppe region) where the feudatory dynasty of Vijayanagara the Saluva ruled. The short-lived Saluva dynasty included only 2 rulers - Narasimha Saluva (1486-1492) and Immadi Narasimha (1492-1505).

    A Jaina feudatory family under Vijayanagara of the Saluvas, branching out from the Gersoppa family ruled over Bhatkal, having Haduvalli (Sangitapura) as its capital. The saluvas of Gersoppa, who ruled Gersoppa in the 13th and 14th centuries, and the saluvas of Haduvalli in Bhatkal taluk, who ruled the area in the 15th and 16th centuries, embraced Jainism and built many basadis in the district.

    Around 13th Century period the Saluva Dynasty ruled in Gerusoppe, which was their kingdom too. Simhanagadde is in Chickmagalur District is also called Narasimharaja Pura which is a taluk headquarter. Sri Jwalamalini Devi Statue was brought from Gerusoppe, a village on the banks of river Sharavathi of Uttara Kannada district. Gerusoppa village is 29 km from Honavar, on the bank of river Sharavati. The Saluvas ruled from here during thirteenth to seventeenth century. The Chaturmukha Basadi of Gerusoppa was built during fourteenth century, which has four identical doors in four directions. Similarly, four identical Neminaths's statues are carved out in marble.

    Now a small town on the northern banks of Sharavati River in North Kanara district of Karnataka State, Gersoppa (a.k.a Gerusoppa) was the capital of Salva kings. The land was known as Haive, which was ruled by Salva dynasty for more than two centuries. Earlier Gersoppa was known as Nagar Bastikeri, or just Ngaire. A big center of trade and commerce, the city was famous for beautiful temples, basadis and as a place of literary and cultural activities. Honnavar (a.k.a Honavar) was under the control of the Salvas. It was a big harbor of interior trade and Bhatkal was a big international trade seaport. Quality horses and weaponry were imported from West and landed at Bhatkal. Pepper and other spices were exported by shiploads to Middle East and European countries through Bhatkal port. Many wars were fought for the control of Honavar and Bhatkal ports by Vijaynagar, Adilshah and Keladi kings. They tried to keep Salva kings in good humour and Salvas made their presence felt throughout. They were at times in charge of Tuluva (South Kanara) country as well.

    The great Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagar (1509-1529) was of Tuluva lineage and his predecessor was a Salva descendent. In all probability they belonged to the once illustrious dynasty of Salvas who ruled Tuluva-Haive "country" (nadu), which comprised of the Western coastal belt to the tip of Kerala and the forest rich area of Malenad. Chennabhairadevi belonged to Tuluva-Salva lineage wherein the ruler or a noble was succeeded by his sister's son or "aliyasantana" a custom that prevailed in Kerala and Tuluva or south Kanara.

    Haduvalli (Sangithapura) is a tiny village ten km from Bhatkal. Another branch of the Saluvas dynasty ruled from here. In Padmavathi temple there numerous metal icons which belonged to 14th century. Fourteen Tirathankars in black marble are installed in a row. The Chandranatha Basadi is located at a short distance.

    The village of Haduvalli (a.k.a. Hadvalli and Hadolli) in Bhatkal Taluka of North Kanara district of Karnataka state is today a quiet and desolate place. But it had seen better times, centuries ago. Called as "Sangitapura" in inscriptions, it was a second capital of the Saluvas or Salvas of Gersoppa. It was a Jaina cultural center as well.

    Inscriprtions relating to Saluvas :
    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS -VOLUME XVI - TELUGU INSCRIPTIONS OF THE VIJAYANAGARA DYNASTY - No. 55 - (A. R. No. 342 of 1905.)- Devigudi, Jammalamadugu Taluk, Cuddapah District - On a slab set up on the north side of the central shrine of the Talakantamma temple - Krishnaraya, 1516 A.D. -This is dated Saka 1437, Dhata, Kartika su. 15, corresponding to 1516 A.D., November 9, (Sunday). The Saka year quoted is wrong for 1438. It records a dasavanda gift of land to the west of the boundary of Sukamanchipalli, by the sthanamvaru of Devigudi to Obili-reddi, son of Pulitalipa-redi, Tati-redi and Bhairapa-redi, sons of Chela-redi, for their having executed the construction of the prakara, for the merit of the king and Saluva Govindaraja Vodeyalu.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS -VOLUME XVI - TELUGU INSCRIPTIONS OF THE VIJAYANAGARA DYNASTY- No. 60 - (A. R. No. 335 of 1915.) - Chejerla, Narasarowpet Taluk, Guntur District - On a slab set up near the mandapa in the Kapotesvara temple - Krishnaraya, 1517 A.D. -This is dated Saka 1440 (current), Isvara, Jyestha ba. [30], Friday, solar eclipse corresponding to 1517 A.D., June 19. Registers a gift of 12 puttis measured by the peddapatinagari-ambaram and 12 varahas, to Namassivaya, the Srikarana of god Kapotesvara by Saluva Timmarasa at the command of the king for the merit of his family. The Sanskrit verse with which the record begins, refers to Chemjerla as the sarvamanya-agrahara. Also records the remission of certain levies and specifies the quantities of rice, dhall, ghee, etc., for the daily use in the temple as well as the shares of the offerings to the various officials and temple servants including the Srikarana.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS -VOLUME XVI - TELUGU INSCRIPTIONS OF THE VIJAYANAGARA DYNASTY - No. 61 - (A. R. No. 355 of 1920.) - Miduturu, Gooty Taluk, Anantapur District - On a slab set up in the Virabhadra temple - Krishnaraya, 1517 A.D - This is dated Saka 1439, Isvara, Ashadha su. 11, corresponding to 1517 A.D., June 29, (Monday). It records a gift of the village Miduturu to God Burudala Vighnesvara by Saluva Govindayya, son of Rachiraju. The gift village was situated in Puleti-mamgani in Gutti-sima which is said to have been held by the donor as a nayankara from the king.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS -VOLUME XVI - TELUGU INSCRIPTIONS OF THE VIJAYANAGARA DYNASTY- No. 62 - (A. R. No. 478 of 1906.) - Korrapadu, Proddatur Taluk, Cuddapah District - On two faces of a slab lying in the courtyard of the Chennakesavasvamin temple - Krishnaraya, 1517 A.D.- This is badly damaged. Mentions Saluva Tipi and Saluva Komara Timmarasayya in whose presence Timmapa seems to have demarcated some forest land obviously granted for some purpose. The cyclic year Isvara which seems to be quoted in the record corresponds to 1517 A.D.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS -VOLUME XVI - TELUGU INSCRIPTIONS OF THE VIJAYANAGARA DYNASTY- No. 63- (A. R. No. 336 of 1915.) -Chejerla, Narasarowpet Taluk, Guntur District - On a Nandi-pillar set up near the dhvaja-stambha of the Kapotesvara temple - Krishnaraya, 1518 A.D - This is dated Saka 1440 (current), Isvara, Magha ba. 14, Monday, corresponding to 1518 A.D., February 9, which was Tuesday. The record is damaged and seems to register a gift of the various levies such as sunkam, talarikam etc., of Bittalapuram alias Kapotapuram in Chemjerla to god Kapotesvara-mahadeva who favoured king Sibi, for worship of the deity and records the construction of the tanks Timmasamudram and Kondasamudram by Rayasam Kondamarusayya, son of Saluva Timmarasayya and Srimgayamma. Mentions Saluva Timmarusayya as the Sirah-pradhani of the king.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS -VOLUME XVI - TELUGU INSCRIPTIONS OF THE VIJAYANAGARA DYNASTY No. 64 - (A. R. No. 343 of 1905.) - Devigudi, Jammalamadugu Taluk, Cuddapah District - On a slab set up on the northern side of the central shrine of the Talakantamma temple - Krishnaraya, 1518 A.D - This is dated Saka 1440, Bahudhanya, Vaisakha su. 5, corresponding to 1518 A.D., April 15, (Thursday.). It records a dasavanda gift of land by the sthanamvaru of Devigudi to Basavana, Matsanagana and Mudukana, sons of Nagajiyya of Devigudi, for the merit of king Krishnaraya and Saluva Govindaraju Vodayalu.

    Vodayalu in the name of Saluva Govindaraju Vodayalu seems to be a modification to Udaiyar. This title was also used by some Muddara ( Mudiraj ) kings of Kodagu.

    Udaiyar => Vodaiyar => Wodaiyar
    Udaiyar => Vodayar => Vodaiyar => Vodayaru = Vodayalu

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS -VOLUME XVI - TELUGU INSCRIPTIONS OF THE VIJAYANAGARA DYNASTY No. 72 - (A. R. No. 433 of 1915.) - Eluru, Eluru Taluk, Krishna District - On the Naga pillar set up in front of the Virabhadra temple in the village - Krishnaraya, 1521 A.D - This is dated Saka 14[43] Vrisha, Kartika (nija) su. 15, Monday, corresponding to 1521 A.D., November 14 (Thursday). The record is badly damaged. It registers a grant of land in the village of Veruru in Kondaviti-sima to god Somesvara of the place by Nandindla Gopaya, the nephew of Saluva Timmaya, the chief minister of the king. Kondaviti-sima is said to have been the nayankara of the donor.

    SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS -VOLUME XVI - TELUGU INSCRIPTIONS OF THE VIJAYANAGARA DYNASTY - No. 73 -(A. R. No. 353 of 1915.) - Kundurru, Narasarowpet Taluk, Guntur District - On a Naga pillar lying in front of a deserted temple - Krishnaraya, 1522 A.D -This is dated Saka 1445 (current) Chitrabhanu, Vaisakha ba. 3. Monday, corresponding to 1522 A.D., May 13 (Tuesday). The record is incomplete. It registers the grant of a piece of land in the village of Konudortta in Vinukonda-sima for offerings to god Purushottama of the village by Mahamandalesvara Sarvayya Devachodamaharaju, son of Alamandala Yarayya Devacholdamaharaju of Kasyapa-gotra. Vinikonda-sima is said to have been given to the donor as nayankara by Mahapradhana Saluva Timmarasayya.

    NOTES AND FRAGMENTS -III. INSCRIPTIONS AT AND NEAR VIRINCHIPURAM- NO.115, INSIDE THE FRONT GOPURA, TO THE LEFT, FIRST INSCRIPTION
    1.King: the illustrious mahamandalesvara Medinisvara Immadi-Narasimharaya-maharayar (of Vijayanagara)
    2.Date: Saka 1418 expired and the Rakshasa year current.
    3.Donor:Periya-Timmarasa-udaiyar.
    4.Remark:The inscription mentions a mandapa, which Erama-nayaka caused to be built at Tiru-Virichipuram.

    NOTES AND FRAGMENTS -III. INSCRIPTIONS AT AND NEAR VIRINCHIPURAM- NO.116.INSIDE THE FRONT GOPURA, TO THE LEFT, SECOND INSCRIPTION.
    1.Date: the Nanda year (i.e.,Saka 1395).
    2.King: the illustrious mahamandalesvara Medinisvara Gandan Katta[ri] Saluva Dharanivaradha Narasimharaya-udaiyar (of Vijayanagara).
    3.Donee: Udaiyar Varittunai-nayanar of Tiru-Virinchipuram.
    4.Remark: The inscription mentions some nayaka, the son of another nayaka; the names of both are obliterated.

    Mahamandalesvara Medinisvara Gandan Kattari Saluva Dharanivaraha Narasimha Raya Udaiyar.

    NOTES AND FRAGMENTS -III. INSCRIPTIONS AT AND NEAR VIRINCHIPURAM- NO.119. INSIDE THE FRONT GOPURA, TO THE RIGHT, FIRST INSCRIPTION.
    1.King: the illustrious mahamandalesvara Medinisvara Ganga Kattari Saluva-saluva Narasimhadeva (of Vijayanagara).
    2.Date: Saka 1404-expired and the Subhakrit year current.
    3.Donor: Nagana-nayaka
    4.Donee:Udaiyar Varittunai-nayanar of Tiru-Virinchipuram.
    5.Remark: The inscription mentions the villages of Pasumarattur and Veppur.

    Earlier to Sri Krishna- devaraya (16th century) there is only one Telugu inscription of Saluva Mangideva Maharaya dated saka 1281 (No.237 T.T.) and two Kannada inscriptions, one of Vira Pratapa-Devaraya Maharaya dated saka 351 (No. 188 T.T.) and one of Saluva Narasimha dated saka 1389 (No.8 G.T.).

    THE CAPITAL CITIES OF THE VIJAYANAGARA EMPIRE
    1. Sringeri, Dwarasamudra and Hospatna Mobile Capitals
    2. Anegundi 1336- 1343
    3. Vijayanagara 1343- 1565
    4. Penukonda 1567- 1592
    5. Chandragiri 1592- 1606
    6. Vellore 1606- 1672

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    Date = 11/11/2007
    Nagpur, Maharastra, India




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    05. CHOWTA & CHOWDA DYNASTIES:

    A detailed study reveals that there is a hidden history and relation between (i) the Chowta dynasty of Karnataka in South India and (ii)the Chowda dynsty of Gujarat in North India. The Chowtas of Karnataka were the Chowdas of Gujarat Rajputs who were driven out by Waghelas from Saurastra. Chowdas built the famous Somanath Temple in Gujarat. The Chowtas also built Somanatheswara temple at Ullal. Ullal is very famous for historic locations like Someshwara Temple, Summer Sands Beach Resort and Queen Abbakka's Fort at Ranipura. The family diety of Abbakka Rani of Jain Chowta dynsty was Somanathesvara. The remains of Rani Abbakka's fort can be seen in the vicinity of Someshwara Temple.

    Abbakka Queen of Ullala was an ardent devotee of Sri Somanatha. Villagers say that there are 5 Somanatha temples around the area - Ullala, Ammembala, Ira, Inoli, and Konaje. Out of these five temples, the last one at Konaje has also been destroyed and the exact location is not known. The temple at Inoli is being currently reconstructed with enthusiastic participation from the people of Inoli and surrounding areas.

    The Chowtas and the Chowdas are directly and indirectly related to the warrior community of Mudirajas of South India and the Kolis of North India.

    (I) CHOWTA DYNASTY
    After the fall of the Vijayanagar Empire, the Tulu region witnessed the arrival of rulers of small kingdoms, including the Alupas and the Chowtas, and regents such as the Ballals.

    In ancient days, Jains formed the administrative class with agrarian background. The Jain kings were Bairarasa of Karkala, Chowtas of Moodabidri, Samanthas of Moolky, Bangas of Bangavadi, Tholaharas of Sural and Ajilas of Venur. Queen Abbakka, who successfully checked the colonial powers like the Portuguese, belonged to the Chowta family.

    Chowti is one of the surnames of Telugu Mudiraj people today. Chowti seems to be a modification of the surname Chowta of Tuluva bunts, who are mostly jains. These chowti Mudiraj people could be the descendants of Chowta Tuluva Jain Bunts as it is a well known fact that Mudiraja / Muttarasa kings were jains in Karnataka.

    This surname Chowti seems to be closely related to Chowta surname of Tuluva Bunts. Mudiraj people are also known as bants in South Western part of Andhra Pradesh. The chowta surname can also be seen among Erukalas of Andhra pradesh who are supposed to be bracnch or variants of North Indian bhil-banjara tribes to which Ekalavya belonged and to which some sections of Mudiraj also belonged. This chowta surname among Telugu Erukala people once again confirms that Telugu bants ( Mudiraju Bantlu ) and Tuluva bunts are one and the same people.

    Chowta <=> Chowti

    Chauta => Chowta => Chowti

    It is fact that balija / kapu caste, once represented the bant sections of Mudiraj community. There are several surnames of Tuluva bunts which are common to both Mudiraj and Balija communities today. This stands as a strong proof that Telugu Mudiraja bants and Tulu speaking bunts are one and the same people.

    For more details on common surnames of (i) Telugu Mudiraj bants & Tuluva bunts and (ii) Mudiraju and Balija please refer to chapter on " Bant / Bunt origins" in the webpage "Origins" in this website.

    The Chowta Jain dynasty ruled the Moodabidri region for several centuries. They moved to Moodabidri in the 17th century, where the last Chowta ruler died in 1833. The ornate Chowta Palace still exists and is occupied by the descendants of the Chowtas. The Chowta queen Abbakka Rani fought the Portuguese army during 1530-1599. her bravery, she came to be known as Abhaya Rani ('The fearless queen'). She was also one of the earliest Indians to fight the colonial powers and is sometimes regarded as the 'first woman freedom fighter of India'.

    Moodabidri was the seat of the Chowtas, a Jain ruling family, who were originally located at Puthige, about 5 km from here. They moved their capital to Moodabidri in the 17th century. The remains of the 17th century Chowta Palace is known for its beautifully carved wooden pillars and ceilings.

    The ornate Chowta Palace still exists and is occupied by the descendants of the Chowtas. The Chowta palace itself looks imposing with its commanding view, situated as it is on a high-rise site. It stands frozen in time as a mute symbol of the regal style of the Chowta dynasty that ruled the area for over five centuries. The rulers were notable for their patronage of arts and architecture. Almost within sight of the Chowta palace is the renowned thouasnd-pillar temple that draws devotees from India and abroad.

    Moodabidri (also called Mudbidri), an ancient center of Jain learning, is a small town 37 km northeast of the Dakshin Kannada district headquarters, Mangalore, in Karnataka, India. During 14th - 16th centuries this town emerged as a center of Jain religion, culture, art and architecture. 18 Jain temples, snown as Basadis, were constructed during this period. Moodabidri was the seat of the Chowtas, a Jain ruling family, who were originally located at Puthige, about 5 km from here. They moved their capital to Moodabidri in the 17th century. The remains of the 17th century Chowta Palace is known for its beautifully carved wooden pillars and ceilings.

    The Chowtas followed a matrilineal system by which Tirumala Raya, Abbakka's uncle, crowned her the queen of Ullal. He also forged a matrimonial alliance for Abbakka with Lakshmappa Arasa, the powerful king of neighbouring Mangalore. The marriage, however was short lived and Abbakka returned to Ullal. Her husband thus longed for revenge against Abbakka and was to later join the Portuguese in their fight against Abbakka.

    There were many women in history of ancient and medieval India who fought for freedom with their enemies on battlefield. Abbakka was bravest of them; most discussed in Europe at her time, yet less known to us. Abbakka defeated the mighty Portuguese army and navy again and again.

    The renowned Queen Abbakka Devi who ruled over the Ullal region of Dakshina Kannada during the medieval period has over the ages acquired undying fame for her brave defiance of Western invaders. She belonged to the Jain Dynasty of the Chowtas, who ruled over a wide domain with the temple town of Moodabidri as their headquarters. Their subsidiary capital was the port town of Ullal on the Arabian Sea Coast.

    Succession in the Chowta dynasty was through the maternal line. The heir-apparent ruled over the Ullal. It was a prosperous port of export of merchandise like pepper, cardamom and other spices grown in the littoral south of the Portuguese colony of Goa. The Poruguese, the Dutch and the British vied with one another for control of the region. Their aim was colonization through naval supremacy. But the local Chieftains were powerful enough to resist their incursions. They also forged alliances to prevent the foreigners from gaining control over the coastal stretch. The fertile coastal belt thus remained the last bastion of Independence on the West coast during the middle ages. Resistance to alien domination cut across the caste and community lines. There were a number of Beary muslim men served in the naval force, and also as soldiers and military commanders in the army of brave queen of Chowta dynasty, Rani Abbakka.

    The Chowta head of the dynasty Thirumala Raya had ensured Abbakka's proficiency in martial arts and combat strategies through her training before sending her to Ullal, he also taught her the nuances of diplomacy and State-craft.

    The Queen's uncle, Thirumala Raya had forged matrimonial alliance with the powerful head of the Banga dynasty of Mangalore. Abbakka was married to Lakshmappa Arasa, the Mangalore monarch. Mangalore was strategically situated to the north of Ullal across the harbour. The Bangas ruled over a vast area that included Bangawadi at the foot of the Western Ghats and Nandavara on the Netravathi river. The Banga – Chowta alliance was designed as a ploy to deter any aggressors.

    Balijas who constituted the bant sections of Medieval Mudiraja community were the descendants of Banajigas who were in turn the descendants of Banjaras. The banga rajaras also belonged to the same bunt community of Tulunad. It also appears that Bangas and banas were one and the same people.

    Banajiga => Banjiga => Banga
    Banajiga => Banjiga => Banga => Bana


    For more details on Rani Abbakka, please see the chapter on 'rani Abbakka Devi Chowta" in the webpage "Queens" in this website.

    Ganapati Rao Aigal in his account of the local history (Dakshina Kannada Jilleya Prachina Itihasa, published in 1928) was able to reconstruct in some detail the genealogy of Chauta rulers. Thirumala Raya III ruled from 1510 to 1544 and Abbakka Devi II from 1544 to 1582. She was followed by a Thirumala Devi from 1582 to 1606. There was also one queen Abbakka Devi preceding the Rani and one followed her later. The genealogy of the Banga kings of Mangalore shows that Lakshmappa Banga-raja II was ruled from 1545 to 1556. His nephew, Kamaraya III, was in power from 1556 to 1612.

    The local legend also says that Rani Abbakka Devi was estranged from her husband, Lakshmappa Banga, who was said to have colluded with the Portuguese and fought against his wife. It is more probable that it was the nephew of her husband, Kamaraya III, who had fought against the queen. The sedition of Kamaraya III against his uncle had been supported by the Portuguese. Consequently he was able to supplant the king and rule Mangalore during the period when Abbakka Devi was opposing the Portuguese advances.

    Nellitheertha temple :
    Dating back to 1487AD, King Nellitheertharan used to held prayers here on daily basis. But as the Kingdom declined so did the existence of the cave. As per the books of history, this region was later on under the administration of Chowta Family. A very renowned family in Tulu Nadu, refurbished this temple and gave its forgotten name.Even today the descendants of the Chowta family give it a lot of respect.

    Historically, the Nellitheertha region was under the administration of the Chowta family. The chowtas are a famous name in Tulu Naadu and it is said that the Nellitheertha temple flourished under their administration and was a major center for religious and cultural activities under their reign. The holy place Nellitheertha and the temple have a long and glorious history. Although the first recorded material mentioning Nellitheertha dates back to 1487 A.D, there is ample evidence available at the place to suggest that the temple existed much before that. There are some artifacts and archeological evidence available at the temple which point to a Jain interest and influence at the temple. These are evidence to suggest that the temple and the region was probably under the administration of Jain kings of the region.

    Nellitheertha is a evergreen forest. Here in these wilds is this cave of Nellitheertha placed. It is supposed to be one of the holiest places of South India. Alive under the rule of the King Nellitheertha, this cave can be reached from Karnataka by tourist bus or by cabs.

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    (II) CHOWDA DYNASTY : :
    The Chowdas were Rajputs of Saraswathi river basin in Rajastan. The dynasty rulers of Chowda ruled parts of Gujarat, Saurastra and Madhya Pradesh. They were originally staunch Hindus and later became jains. The Solanki Chalukyas were an extend branch of Chowdas after the laster ruler of Chavdas.

    Abbakka Devi belonged to jain royal dynasty of the chowtas (Karnataka) who also had Somanathesvara as their family diety. The famous Somanath temple in Gujarat was built by Chowda Rajputs of Gujarat. It appears that some of the Chowdas of Gujarat who migrated to South India became Chowtas of Karnataka. Both Chowtas and Chowdas patronised Jainism. It is a well known fact that the Muttarasa (Mudiraj) were also great patrons of Buddhism. There is a Chowta surname among of Tuluva bunts and Balijas. The Chowti surname of Telugu Mudiraj also seems to be related to Chowtas and Chowdas. It is also explained that Balijas formed the sections of Mudiraju Bantlu during medieval times.

    Chowda = Chauda = Chawda = Chavda = Chawada = Chavada

    The Somanath Temple was constructed around 10 th century by Alupa King Kulashekara. The entrance to this temple, which stands atop a 500ft tall monolithic rock, faces eastwards with the back towards the Arabian Sea . The legendary queen Abbakka constructed a fort aground this temple for its protection and also constructed watch towers at several places. It is said that the queen used to conduct discussions regarding all important administrative decisions under the temple tower.

    The 150 kms long coastline of undivided Dakshina Kannada district is home to hundreds of fishing villages. These villages have commonly come to be known as 'Mogaveera Patna'. Mogaveeras are fishermen relating to kolis. Located close to Mangalore, this village is famous for places of worship like Sri Somanath Temple. When the Portuguese naval fleets resorted to mindless mid-sea extortion of merchant vessels, Rani Abbakka fought valiantly against the Portuguese with the help of Mogaveera youth.

    Chowtas could be related to Chowda Rajputs of North India :
    Chowtas were Tuluva bunts who ruled parts of western coast of India. They became rulers of Western coast after gradually migrating to Western Coast from Bellary & Rayalaseema. They were the same people who belonged to king race of Vijayanagar kingdom. These chowtas seems to be related to Chowda rajputs. Chowda dynasty kings were subordinates to Western Chalukyas ( solankis ) at one time. It appears that the Chowda rulers came to South India and became part of Telugu Bantlu during the reign of Chalukyas. Chowda surname is seem among Telugu Reddys. Reddy title is also prevelent among Mudiraju and Kapu communitie. Chavda kings were related to Chalukyas and they were also jain followers similar to the Chowta kings.

    Somnath-Veraval is an assembly constituency in Guijarat. Veraval is the largest fish-processing zone in Gujarat. Premji Munja Chawda is a Koli farmer with five bighas of land in this constituency. Laxmanbhai Chawda is a owner of fishing trawler in Veraval. This Chawda surname among kolis of Gujarat gives us a clue that Chowda rajputs could be from Koli community of Gujarat - Rajastan. Hence the Chowta bunts were most probably related Chowda Rajaputs. We know that some sections of Mudiraj people are kolis or variants of kolis. The Mudiraj people having Chowti surname too could be related to Chowda Rajaputs. Chawda surname is also seen among Gurjar Kshatriy and Vankar communities of Gujarat. Chowdas seems to be mixed race having blood of kolis, Gurjars and other warrior communities.

    Chauda = 14 = Stands for Fourteen Gurjats that were ceeded to Marathas
    Chawda = Chavda = Chauda
    Chawda => Chowda
    Chowda => Chowta => Chowti

    It is said that Chavadas belong to both Agnikula and Odak lineages. The sub-castes of Agnikula (the Fire lineage) Kshatriyas are Kala, Kalam, Kher, Chavada, Chad, Mori, Mahipal, Rehvar, Survar, Hada, Solanki etc. The sub-castes of Odak Kshatriyas included Kamad, Jethwa, Chavada, Dabhi, Makwana, and Zala; these are the chief ones that first settled in Gujarat and later moved to other places. There are said to be 36 families of the Odak lineage.

    From the 8th to13th century, Daman and Diu, which was a part of Goa was a stronghold of the Chowda Rajputs who were ousted by the Waghalas who in turn were expelled by Muslims in1330. It continued under Muslims rule for another two hundred years when it was conquered by the Portuguese, who ruled Goa for 451 years (1510-1961). Over the years, Diu was variously a trading center for the Mauryans, a capital for the Chavada dynasty, a refuge for Rajput rajas and a military outpost for the Ottoman Turks.

    The Chavdas ruled over the Somnath patan & Diu under the Chalukya as local chieftains. In 1020 A.D., Sultan Mohammed Ghazni attacked the chalukyas and came up to Diu and rocked them. But in 1064 A.D, the chalukyas came back again to power and Diu was successively under the sway of Chavda and Vaghela Rajputs, who build a fort here.

    The Chavda Rajputs first established kingdom at Anhilpur Patan( at present a district in northern Gujarat ) in around 745 AD. Anhilpur Patan remained capital of Gujarat) for many centuries. They gradually moved from Patan and established their kingdom at other locations like Mehsana, Mansa, Varsoda etc.

    Champaner town set up in the 8th century A.D by the Chauda dynasty, remained the political capital of Gujarat till 1536. Pawagadh-Champaner is located near Vadodara city at a distance of 46 km. Pawagadh is located on the hill surrounded by fort. Whole area is scattered with structures of archeological importance and it was declared as protected area by the Archeological Survey of India.

    Mehsana was founded in the 12th to the 14th century by the Chavada Rajputs, the old town is believed to have had four gates, of which only one remains. The district owes its name to the town of Mehsana founded by Mahesaji or Masaji - a ruler of Chavada dynasty in 12th/13th century AD. This town is now an administrative headquarters of Mehsana district, Gujarat state, west central India, in the lowlands between the Aravalli Range and the Little Rann of Kutch.

    The city of Patan located in Gujarat, was formerly called Anhilvada or Anhilpur and was established in 765 by Vanaraja, the first king of the Chavada dynasty. Patan was once the capital of the Chavada and Solanki dynasties (720–1242), it was sacked in 1024 by Mahmud of Ghazna. The town is located in northern Gujarat state, west-central India. It is situated on the Saraswati River in the lowlands between the Aravalli Range and the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay). The land of River Sarswati is known to be the home land of kolis and Rajputs, who migrated to all parts of India.

    The city of Anhilvada was named after a Bharwad shepherd, Anhila, who assisted Vanaraja in finding a site for it. The early history of the kingdom is somewhat obscure; but it seems certain that Vanaraja ruled till 780, and was succeeded by eight rulers of his line, the last of whom died in 961. In that year the Chavada dynasty was replaced by the Solankis or Chalukyas, of whom the first, Mularaja (941-96), is the most famous.

    Chavada Dadda, the founder of Pratihara dynasty, established the Gurjar rule at Nandipur (Nandol). Dadda III wrested Broach from the Maitraks whose citadel had started shaking.As vassals of the Valabhis, Chavadas held their sway over parts of north Gujarat. They assumed independent control after the fall of Valabhi. Vanraj Chavda, the most prominent of the eight Chavada kings, founded a new capital at Anhilpur Patan. He reconquered his father's lost territories and founded the Chavada dynasty which lasted a shade under a century. Patan was founded in 746 A.D. by a Jain hero, Vanaraj Chavda, who built the Panchasara Parshvanath temple. The Chavda dynasty came to an end in 942 A.D.

    The end of "Pratihar" rule was the beginning for Chawda dynasty. Their capital "Ahilyapatak" (Ahilyavaad" was established under new name as "New Pattan" (presently Patan). Before that during "Maitrak" period, "Chaap" dynasty (another name of chawda) ruled over "Gurjardesh". Even in "Vadhvan" "Diu" & "Dwarka" there were few rulers of same dynasty. They were also known as "Chapotkat" or "Chawda". In addition to this there was Chawda rule in Saurashtra and Kachchh. Thus rulers of Chawda dynasty played an important role in the history of Gujarat, during "Maitrak" and post "Maitrak" era.

    Description of Vanraj Chawda is found in the literature of Solanki dynasty. But no description of ancestors of Vanraj Chawda is found in any ancient literature. Although Jaishikhari, father of Vanraj has been described in Krishna Kavi's Hindi composition "Ratnamala" written during 17th - 18th century.

    The Chavda clan settled down in Gujarat and later Saurashtra. The first Rajput king of the Chavda Kingdom was Jayshikhari Chavda, who was assassinated before his son Vanraj Chavda was born. Vanraj Chavda went on to be the most successful Chawda ruler, founding historical cities such as Anhilpur Patan and Champaner. After Vanraj came Yograj, and then the last chavada king was Samantsinh. There were five Chavda kings after Vanraj, the last of whom, Samantsinh Chawda, did not have any children. The five Chavdas were - Jayshikhari Chavda , Vanraj Chavda, Kshemraj Chavda , Bhuvad Chavda, Bajrasingh Chavda and Ratnaditya Chavda.

    Vanaraja : Vanraj Chavda's father was Jayshikhari Chavda, a king of northern Gujarat, who was assassinated before Vanraj was born. Vanraj's mother fled to the forests of Radhanpur where she gave birth to a boy, who was named Vanraj (King of the forest). The young Vanraj was educated by Jain priests and gained an academic as well as a military education. He eventually raised an army of Bhil tribals and helped by his friend and lieutenant Anhil, regained his father's lost kingdom.Vanraj Chavda founded the city of Anhilpur Patan, naming it in honour of Anhil, and made it the capital of his kingdom. It went on to be the most prosperous city of its time in India. He also founded the city of Champaner, in honour of his general Champa.Vanraj Chavda was succeeded by his son Kshemraj Chavda.

    Solankis came into existence from Chowda rulers : Samantsinh, the last Chavada ruler, did not have an issue and he adopted Mulraj who came in 942 AD and set up what came to be known as the Solanki dynasty. Mulraj Solanki's reign marked the start of the most glorious period in the history of Gujaratand it is described as the golden period in Gujarat chequered history. Mulraj himself adopted the title of Gurharesh (King of Gurjardesh). Important Solanki kings after Mulraj included Bhimev I, Sidhraj Jaisinh, Kumarpal and Tribhuvanpal-the last in the solanki dynasty. Two mames stand our in the Solanbki dynasty. The fiest is that of Sidhraj Jayasinh who ruled for 47 years from 1094 A.D. and the second prominent Solanki King Kumarpala's reign lasted for 31 years from 1143 to 1174 AD Apart from Saurashtra and Kachchh, Sidhraj Jaysinh also conquered Malwa.

    The Solanki are a Hindu Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 9th century to the 13th century. Anhilwad (Siddhpur Patan) served as their capital. The Solankis were patrons of the great seaside Shiva Temple at Somnath in Kathiawar. The guardian family deity of the Solankis was Somnath at Prabhas. Ironically, it was during the Solanki's rule that the scared shrine was sacked by Mahmud Ghazni who defiled and despoiled the fabulously rich shrine and put 50,000 Hindus to sword. Bhimdev-I helped rebuild the temple after it was sacked by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1026.

    Descendants of the Anhilwad Solankis, Vyaghra Dev, brother of the Solanki King of Gujarat, moved to and ruled the state of Rewa, in Bagelkhand (eastern Madhya Pradesh) in the middle of the twelfth century, and obtained the fortress of Marpha. His son Karandev married a Kalchuri (Haihaya) princess of Mandla, and received the fortress of Bandogarh which served as the seat of the Solankis of Bagelkhand until its destruction by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1597.

    Varsoda was a princely state before Indian Independence (1947) and was ruled by Chavda dynasty (one of the major Rajput clan of Gujarat) under British dominion. The former princely state was established by Chavda dynasty. Varsoda is a small village located in northern part of Gujarat, India on the bank of river Sabarmati. It is approximately 25 km away from Gandhinagar, the state capital of Gujarat.

    The town of Arjya in Bhilwara District, 150 km. from Udaipur; was ruled by the Chavda clan. Chavdas seems to be related to Maharanas of Udaipur. Ancestor of Arjya Jagir near Udaipur, Bhilwara District was Jagat Singh Chavda of Barsora in Mahikantha of Gujarat. Jagat Singh was maternal uncle of Maharana Jawan Singh of Udaipur. Had two sons, Kuber Singh and Jalam Singh came to Udaipur with Maharana Jawan Singh and were granted, jointly, the jagirs of Aarjya and Kaladwas. Rulers were (1) Kuber Singh, jointly with his brother, following, (2) Jalam Singh, jointly with his brother, (3) Fateh Singh, (4) Pratap Singh, (5) Jorawar Singh, (6) Amar Singh and (7) Nahar Singh. The greatest Rana of Udaipur was Maha Rana Pratap Singh who belonged to Sri Rama's Suryavamsi lineage.

    It is understood that the Chudasamas, Abhiras, Yadhavas and others - attacked the pilgrims and looted them of their donations intended for the Somanatha temple. In addition, there was heavy piracy in the coastal areas indulged in by the local Chavda rajas and a variety of sea brigands referred to as the Bawarij. As with many areas generating wealth in earlier times, this part of Gujarat was also subject to unrest and the Chaulukya ( Solankis ) administration spent much time and energy policing attacks on pilgrims and traders.

    Chowda rulers of Gujarat were jains similar to Chowta rulers of Karnataka :
    Jainism flourished in Gujarat during the days of Rastrakuta monarchs, many of whom were devout Jainas, and it received a further fillip at the hands of that veteran Jaina ruler Vanaraja of Chavada family. About 1100 A.D., Jainism gained a great ascendancy when the Chalukya ( Solanki ) king Siddharaja and his successor Kumarapala openly professed Jainism and encouraged the literary and temple building activities of the Jainas.

    Chavdas became Jains and patronised jainism. The Vadipura - Parsvanatha Jain temple at Patan is decorated with carved-wood ceiling. The Jain temple of Vadipura-Parsvanatha was built in 1594.

    These are the same Chalukyas who established Western Chalukya kingdom in Karnataka and Easter Chalukya kingdom in Vengi of Andhra Pradesh. Further the Vengi Chalukyas developed matrimonial relations with Tanjavour cholas leading to formation of a political front of Chalukya- Vengi cholas against Western Chalukyas.

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    06. ALUPA DYNASTY :

    ADAPA is one of the common surnames of Mudiraj caste people in Andhra Pradesh and that of Tuluva bunts. Some sections of Mudiraj people are also known as Mudiraju buntlu. Adapa and Alva are related Tuluva banta surnames. "Adapa" seems to a modification of the name "Alapa or Alupa". Alupas were Pandya related Tuluva bunt kings who established their own kingdoms in Tulunadu.

    The Alupas ruled the modern districts of Udupi and Mangalore and parts of Shimoga and Uttara Kannada districts in the state of Karanataka, India from 5th -15th century AD . The region of Dakshina Kannada (modern Udupi and Mangalore district) was free from any external influence and appears to have been under the strict control of Alupa kings in the ancient times.

    The various names used for Alups in the inscriptions are - Alupa, Alapa, Aluka, Aluva, and Alva. Telugu Mudiraj surname ALLA could also be a modification of the Tulu surname ALVA.

    Alapa => Adapa
    Alapa => Alupa => Adupa => Adapa
    Alapa => Alupa => Aluva
    Aluva => Alva => Alla

    The first clear mention of Alupas come from the Halmidi inscription of 450 C.E. where their possible early ruler Pashupathi of Alapa (Alupa) gana is mentioned. The dynastic formation of Alupas took place around 5th century C.E. Their royal emblem was the double fish and they claimed to belong to the Pandyavamsha and Soma Kula (lunar).Their coins carried the dynastic title "Sri Pandya Dhananjaya" which means "Arjuna among the Pandyas". Pandyas are said to be the descendants of Pandavas. The greeks know the land of Alupas as Olokhoria.

    Alupas is one of the four unrecorded group that migrated to the coastal region of Mangalore as early as 300 B.C.E and took control of the coastal land stretching from Southern Kasaragod till modern Udupi with Mangalore as the epicenter. The Asoka edict mentions about Satiyaputra, and it is assumed that Alupas are the one who are referred as Satiyaputra. The region of South Canara (Dakshnina Kannada) prior to this dynastic rule is still tagged to the same ruling house though the ruling was more informal and in the evolving stage.

    The Alupas kings were a minor dynasty who ruled parts of coastal Karnataka. They ruled independently the Alvakheda region in the beginning (200 B.C.E to 450C.E). Later with the dominance of Kadambas in Banavasi, they became feudatory to them. With the changing political scenario, soon they became the feudatories to Chalukyas, Hoysalas and Vijayanagara Rayas. Their influence over coastal Karnataka lasted for about 1000 years by switching between Mangaluru and Udyavar, Barakuru and back to Mangaluru as their political centers. The Alvas or Alupas were a minor dynasty in Western Karnataka but the longest reigning dynasty of Tulu Nadu that ruled without interuption for almost 1000 - 1200 years over the small territory of coastal Karnataka.

    Alupas shifted their capital from Udyavara to Barkur and were instrumental in the political, financial, social and cultural developments of Barkur. Once the Alupas got into marriage relationship with the Hoysalas, they also spread their political wings into the Thulunadu. Once the Vijayanagara was founded in the year 1336, Hoysalas chose Barkur as their regional capital and many governors ruled Barkur under the directions from Vijayanagara. Later Barkur experienced the ruling of Keladi, Hyder, Tippu and British empires.

    From the earliest references in documented history, it is clear that the region covering Mangalore was a part of the Kingdom of Alupas, whose unbroken dynastic rule from 567 to 1325 AD is perhaps the longest in Indian history.

    One of the copper-plates inscription in Kannada language and in characters palaeographically assignable to the eighth century A. D. from Belmannu, Taluk Karkala, District South Kanara (Mysore) is the earliest known copper-plate record of the Alupa dynasty. It records the giving of a certain convention to the sabha of Belmannu during the reign of Aluvarasa and another person.

    The first stone epigraph that points the ruler as a subordinate to WEstern Chalukya King (8th Century C.E). The names of Alupa kings as referred in some Chalukya inscriptions :



    Some of the prominent Alupa rulers were :



    Alupas were feudatories of the Chalukyas in coastal Karnataka and chalukyas maintained close family & marital relationship with the Alupas of South Canara. Ereya ascended the Chalukya throne as Pulakesi II and assumed the title Parameshwara. Pulakesi II subjugated the Kadambas of Banavasi, the Gangas of Talakad and the Alupas of South Kanara. Pulakesi II married a princess ( Kadamba Devi ) of the Alupas of South Canara. Aluvarasa (early 7th century) was the father–in-law of Pulakeshi – II.

    The earliest known copper plate inscription in Kannada language is attributed to Aluvarasa II , called the Belamannu plates and is dated early 8th century, according to Dr. Gururaj Bhat.. This full-length Kannada copper plates in Old Kannada script (early eighth century CE) belongs to the Alupa King Aluvarasa II from Belmannu, Karkala Taluk, Udupi District, and displays the double crested fish, the royal emblem of Alupa kings. The records also refers king with the title Alupendra. Aluvarasa-II incurred the wrath of the Chalukyas.

    The clan emerges from obscurity during the rise of Badami Chalukya in the Aihole and Mahakuta inscriptions which claims the Alupas had succembed to the Chalukya invasion and become their feudatory. They ruled initially from Mangalore and other times from Udyavara in Udupi and later Barkur. Their first regular full length inscription is the Vaddarase inscription dated arly 7th century in Kannada. They maintained marital relations with their overlords over the centuries. All their inscriptions are in Kannada and Sanskrit. The earliest known copper plate inscription in Kannada language is attributed to Aluvarasa II , called the Belamannu plates and is dated early 8th century, according to Dr. Gururaj Bhat.

    The Alupas built some fine temples in their area of rule. The Panchalingeshwara temple at Barkur, Brahmalingeshwara temple at Brahamavar, Koteshwara temple at Kotinatha and the Sadashiva temple at Suratkal are attributed to them. They used sculptural styles from their various overlords over the centuries.

    The Alupas, feudatories of the Chalukyas in coastal Karnataka also issued coins with Kannada and Nagari inscriptions on them. Coins with Kannada legends seem to have minted in Mangalore and those with Nagari legend at the Udupi mint. The Pagodas and Fanams were the common coinage of all the Alupa kings. The obverse of the coins carried the royal emblem "Two Fishes" and the reverse had the legend "Sri Pandya Dhanamjaya" either in Nagari or old (Hale) Kannada.

    Kannada tamarashaasana in Old Kannada script belongs to Alupas ruled by Aluvarasa II from Belmannu ( 8th Century AD ), South Kanara district and has the double crest fish, their royal emblem. Alupa Coin with double fish was minted during the reign of Alupas (4th -14th century A.D) around Barakuru, Mangaluru, Udayavara and Moodbidri. Fish was a symbol related to kolis, Mudiraj, cholas and other fishermen related people.

    Kadri Kambala, which has a history of 300 years, was first held by the royal family of Alupas at Kulashekar on the outskirts of Mangalore. Kambala (slush track buffalo race), which is a popular folk sport of the district, is held after the cultivation of rabi crop when water bodies have enough water for the "suggi" crop.

    Mangalore ( Mangalapura ) was one of their capital cities. In the native Tulu language, the Mangalore city is known as Kudla meaning 'junction' as the city is situated at the confluence of the two rivers – Nethravathi and Phalguni. Konkanis use the variant Kodial. In Telugu language Kudla has its equivalent as Koodali.

    Kudla (Tulu) = Kodial (Konkani) = Junction
    Kudla (Tulu) = Koodali (Telugu) = Junction.

    The Alupa dynasty, as revealed through records, starts only from the 7thcentury. In the 8th century, they fixed Udayapura (Udyavara) as the center of their political activity, then Barakuru drew their attention and perhaps from the 11th - 12th centuries, Mangalapura became the capital and it continued to occupy that position until the end of their political power. Barkur was the capital of Alupas and records show that their palace was located at the 'Simhasana Gudde'.

    Udyavara was one of the earliest capitals of the Alupas. It was a bone of contention between two factions of this family. As a result, the place became a battle ground during the 8th-9th Century A.D. This ancient Port town is situated 5 kms south of Udupi, the District Hq. The river Udyavara that flows from the east to west takes a northerly turn and separates the town Udyavara from the sea before joining the sea at Malpe.

    Alupa Kings used to declare in their inscriptions that they are of Pandya dynasty. May be some of early Pandyans migrated in Tulunad and took over early chieftainships. The Alupa claim of Pandya heritage is probably of 6 to 8th C AD. By 13-14th C AD Tulunadu was under the suzeranity of Vijayanagar Kings.

    Alupas were the feudatories of the prominent dynasties of Karnataka. Kadamba dynasty of Banavasi was the earliest, under which the Alupas flourished. Later the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, Chalukyas of Badami, Chalukyas of Kalyani, Hoysalas of Durasamudra and Rayas of Vijayanagara were the overlords. Alupas, however, were independent and their subordination was nominal at best. They ruled until the Vijayanagara kings totally dominated the Tulu Nadu from 14th to the 17th centuries.

    Although the Alupas were subordinate to the overlordship of the Karnataka suzerains, for all political purposes and intents, they were indipendent and there seemed hardly any interference in the administation of the territory until the advent of Vijayanagara rule. Nearly 35 kings ruled in the Alupa dynasty.

    The Alupa rulers were of local origin and were subordinate to the Kadamba's of Banavasi according to the lithic records discovered near Banavasi. A king named Buthala Pandya is special in the history of South Kanara as he introduced the system of Aliya Sanatana Kattu (the system of inheritance through female line). The Alupa kings ruled over till the 14th century and Veera Pandya was perhaps the last Alupa king of this region.

    According to Govind Pai, the renowed Kannada poet, 'Alupa' rulers became Tulu 'Aluvas' and Alupa dynasty is synonymous with Naga dynasty and Tulu people are the same as the those Chandra dynasty.

    Nadavas are part of Banta / Bunta community. Nadavas are the people of Nadu (town). The term basically indicates that these the stake holders of the land of Alvakheda or Tulunadu. Having a good physique, they were the soldiers of the ancient kingdom. One of the community namely Aluva (surname) perhaps belong to the royal family of Alupa. The community is commonly called as Bantas in Kannada or Bunts in English (soldiers).

    The term Alvakheda could be seen in several of ancient inscriptions of the Alupas. The term Alvakheda is not seen in the inscriptions during the Vijayanagara period, when the region of Barakuru and Mangalore were two separate provinces under the administration of Governors who started controlling the territory without interfering in the autonomy of the Alupas.

    There is no written proof for this occurrence and the only mention of the Nairs in the inscriptions comes after the Alupa period (early part of 14th century.) It is postulated that the Nairs were later absorbed into the social stratum of the Nadava community. Nadavars are said to be the Nattars of Tamilnadu who are related to Mukkalathor and Muthuraja (Mudiraja) communities. Mudiraju people are also known as bantlu (Bants) and they are the same people as Tuluva bants having lot of common surnames.

    For more details on "Alupas" please see the chapter on "Alupa Dynasty" in the webpage "Kingdoms" in this website.

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    Kokolu Anka Rao
    Date : 07/01/2008
    Nagpur, MS, India




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    CHALUKYA ( SOLANKI ) DYNASTY

    The Chalukyas or Solankis were Agnikula Kshatriyas. The Agnikulas or Fire tribes are supposed to have been brought into existence by a special act of creation of comparatively recent mythological date. The earth was overrun by demons, the sacred books were held in contempt, and there was none on whom the devout could call for help in their troubles. Viswamitra, once a Kshattriya, who had raised himself to be a Brahman, moved the gods to assemble on Abu ; four images of diibh grass were thrown into the fire fountain, and called into life by appropriate incantations. From these sprang the four clans: the Paramâra or Ponwâr, the Chaluk or Solanki, the Parihar, and the Chauhan.

    Many historians believe that these Agnikula Kshatriyas were created by the then Hindu Brahmans from indegeneous dravidian tribals and their mixed blood Rajputs to effectively counter the threat of growing influence of Buddhism and the onslaught of Muslim invaders. So the Agnikula Kshatriyas were variant clans of Indian Bhil Dravidians belonging to Sindhu – Saraswati river basin.

    Ponwar => Pormar => Parmar
    Ponwar => Powar => Pawar

    This only proves that Solankis like Kaikadi Erukalas of Kakatiya dynasty were closely related tribes Bhil Dravidians and worship Goddess Ankamma in different forms. While Kakatiyas worshipped Goddess in the form of Kakati, the Solankis worshipped in the form of Kalanka and the Mudiraj & Cholas in the form of Ankala. The name of Rajendra Cholan's daughter was Ammanga ( = Angamma = Ankamma ) and she was given to Eastern Chalukyas in the marriage.

    Kalanka => Ankala => Ankalamma => Ankamma
    Ankamma => Angamma => Ammanga

    Chalukyas and Solankis are one and the same people
    Solankis are one of the clans of Bhil – Bhillalas and also Rajputs of Suryavamsi origin. Kolis are also another branch of clans similar to Solankis. Chowdas of Gujarat and Chowta bunts of Karnataka are one and the same royal cland and the Solankis were matrimonially related to Chowdas of GujaratThe Chowta surname among Tuluva bunts & Balijas is same as that of Chowti of Mudiraj. . This way, the Solankis, Chowdas and Chowtas are closely related to Mudiraj Bantlu and Tuluva bunts.

    While Chalukya dynasty flourished in Andhra and Karnataka of South India, Solanki dynasty ruled parts of Gujarat and Rajastan. In fact the solankis, who expanded into South India came to be known as Chalukyas. Henae, the Solankis of Gujarat and Chalukyas of South India were one and the same royal clans. Solanki Rajputs were one of the four Agni Vanshis created by the Brahmans in Mt Abu, some time after the death of Harsh Vardhan and at the time of some Muslim raids into Rajasthan from Sindh (probably in 8 or 9 th centaury). It is said by some historians that were accepted into Hindu Kshatriya fold to counter the growing influence of Buddhism in North Western India. Later on the influence of Islam also posed a great threat to Hinduism. A huge rock statue of Buddha was erected by Buddist Afghans, which was recently destroyed by their Muslim descendants. The Hindu Brahmans realized the fact that such a threat of Buddhism & Islam could be effectively countered only through indegeneous dravidian tribal warriors and hence some of them who were showing their clout in their regions were declared as Agnikula Kshatriyas.

    Solankis had ruled over Soron, Ayodhya, Gujarat, Delhi, Rajasthan and Maharashtra. They were Chalukyas, Chandravanshi Jats, who became Solanki Rajputs after consecration at mount Abu. The four Agni Vanshis were Parihar, Parmar or Panwar, Chouhans and Solanki. The aim of creating a new Chchatriya (Kshatriya) order was to counter the threats of the Muslims and revive Hindu religion after Buddhist era.

    As per some records two of these were tribal and out of these two, one was of Bhil background. Rest two was from Indo-Scything Aryan origin. At that time Chouhans were ruling in the Sambar area of Rajasthan, Parmars in MP and Solankis in Gujarat.

    These three Agni Vansis have the common presence among the Jats and Rajputs (Solanki, Panwar and Chouhans or Chahars). The Parihars off course are not found among the Jats.

    While deciding the background of these four Agni vanshis historians have made some guesses and one of them is that probably Solankis were the Chalukyas who came from Andhra Pradesh to establish there rule in Gujrat.

    Though some historians have hinted that Solankis are Chalukyas, the matter is still debated in some circles. It seems true that the word “ chalukya” is a gradual modification of the word “Solanki” over a period of time. The ancestors of Chalukyas seems migrated from Gujarat to Andhra.

    Solanki => Solankia => Solakia => Solaki
    Solanki => Solankia => Solankya => cholankya
    Solankia => Solakya => Salakya => Chalakya => Chalukya

    The temples Kiradu, about 43 kilometers west of Barmer in Rajasthan, are datable to circa 1000 A.D. and later. They represent the final achievement of the Gurjara-Praihara School of the Nagara or north Indian style of temple building before the ornate style known as Solaki (from the dominant Gujarat dynasty of that appellation) took over in western India. Solaki and solakia are some of the Indian surnames today and they may related to the solankis.

    Siddharja Jayasiha and Kumrapla were the best known Solaki kings. the famous writer Hemacandra flourished during this period (12th century).

    Solankis are also a subsect of Pardhi Erukalas
    Pardhis of Gujarat are erukalas relating to Kakatiyas of Andhra Pradesh and Solankis are a subsect of Pardhis. Pardhis have two sub-divisions, Phans Pardhis and Langoti Pardhis. The Phans Pardhis take their name from the Phans (noose) which they use in catching birds and animals. They lead a nomadic life and live under tents. They do not normally commit crime. The Langoti Pardhis derive their name from wearing the langoti (a strip of cloth about two feet long and six or eight inches broad, passed between the legs and the ends tucked in to a waist-band before and behind) because of their fear that a dhoti if worn might become soiled and therefore unlucky. The Langoti Pardhis are also called Gaon Pardhis and are further subdivided into Chauhan, Ponwar and Solanki, all three being names of well-known Rajput clans.

    The Takankar are originally an occupational offshoot of the pardhi tribe. They are now settle agriculturists or agricultural labourers. They are also known as Takaria, Takia and Takankar in other parts of Maharastra. The Takankar are further subdivided into a number of patriarchal exogamous lineage called kur and used as surnames such as Malve, Chauhan, Solanki, Rathor, Pawar, Kavade. Somewhere the Erukala’s language is known as kurru. (language spoken by people of kur).

    According to pardhis own legends, the first ancestor of Pardhis was a Gond, to whom Mahadev taught the art of snaring so that he might avoid the sin of shooting it; and hence the ordinary pardhis never use a gu. The word “Gond” is said to be derived from Telugu word “Konda”. Gonds were originally Telugu speaking people just as Bhils.

    Bhillu =Vhillu = Villu = Bow
    Konda = Hill
    Konda = Gonda => Gond

    Several of the Maratha clans have the names of Rajput tribes, as Chauhan, Ponvar, Jadhav, Solanki and Surya-vanshi. Some Jats include Solanki Rajputs. It is interesting to note that in addition to Solankis in Jats, few more Gotras in Jats have emerged from them.

    Solankis worship Goddess Kalanka
    In religion, besides worshipping their ancestors, Solankis worship goddesses who are now identified with the Hindu goddess Devi but who are known in the caste by different names. Chauhans worship Amba, Ponwars worship Marai Mata, and Solankis Kali or Kalanka. Pardhi tribe people are are related solankis or Chalukyas and both worship Kalanka. Goddess Ankamma is worshipped by Mudiraj and Cholas. The Goddess Ankamma seems to be non other than the Goddess Kalanka. The name of Goddess Ankamma could be a modification of Kalanka.

    Kalanka => Kala+ Anka
    Kala = Kale = Kali = Black
    Anka = Aank = Eye

    Kalanka = Ankala = Ankali = Black Eye
    Kalanka => Ankala => Ankalamma => Ankamma = Angamma
    Ankala => Ankali => Kali = Goddess with Black Eyes.

    The Takankars of Maharastra are Hindus and their community Goddess id Kalanka Devi. They have sacred specialists in their own community called Bhagat who worships the community Goddess Kalanka Devi. Kalanka Devi’s worship is called Maakhanda which is done twice a year and the first time a male goat and the second time a male sheep are purchased through contribution, sacrificed and consumed by all the members. They sing devotional songs in praise of the Goddess Kalanka Devi continuously for one month on the occasion of Navaratri

    Takankar = Pardhi

    Takankar is the name of a small occupational offshoot of the Pardhis in Berar, who travel from village to village to sharpen house hold grinding stones. Takankar is also known as Patharkat in North India. The Patharkat make grinding stones and hawk various goods around the villages. These groups never build huts but camp under a tree and stay for a few days, especially at harvest time. Pardhis and Kaikadis are Erukalas and related Kakatiyas.

    The Pardhi or the Takankar used to mend the stone grinding mills by hammering the surface to roughen it when it was worn smooth. He was not found in all localities. These Takankar pardhis of Maharastra are also known as Kunchbandhias because of their trade of making brushes ( kunch ) of the roots.These people in North India are known as Sankat or Patharkat, because they make and sharpen the house hold grinding stones. These people seems to represent the vaddera community of Andhra Pradesh. Vadderas worship Goddess Ankamma. Vadderas are also known as valmikis in some parts of Andhra Pradesh. Vadderas, Vetars and Bedars are either one and the same people or variants closely relating to Mudiraj people.

    Takankar = Kunchbadhia = Sankat = Patharkat
    Patharkat = Stone cutter = Stone Grinder
    Takankar = Patharkat = Vaddera

    The worship of Ankamma by Mudiraju community people is known as Ankamma (Devara) Kolupu. A male goat / ram is sacrificed on the final day of worship and consumed by all community members who attend the kolupu.

    There is one Mount Kalanka, in India's Garhwal Himalaya range.

    Solankis and Chowdas were related Rajput clans
    The Chavda Kingdom was a Hindu Rajput dynasty which ruled northern Gujarat from 746 to 942. The Chowta dynasty of Mangalore belonging to bunts was related to Chawada Dynasty of Gujarat. The first king of the Chavda Kingdom was Jayshikhari Chavda, who was assassinated before his son Vanraj Chavda was born. Vanraj Chavda went on to be the most successful Chawda ruler, founding historical cities such as Anhilpur Patan and Champaner. There were five Chavda kings after Vanraj, the last of whom, Samantsinh Chawda, did not have any children. He adopted Mulraj who overthrew him in 942 and set up what came to be known as the Solanki dynasty.

    Chowti surname among Mudiraj and Cowta surname among Balija & Tulu bunts indicate that Chavda Rajput clans are among these South Indian communities today.

    Gujarat was the first political seat of Solanki clans
    The Solanki clan-name is found within the Gurjar and Rajput communities. MULRAJ (942-996) Mulraj Solanki overthrew Samantsinh Chavda in 942 and set up what came to be known as the Solanki Gurjar dynasty. Mulraj Solanki's reign marked the start of a period during which Gujarati culture flowered as manifested in art, architecture, language and script. It is described as the golden period of Gujarat's chequered history. Mulraj himself adopted the title of Gurjaresh (King of Gurjardesh) an aristocratic title. The territory under the sway of the Solankis came to be known by different variations of the word Gurjar like Gurjardesh, Gurjara-Rastra and finally Gujarat.

    Anhilwad (Siddhpur Patan) served as their capital. Gujarat was a major center of Indian Ocean trade, and Anhilwad was one of the largest cities in India, with population estimated at 100,000 in 1000 A.D. His son Karandev conquered the Bhil king Ashapal and after his victory he established a city called Karnavati on the banks of the Sabarmati River, the city is now known as Ahmedabad. After 1243, the Solankis lost control of Gujarat to their feudatories, of whom the Vaghela chiefs of Dholka came to dominate Gujarat. In 1297 Gujarat was conquered by the Delhi Sultanate.

    The major Rajput clans of Chavdas (746-942), Solankis (942-1244) and Vaghelas (1244-1304) ruled the Hindu Kingdom of Gujarat from Patan.

    The Solankis drove out the Malva rulers from the Vadnagar region. Valuing the importance of the city, the Solanki ruler Kumarpal rebuilt the fort around it in 1152 A.D. Almost till the end of the 13th century the city remained well protected under the Solankis and its trade and industry prospered. For nearly four centuries Gujarat prospered under the Solanki rulers so much that historians call it “the golden period”.

    Solankis and Kalachuris of Madhya Pradesh were related
    Descendants of the Anhilwara Solankis ruled the state of Rewa, in the Bagelkhand region, the eastern part of present-day Madhya Pradesh. Vyaghra Deo, brother of the King of Gujarat, moved to Bagelkhand in the middle of the twelfth century, and obtained the fortress of Marpha, 18 miles northeast of Kalinjar. His son Karandeo married a Kalchuri (Haihaya) princess of Mandla, and received the fortress of Bandogarh as her dowry. Bandogarh served as the seat of the Solankis of Bagelkhand until its destruction by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1597. After the destruction of Bandogargh, the Solankis moved their capital to Rewa. From 1812 to 1947 the Solanki rajas of Rewa ruled the princely state of that name, within British India. In 1947, the last Raja of Rewa acceded to newly-independent India.

    Kalchuris are said to be the Kalabhras who invaded South Indian dynasties of Chola, Chera and Pandyan. Kodumbalur Mutharayars (Mudiraj ) are said to be the descendants of Kalabhras.

    Solankis of Rajastan
    Descendants of King Tribhuvanpal settled in Rajasthan under King Ranakdeo. His descendant settled in Lach village in Sirohi. King Bhoja’s descendant Raimal Solanki went to Mewar where he was rewarded with Roopnagar(Desuri) Jagir for ridding out the district from troublesome Madrecha Chauhans. His descen.

    Descendants of the Anhilwad Solankis, Vyaghra Dev, brother of the Solanki King of Gujarat, moved to and ruled the state of Rewa, in Bagelkhand (eastern Madhya Pradesh) in the middle of the twelfth century, and obtained the fortress of Marpha. His son Karandev married a Kalchuri (Haihaya) princess of Mandla, and received the fortress of Bandogarh which served as the seat of the Solankis of Bagelkhand until its destruction by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1597. After the destruction of Bandogargh, the Solankis moved their capital to Rewa. From 1812 to 1947 the Solanki Rajas of Rewa were a princely state of British India. In 1947, the last Raja of Rewa acceded to newly independent India.

    The one name stand out in the Solanki dynasty is 'Siddhraj' Jaysinh who ruled for 47 years from 1094 and considered as the most prominent Solanki King. Apart from Saurashtra and Kachchh, 'Siddhraj' Jaysinh had also conquered the Malwa. One of the favourite legends with the Gujarat Bards is woven round the siege of Junagadh by 'Siddhraj' Jaysinh.

    Solankis of Karnataka
    The Early Chalukyas (Solankis) held power in northern Karnataka from the 6th cent. until 757, and were rivals to the Palavas. They claimed descent from Pulakesin I (reigned 543-566), who established himself at Badami (in Bijapur). Solankis were descended from the Chalukyas of Karnataka who ruled much of peninsular India between the 6th and 12th centuries. The Late Chalukyas (Solankis) gained ascendancy in the Deccan c.973, centered at Kalyani. The history of the Kalyani Chalukya (Solanki) kingdom was largely one of war with the Cholas and defense against the incursions of the Turks and Arabs who were plundering North India. The kingdom broke up in 1189.

    Raja Tailapa II [Ahavamalla] 973/997, founder of the later Western (Kalyani) Chalukyas (Solankis), he consolidated his realm with the help of the early Chalukya (Solanki) family and with the help of Kadambas and recovered much of the lost territories of earlier Chalukyas (Solankis). He overthrew the Rashtrakutas and recovered most of the Chalukya (Solanki) empire, except for Gujarat. Kalyani was the capital of the empire, and the Chalukyas (Solankis) of this period are known as the Kalyani Chalukyas (Solankis).

    In the 10th century, a local branch of the clan established control over Gujarat and ruled a state centered around the town of Patan. They went into decline in the 13th century and were displaced by the Vaghela.

    Solankis of Andhra
    Vengi (in East Andhra Pradesh) became the center of the Eastern Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty, which ruled there from 624 until the 11th cent., surviving the fall of the Early Chalukyas (Solankis) in Badami. This branch of the Chalukyas (Solankis) of Badami is referred to as the "Eastern Chalukyas (Solankis)" to the historians. Pulakesin II, the renowned ruler of Chalukyas (Solankis) conquered Vengi (near Eluru) in 624 and installed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana on the throne. They ruled at first from Pistapura, then from Vengi and later from Rajamahendri (Rajahmundry). In 1189, the Empire succumbed to the Hoysalas of Dvarasamudra and the Yadavas of Yadugiri.

    Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi
    Eastern Chalukyas were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. Their capital was Vengi and their dynasty lasted for around 500 years from the 7th century until c. 1130 C.E. when the Vengi kingdom merged with the Chola empire. The Vengi kingdom was continued to be ruled by Eastern Chalukyan kings under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C.E., when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. They had their capital originally at Vengi near Nidadavole of the West Godavari district end later changed to Rajamahendravaram (Rajamundry).

    Eastern Chalukyas were closely related to the Chalukyas of Vatapi (Badami). Throughout their history they were the cause of many wars between the more powerful Cholas and Western Chalukyas over the control of the strategic Vengi country. The five centuries of the Eastern Chalukya rule of Vengi saw not only the consolidation of this region into a unified whole, but also saw the efflorescence of Telugu culture, literature, poetry and art during the later half of their rule. It can be said to be the golden period of Andhra history.

    Pulakesin II (608–644 C.E), the greatest Badami Chalukya king, conquered the eastern Deccan, corresponding to the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh 616 C.E., defeating the remnants of the Vishnukundina kingdom. He appointed his brother Kubja Vishnu Vardhana as Viceroy. On the death of Pulakesin II, the Vengi Viceroyalty developed into an independent kingdom. Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi outlived the main Vatapi dynasty by many generations.

    Pulakesin I was the founder of this dynasty whose capital was located at Vatapi (modern Badami in Karnataka). This dynasty is known as Eastern Chalukyas to differentiate from the later Chalukyas called Western Chalukyas. His grandson Pulakesin II was the most famous king of this dynasty. During his long reign of 33 years (609 to 642 AD) he extended his kingdom from Narmada to Kaveri river thus occupying best of Deccan, reviving glorious days of Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni . He was the only king who successfully repulsed the great king of Kannauj, Harshavardhana. Chalukyas were sworn enemies of Pallavas of Kanchipuram (located in modern Tamilnadu) and had numerous wars for supremacy for Deccan or southern India. Pulakesin's great-grandson Vikramaditya II finally defeated Pallavas and entered in their capital, thus becoming master of entire south India.

    We hear little of the Pallavas after the end of the tenth century; and when the Eastern Chalukyan king Vimaliditya married Rajaraja's daughter, and his successors occupied the joint throne of the Cholas and Eastern Chalukyas, these kings swayed the destinies of all the South. It may be as well to finish the story of the Eastern Chalukyas before going back to the general history at the end of the tenth century. VimalAdityaS, as already mentioned, married Ammanga, Rajaraja Chlola's daughter; his son married another Chola princess, and so did his grandson, each lady being the daughter of the sovereign. This resulted in the children of the marriages growing up Ch61as at heart. Whether the final coalition was effected by actual invasion on the part of the Chalukyas or by failure of heirs to the Chola male line is not certain, but in A.D. I070 the Eastern Chalukyan king Rajendra ascended the Ch5la throne and assumed the name of Kulottunga Choladeva I; and after this event history regards him as a Chola.

    Ammanga = Ammanka = Ankamma

    Contemporaries to the Eastern Chalukyas were the Eastern Gangas in the northeast and the Pallavas in the south. A Chalukya family ruled Vemulavada (Karimnagar district). Their rule extended over the present day Karimnagar and Nizamabad districts.

    Govinda IV (c. 9i8-34) was at war also with the Eastern Chllukyas, but the Chllukya Bhima II completely defeated him. That this was no empty boast seems to be established by the fact that at this time, according to inscriptions in Mysore, we find the Eastern Chalukyas in that country, which could hardly have been the case if they had been defeated by the Rishtrakftas.

    Cholas and Mudiraj people were one and the same in their blood and profession and these people worshipped Goddess Ankamma. Chauhans worship Amba, Ponwars worship Marai Mata, and Solankis Kali or Kalanka. Solankis Kalanka is non other than Ankala. Western gangas and Eastern Gangas were remotely related and we all know that Western Gangas were the ancestors of some sections of present day Mudiraj people. Solankis were mixed blood Rajputs whose clans closely resemble that of pardhi relatinfg to Kaikadi / Kakati erukalas.

    Kalanka = Ankala => Ankalamma => Ankamma

    Boar was royal emblem of Early Chalukyas and was used by later Chalukyas (Western) too on their coins. Boar represents an incarnation of Lord Vishnu and can be seen in the sculptures of rock cut temples of Aihole, patronized by Eastern Chalukyas. All the three royal families, Eastern Chalukyas, Chalukyas of Vengi and Western Chalukyas have been known to mint coin depicting Boar, looking right.

    Though the Eastern Chalukyas originally of Kannada stock, they patronized Telugu and gave importance to it. The great epic Mahabharata was translated partly by Eastern Chalukya king, Rajaraja court poet, Nannaya in the 11th century. At the time of Chalukya conquest there were three religions: Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism. Buddhism was on the wane and the resurgent Hinduism transformed the Buddhist Aramas into pilgrim centers.

    Telugu literature owes its origin to the Eastern Chalukyas. Poetry makes its first appearance in the Addanki and Kandukur inscriptions of Panduranga in the time of Vijayaditya II in the later half of the ninth century. However no literary work of any value appeared until 11th century C.E. Nannaya Bhatta's Mahabharata is the earliest extant work of Telugu literature. Nannaya was the poet-laureate of Rajaraja Narendra in the middle of the eleventh century C.E.

    Somanath Temple was built by Solankis
    The Shaiva temple, known as the Somanatha temple at Prabhas, dates to about the 9th or 10th century A.D.

    The Solankis were patrons of the great seaside Shiva Temple at Somnath in Kathiawar; Bhimdev-I helped rebuild the temple after it was sacked by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1026. The guardian family deity of the Solankis was Somnath at Prabhas. Ironically, it was during the Solanki's rule that the scared shrine was sacked by Mahmud Ghazni who defiled and despoiled the fabulously rich shrine and put 50,000 Hindus to sword. The temple was destroyed with its Linga during the regime of Bhimdev I.

    The rulers of Anhilwad Patan encouraged literature and patronised Jains. Descendants of these Gurjaras, the Solankis or Chalukyas instituted a magnificent architectural style in stone. Worshippers of Shiva they erected a great temple at Somnath on the shores near present day Veraval.

    Situated 79 kms from Junagadh and 25 kms. from Chorwad, is the legendary shore temple of Somnath, one of the twelve most sacred Shiva Shrines in India. Legend has it that the Somnath Temple was originally built out of gold by Somraj, the moon god. Then, it was rebuilt by Ravana in silver and then again by Krishna in wood and yet again by King Bhimdev Solanki in stone in the 10th century. The temple was so rich that it had over 300 musicians, 500 dancing girls and even 300 barbers - just to shave the heads of pilgrims!

    Mahmud of Ghazni, upon hearing the description of the temple by an Arab traveller by the name Al Biruni, raided the temple in 1024 A.D. and after looting it, carried away camel loads of jewels and gold. Somnath was destroyed six times and rebuilt on every occasion. After the 1706 A.D. demolition by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, it was rebuilt the seventh time in 1950 A.D. with the support of Sardar VallabhbhaiPatel.The temple contains one of the twelve sacred Shiva shrines known as Jyotirlingas.

    Somnath Shiva was also the family diety of Chowta dynasty rulers of Mangalore. Chowtas were Tuluva Bants and Mudiraju people are Telugu Bants. The Chowta surname of Balijas and Chowti surname of Mudiraj are one and the same. Balijas also seems to be part of Mudiraju bantlu during medieval times. The variation chowta and chowti is due to its gradual modification in time and geography. Hence, we can conclude that the Chalukyas & Chowtas were the Royal clans of North Indian origin having Rajput & bhil blood and closely relating to Mudiraja / Muthuraja Royal clans.

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    08. KELADI NAYAKA KINGDOM

    Keladi was a kingdom in the Malnad area of Karnataka. The first king of Keladi was Chowdappa Nayaka who came to the throne in 1500. He was considered a great hero. In about 1645, the able king, Shivappa Nayaka came to the throne. During his reign, many reforms were effected in Keladi. This king became famous as a great ruler because of his far reaching administrative reforms. Shivappa Nayaka and Chennamma were important rulers of this kingdom.

    Chowdappa name seems to indicate his connection to the people of Tuluva bunts, Balija & Mudiraju. These people are having surnames - Chowda, Chowta & chowti respectively. This gives us a clue that these Bedars / Valmikis could also be representing sections of Mudiraju Bantlu, the suicide squads of Mudiraj community. For more details see (i) Chowta surname in the web page "Surnames", (ii) Chowta dynasty in the web page "kingdoms" and (iii) Rani Abbakka in the web page "Queens" in this MUDIRAJA website.

    We can further discover one more fact that the Kodagu Muddurajas (Mudiraj) clans were non other than the Bedar Nayakas (Valmikis) of Keladi kingdom. While these bedars (Kannappa kula) are a subsect of Muthuraja community in Tamilnadu, the same people who are known as valmikis in Andhra & Karnataka are a subsect of Mudiraj in Andhra Pradesh.

    Chowda => Chowta = Chowti

    Kodagu Muddurajas (Mudiraj) were non other than Keladi Nayakas (Valmikis)
    In the 16th century, in the aftermath of the fall of Vijayanagara Empire, the Keladi Nayaks of Ikkeri consolidated power in Kodagu and established the Paleri (Haleri) dynasty (so called because of their capital in Paleri). Paleri kings, who were Lingayats of Veerashaiva faith, ruled the region for more than 200 years (1580 – 1834). The first ruler of Paleri dynasty was Vira Raja. His grandson Muddu Raja I was a popular ruler and ruled for more than 50years. He moved his headquarters to current day Madikeri in 1681. It was called Muddu Raja Keri and later shortened to Madikeri (anglicized as Mercara). Under the Paleri dynasty Kodagu attained a status as an Independent kingdom. For more details on Muddurajas (Mudiraj ) of Karnataka, please see for Kodagu Dynasty on web page "KINGDOMS" in this MUDIRAJA website.

    One of the common factors among these Kodagu Muddurajas, Deccan Nayakas and Mudiraj is that a majority of them eat pork ( meat of pig )and it is particularly known as a delicacy among Kodagus. This proves that they are all one and the same warrior clans of ancient India.

    From History of Karnataka, it can be seen that the Valmiki people were rulers of some places such as Chitradurga, Surpur, Keladi, etc. In Karnataka the VALMIKI community are also called as Nayaka, Beda, Talavara. All these people are known as valmikis. The Beda(means Hunters), Talavar (means Natives) also use Nayak as the last names. Now Beda and Talavar communities are identified as Nayaks.

    "talavara" is a Telugu word in "maha'talavara". "tala'ri" or "talavara" means "gra'ma'dhika'ri" (head of the village or town). In Tamil, "talaiva'r" means "pedda adhipati" (big boss). This Telugu word was combined with a Sanskrit word "maha'". In Telugu and Kannada the word Talari or Talavara clearly meant a village head-man, and even now such post exists in the village panchayats. Mahatalavara is an equivalent to Mutharacha or Mudiraja.

    Maha = Mudi = Great
    Talavara = headman = chief = Racha = Raja
    Mahatalavara = Mudiraja

    The Chitradurga Paleyagar family was of the Beda or Boya caste and belonged to one of the hill tribes family who subsisted by hunting and tending cattle. The Chitradurga Fort, defined by walls of huge granite blocks, rises above the town. A series of three gates leads into the irregular inner zone, strewn with striking granite boulders. There are several small temples here, as well as a number of ceremonial gateways erected by the Bedas. The platforms and pavilions within the compound of the Sampige Siddheshvara Temple mark the spot where the Bedas were crowned. The remains of rubble and mudbuilt granaries and residences, and a large circular well can be seen nearby.

    The Bedas are the Bedars and the Bedars are Vedars. While Vedars are a subcaste of Tamil Muthuraja community, these people known as Valmikis are a subcaste of Telugu Mudiraj community today.

    Vetans = Vedars = the people of Kannappa Kula.
    Beda = Bedar = Vedar = Valmiki

    It is well known fact that the Mudiraj people worship Goddess Ankamma. There is one Ankali mutt near Chitradurga. Nestling amongst a group of rugged hills, west of Chitradurga, this mutt is known for its subterranean chambers. Near the Panchalinga cave (Wonder cave) entrance, is an inscription dated 1286 A.D. executed in the reign of the Hoysala King Narasimha III. This stronly proves that these Valmiki Nayakas and Mudiraj are one and the same. This region of Tirupati and Srikalahasti is known to be the home land of Kalabhras ( the ancestors of Muthurajas ) who inveded Chola, Chera, and Pandya kingdoms. These valmikis could be the descendants of kalabhras who are in turn are known as branch of Kalachuris of Central India.

    The term Nayaka means leader. The Nayaka community has three sub-castes namely Valmiki, Beda and Talavara. Valmiki claim direct descent from Valmiki, the author of Ramayana. Bedas practice hunting. Talavars function as messengers as well as village watchmen.NAIKADA, NAYAKA Popularly known as Palegar, Beda, Valmiki, Ramoshi Parivara etc., they are concentrated in the Chitradurga, Shimoga, Bellary and Tumkur.

    Muttaniraja => Mutturaja

    According to vettuva legend, Muttani Raja was a son of one Vijayan, born to him by a jungle girl, with whom he fell in love when hunting, and whose father he slew. Vijayan's father was kannappa nayanar was the eldest of ten brothers, sons of a vedar girl who contracted a gandharva marriage with a descending of yayathi, one of the heroes of the Mahabharata. NO historical evidence has been added to corroborate the migration legends of these castes, but the community of tradition probably points to a community of origin, and the legend of a vettuva Raja still clings to Sankaridrug (Sankaridurga), Salem district, Tamilnadu. Kannappa Nayanar was also known as Bedara Kannapa in Karnataka.

    Veta = Hunt
    Vetar => Vettuvar => Vettuva = Vettuvan
    Vetar => Vedar => Vedara
    Vetar => Betar => Bedar => Bedara

    Some Marathi records call them Kala Pyada in admiration for their fighting qualities. The use of word "Kala" gives an indication that they could be most probably the kalabhra related warriors of Vengadam (Thirupathi) region. They were known as Thondaimans and this is well known as birth place of Hanuman too. Hanuman could be ancestor of Thondaiman warriors.

    For more details about bedar valmiki nayakas, please surname analysis on TALARI in the web page "surnames" and valmikis, & bedars in the web page "war(rior)-tribes" in this web site.

    Keladi Nayaka were an important ruling clan of post-medieval Karnataka, India. They initially started to rule as a feudatory of the Vijayanagar Empire. After the fall of the empire in 1565, they gained independence and ruled significant parts of Karnataka including Shivamogga, practically the whole of coastal districts and parts of central districts of present day Karnataka till 1763 when they were overthrown by Hyder Ali, the king of Mysore. They played an important part in the history of Karnataka, during a time of confusion and fragmentation that generally prevailed in South India after the fall of the Vijayanagar Empire.

    After the fall of the Vijayanagar empire in the battle of Talikota in 1565, Tirumala Raya accepted the new states of the Nayakas of the south, retained the allegiance of Mysore and Keladi, and appointed his three sons as governors of the three linguistic regions of his kingdom—Telugu, Kannada, and Tamil. In 1570 he had himself crowned and thus officially inaugurated the Aravidu dynasty, the fourth and last dynasty of Vijayanagar.

    After the decline of Vijayanagara Empire, the Nayaks of Keladi (Ikkeri), who controlled much of Tulu Nadu, let it decline and internal skirmishes eventually led to it being controlled, at the end of 18th century, by the Sultans of Mysore, namely Haider Ali and Tippu Sultan.

    Keladi is a temple town in Shimoga district of the state of Karnataka in India. The Shimoga city got an independent identity under the Keladi Nayaka rule during 16th century, reaching its pinnacle under the rule of Shivappa Nayaka. The town Shimoga, on the banks of the Tunga River, lies about 274 km south west of Bangalore was once the home and stronghold of the Keladi Nayakas during 16 th century AD. The fort, Church of Sacred Heart of Jesus and Government Museum are worth seeing. Gajanur, Tyaverekoppa, Agumbe, Jog Falls are scenic spots around Shimoga, well worth a visit. Keladi was the capital city of the Kingdom of Keladi, a feudatory of Vijayanagara Empire. After the disintegration of Vijayanagara Empire in the Battle of Talikota, the Keladi Nayakas created an independent kingdom and it remained so until it was annexed to Mysore Kingdom by Hyder Ali.

    Shivamukha => Shivamuga => Shimoga

    Kanara was under the rule of the Keladi or Ikkeri Nayakas, who ruled first from Keladi, then Ikkeri and finally Bednur (modern day Nagar).

    Kallianpur, a hamlet of Tonse-East village about six kms. from Udupi, is situated on the southern bank of river Swarna (Kallianpur) and is about four kms east of the sea coast. It has the ruins of a fort belonging to the Vijayanagara days. It has temples of Kenchamma, Veerabhadra, Mahalingeshvara, Ganapati and Venkataramana belonging to the later Vijayanagara period. Kallianpur had its hey days during the rule of the Keladi Nayakas.

    Saraswats flurished in the kingdom of Keladi Nayaks
    The Keladi kingdom was founded towards the end of the 15th century by Keladi Chandappa Nayak and was consolidated by his warrior son, Sadiashiv Nayak. A hundred years later, the Keladi kingdom had come to be recognised as an independent state having driven the Portuguese out of Mangalore, reduced the Jain, Brahman and other chiefs in Kanara and the adjacent areas, and taken the entire peper trade under its control. The Smartha saraswats in the state were employed on a large scale in the service of the Nagar kings. The Vaishnav Saraswats entered the service of the Nagar rulers at a later stage and many of them held very high offices in the state. Indeed, among the ambassadors of the Keladi kings who were mostly Brahmans, Vaishnava Saraswats almost always held the important posts of ambassadors to the Portuguese at Goa.

    One of the Hindu king of Keladi kingdom, was impressed by the diligence and skills of his Saraswat accountant, that he decreed that each village in his kingdom, be administered by a Saraswat. Eventually these Saraswats took on the name of the village as their last name. Shivappa Nayaka (1645-60), the great Keladi ruler who is renowned for his highly useful land settlement called 'sistu' had invited to his new capital Bidanur (also called Venupura) among other trading communities, Konkanis and gave them sites to raise their market, according to Keladinripa Vijayam, a quasi-historical work. The title 'wadeyar' was also conferred by the Keladi rulers on the Gokarna Parthagali Matha Swamy Sri Narayana Teertha, according to the work called Guruparamparamritam. The important commercial treaty between the Portuguese and the Nayakas dated 1671 was signed on behalf of the Keladi Nayakas by Vithal Mallo (Mallya) and Gopana Shenoy. The embassy sent by Basavappa Nayaka in 1704 to Goa for important political negotiation was headed by a brahmin Damarsa Prabhu described as highly talented by the Portuguese records.

    The Saraswat Brahmins claim descent from a Brahmin caste mentioned in ancient Hindu scriptures as inhabiting the Saraswati River valley. The reason for their generocity towards Saraswat Brahmins could be that many of these valmikis were from the banks of river Saraswati in Rajastan and these valmikis were highly aryanised. The Valmiki himself was an Indo-Aryan who was educated by Aryan Narada.

    During the reign of Basavappa Nayaka I (I 696 -1714), some people of Kanara accused the Gaud Saraswat Brahmin Shenvis of not being true Brahmins. The Saraswat Brahmins seems to have influenced Basavaraj education and writings in Sanskrit. The Aryans and Dravidian Bhils (Valmikis) were matrimonially intermixed to a great extent till Aryans divided into Aryan Brahmans and Aryan Kshatriyas after bloody war between forces of Sahasrarjun and Jamadagni's son Parasurama for Kamadhenu. Aryan Kshatriyas who got the support of Bhil warriors established a separate religion Jainism to counter the influence of Aryan Brahmins.

    Basavappa Nayaka : The Nayak dynasty was founded five centuries ago, by Basava, a village headman at Keladi. He had impressed the Vijayanagar King Sarvabhauma, and in recognition of Basava's skill and tactics of organising a small army, the title of Nayak was bestowed on him in 1499 AD. As Vijayanagar feudatories, the Nayaks spread their domain far and wide, as Basava Nayak's sons and grandsons took Bijapur and thereafter Tulu and Kerala areas.

    Chaudappa (1499 - 1530) from Keladi was the earliest chieftain to rule the area surrounding Shivamogga. In the early 1500s, a certain Chaudappa Gauda of the village of Keladi discovered some hidden treasure. In a dream, he was told that the treasure was his to take, provided he offered human sacrifice. Luckily for him, two of his servants volunteered for the task. Chaudappa used the treasure to build a fort at Keladi and put together an army. Thus began the dynasty that was initially a tributary of the Vijayanagar empire, but was independent by the 1600s. At its zenith, the Keladi empire covered most of south-western Karnataka and parts of northern Kerala, commanding the ports of Honnavara, Bhatkal, Bekal and Mangalore, and also included portions of the Ghats and extended to within 60 km of Mysore. The Nayakas were finally defeated by Hyder Ali in 1763, who often cited this win as having established his fortune.

    Sadashiva Nayaka (1530 - 1566) was an important chieftain in the Vijayanagar Empire and earned the title Kotekolahala from emperor Aliya Rama Raya for his heroics in the battle of Kalyani. Hiriya Venkatappa Nayaka (1586 - 1629) is considered by scholars as ablest monarch of the clan.

    Veerabhadra Nayaka (1629-1645) of the illustrious Keladi dynasty built the Keladi fort in 1640 after the fall of Ikkeri, the original capital of the dynasty at the hands of the Bijapur Sultan. The fort, which saw the growth of power of the Keladi dynasty, now stands as a monument to two-and-half centuries of its rule. Shivappa Nayaka, Veerabhadra's uncle, succeeded him in 1645 AD as the latter had no sons. Considered the most benevolent among the Keladi rulers, Shivappa Nayaka did much to improve and enlarge the capital. The fort, which is also known as the Shivappa Nayaka fort, offered excellent protection. The fort is entered by a gateway supported by two round bastions. The courtyard inside shows signs of a former guard room. Inside the third wall is a large open court facing which is a terrace overlooking the fort. Here appears to have stood the fort palace or citadel of Shivappa Nayaka.

    Shivappa Nayaka : It was in 1645 that the most illustrious of the dynasty, Shivappa Nayak, ascended the throne. Known as Shistina Nayak because discipline was his leitmotif, he was noted for his systematised tax collection and other administrative reforms. His younger son Somasekhar succeeded him and was equally efficient.

    Shivappa (1645 - 1660) is widely considered as the ablest and greatest of the Keladi rulers. He was not only an able administrator; he also patronised literature and fine arts. His successful campaigns against the Bijapur sultans, the Mysore kings, the Portuguese, and other Nayakas of the neighbouring territories east of the western ghats helped expand the kingdom to its greatest extent, covering large areas of present day Karnataka. He gave importance to agriculture and developed new schemes for collection of taxes and revenues which earned him much praise from later British officials.

    During this period, Shivaji Maharaj had established an independent and strong Hindu kingdom in Maharashtra after defeating the Moghul invaders of North India and Adil Shahi of Bijapur. In the Southern part of Mysore, the brave king Narasaraja was the ruler while Keladi was ruled by famous Shivappa Nayaka.

    Shivappa Naik Palace is Situated on the banks of river tunga in the busy lanes of Shimoga city. A 16th century place built by Shivappa naik of Keladi. A good architectual piece built with rose wood. The palace is equipped with museum which has several interesting and rare archaeological collections of stone carvings and antiques of Keladi period. Recovered idols of Hoysala and Chalukya period from the early 16th century to late 18th century are displayed here.

    Keladi Chennamma ruled over a small state, Keladi, for twenty five years and proved herself a great and heroic queen. The valiant Queen Chennamma, who ruled for 25 long years from 1671 to 1696, no mean feat in those ancient times. Keladi Channammaji (1672-1697), the celebrated queen of the Keladi dynasty, succeeded her husband, Somasekhar Nayaka, and ruled the kingdom from this fort with great distinction up to 1697. Chennamma ruled wisely and ably and earned the love of her subjects. It was during her reign that a special bond was formed between the Marathas and the Keladi kingdom.

    She came into prominence when she offered political asylum and protection to Raja Ram, son of the famous Maratta warrior Shivaji in 1685. After the assassination of her husband, there were intrigues, rivalries and internal fights in which some agents of the Sultan of Bijapur had a hand. She tactfully thwarted them and restored order. When the forces of Aurangzeb invaded Bidanur she fought with courage for several days, finally losing to a powerful army in the war.

    In those tumultuous times, Rajaram, son of Chhatrapati Shivaji, was fleeing for his life. Mughal emperor Aurangzeb had already killed his brother Sambhaji when Rajaram came to Keladi asking for protection. Unwilling to spurn an asylum-seeker, Chennamma granted him refuge, knowing this would invite Aurangzeb's ire. As expected, the mighty Mughal army soon bore down on the Nayaka kingdom. But amazingly, the local army vanquished the Mughals, who floundered in its hilly terrain.

    When the British wanted to secede the kingdom to their empire by putting forward the doctrine of lapse as Rani Chennamma's son was adopted, the queen refused to secede her kingdom after her husband's death. Aided by Rayanna, she fought British bravely but was defeated and imprisoned. Rayanna is considered by many historians as the pioneer of Guerrilla warfare in India. He continued this warfare till 1829. Finally he was captured by treachery and hanged in Nandagad in Belgaum district. At the time of being hanged he said "My last wish is to be born again in the country to fight against the British and drive them away from our sacred soil".

    Venkatappa Nayaka supported Abbaka, a bant - Mudiraj queen against portugese
    Abbakka had good diplomatic relations with Keladi as also with Zamorin of Calicut. Abbakka refused to the Portuguese terms of trade. She sent ships laden with pepper and other commodities directly to Arabia and Persia and earned huge profits. She became famous as pepper queen. The Portuguese obstructed her trade and waged wars against her. Undaunted Abbakka with the help of Keladi King Venkatappa Nayaka and Zamorin of Calicut, fought against the Portuguese, seized four Portuguese ships and made the Portuguese withdraw. For more details, please see web page "QUEENS" in this MUDIRAJA website.

    Abbakka sought the help of the powerful Raja of Bednore. The Bangar Raja had meanwhile enlisted the help of the Portuguese to subjugate his wife Abbakka. The Raja of Bednore, King Venkatappa Nayaka being an opportunist was only too ready to enter the fray. The Bangar-Portuguese alliance was defeated with the Bangar Fort raised to the ground. The queen had to part with the fertile tract of land at Berdatte to the Bednore King for his support.

    Capital cities of Keladi Kingdom
    Keladi was the first capital of Keladi Nayakas. The place is 6 Kms to the north of Sagar taluka. This place with a old fort in the middle of the dense forest is the center of attraction. Also Known as KeLadi Kote. Kote stands for Fort in Kannada. KeLadi is the name of the dynasty who ruled the place.

    Ikkeri situated 76 Kms to the noth of Shimoga and about 3 kms to the south of Sagar taluka. This place was the capital of Keladi Nayakas for some years. Nagara is a 16th century place situated 19 Kms from Shimoga. Nagara was the last capital of the Keladi Kings. This was also known as " Beendanoor or Bednur "in the 16th century. This place was also capital of Keladi rulers and later on was captured by Hyder Ali.

    Bednur capital city of keladi nayakas was built by Bedans ( Bedar Valmikis )
    Bednur seems to get its name from Bedan or Bedar Nayakas who built it as the capital city of their Nayaka kingdom. Vetar, Vetan, Beda, Bedar, Bedan are various names for valmiki Nayakas relating to Muttani Raja ( Mutturaja ) who ruled Srikalahasti region of South Andhra Pradesh. In Telugu, Veta means hunting and so Vetar or Bedar means a hunter.

    Veta = Hunting
    Veta => Vetar
    Vetar => Vetan => Vedan => Bedan = Hunter Uru = village / Town / city
    Bedan + Uru => Bedanuru => Bednur => Bednore

    These Bedars are the descendants of Bedara Bhakta Kannappa of Srikalahasti and of Telugu origin belonging to warrior Mudiraj community. These descendants of Kannappa who migrated to Tamil speaking lands came to be known as Vettuvas ot Vettuvans and those who migrated to Kannada & Marathi speaking land came to be known as Bedar Valmiki Nayakas.

    Several smaller kingdoms, most notably Chitradurga and Keladi (Bednur, Bednore), endured into the middle 1700s and were of considerable regional importance. The first ruler of Bednur was appointed by the State of Vijanayagar in 1560. Kanara was under the rule of the Keladi or Ikkeri Nayakas, who ruled it first from Keladi, then Ikkeri and finally Bednur (modern day Nagar). After the loss of Ikkeri, Virbhadra moved his capital to Bednur. Shivappa Nayaka was one of the most distinguished of Keladi Nayakas line. He greatly enlarged Bednur, assisting merchants and artisans from all parts to settle there.

    In November 1751, under the treaty of Bednur's ( Keladi ) chief, the English were allowed to build a factory on the site of the old factory. Kavale-durga, in Shimoga District, Mysore, ten miles south-east of Bednur; a hill in wild inaccessible region, with fort. It was a stronghold of the Bednur chiefs. Rani Regnant Chennamma of Keladi (or Bednur) ruled Keladi kingdom during period 1671-96.

    In the distracted times when the Vijayanagar dynasty was tottering towards its fall, Ikkeri was considered unsafe as a capital, so the chiefs headquarters were moved in 1640 by Sivappa Nayak to Bednur, or Bidururu. i. e. the town of bamboos. This was a central position in a difficult hilly country, surrounded by thick forests, whilst the Nayak fortified the town with strong outposts extending several miles, which made it, if not impregnable, at any rate sufficiently strong to defy all attacks by undisciplined troops Sivappa Nayak was an able administrator, who took practical steps to test the real value of land by during his absence from his native land.

    Hyder Ali , in 1763, made up his mind to make Bednur his head-quarter and prepared dockyards and naval arsenals at Honavar and Mangalore. After the death of Haider Ali, Bednur was renamed as Hydernagar during reign Hyder Ali and remained as the mint of that time. Tipu Sultan was enthroned as the ruler of Mysore on 4th May 1783 A.D. in a simple ceremony at Bednur.

    Hyder Ali had kept most of his wealth in the town of Bednore, which was located in the mountains about 40 miles from the sea. General Matthews had been in the process of planning an operation against Bednore when the Bombay Council ordered him to take Bednore at once. Matthews was extremely annoyed, but obeyed only to show these upstart civilians how impossible their instructions were. After marching his army to the foot of the mountains, without transport or supplies Matthews found the road blocked by 2 lines of fortifications defended by approx. 3000 men and behind them a fort. Matthews then disclaimed all responsibility for the operation.

    In the first invasion (1637 CE) the ghazis of Randulla Khan stormed into Dharwar and Lakshmeshvar destroying and plundering the cities. They then attacked Ikkeri and besieged it. Virabhadra Nayaka exhausted his supplies in the Ikkeri fort in 2 months and was forced to surrender. He ran for life and hid in Bednur, while the Moslems devasted the city. It is claimed that they collected a staggering wealth of 1.8 million gold pieces from the plunder of Ikkeri. The houses of all Hindus were demolished and the males killed and women taken by the Moslems.

    When Shriranga of Vijayanagar started organizing a major counter-attack on the Moslems at Vellore and Shivappa Nayaka organizing a force in Bednur seized back Ikkeri from the Moslems.

    Shivaji : Having marched from Bednore in the south, visiting on his way the sacred temple at Gokarn, Shivaji seized Ankola and the next day came to Karwar (then known as Kadwad).

    Anjediva Island is an offshore territory of Goa. Anjediva, as Portuguese territory, was used by the Christians and Hindus of the mainland as a refuge during the invasion of the coastal kingdoms of Bednore and Soonda by Tipu Sultan, who had created the new state of Khodadad after usurping the throne from the Maharaja Wodeyars of Mysore. According to recently conducted archalogical survey revealed that,they found pillars,stones,pots,of 11-12 centuries with the artistic work of Kadambasand Chalukyas,as per their conclusion these things might be the remaings of the ruined temple of Godess Aryadurga Devi,Local people call inthe name of 'Ajadurga'Devi Here people have a strong belife that Island bears the name of Deity,people from the part of Goa and Karwar still call this Island as 'Ajadeep'

    Forts of Keladi kingdom
    Keladi Fort : In the early 1500s, a certain Chaudappa Gauda of the village of Keladi discovered some hidden treasure. In a dream, he was told that the treasure was his to take, provided he offered human sacrifice. Luckily for him, two of his servants volunteered for the task. Chaudappa used the treasure to build a fort at Keladi and put together an army. Thus began the dynasty that was initially a tributary of the Vijayanagar empire, but was independent by the 1600s. At its zenith, the Keladi empire covered most of south-western Karnataka and parts of northern Kerala, commanding the ports of Honnavara, Bhatkal, Bekal and Mangalore, and also included portions of the Ghats and extended to within 60 km of Mysore.

    Veerabhadra Nayaka (1629-1645) of the illustrious Keladi dynasty built the Keladi fort in 1640 after the fall of Ikkeri, the original capital of the dynasty at the hands of the Bijapur Sultan. The fort, which saw the growth of power of the Keladi dynasty, now stands as a monument to two-and-half centuries of its rule.

    Shivappa Nayaka, Veerabhadra's uncle, succeeded him in 1645 AD as the latter had no sons. Considered the most benevolent among the Keladi rulers, Shivappa Nayaka did much to improve and enlarge the capital. His successors ruled there until its fall in 1763 AD to Haidar Ali. Though he renamed Nagar as Haidar Nagar, it became the practice to call it simply as Nagar, a name in vogue to this day. The fort, which is also known as the Shivappa Nayaka fort, offered excellent protection. The fort is entered by a gateway supported by two round bastions. The courtyard inside shows signs of a former guard room. Inside the third wall is a large open court facing which is a terrace overlooking the fort.

    Basavaraja Durga, a historical Island fort, built during the regime of Shivappa Nayaka, king of Keladi dynasty. It is situated about 3 kms from Honnavar.

    Hosdurg Fort is a fort in Kasargod district of Kerala state, south India. Hosdurg Fort with its round bastion looks imposing from a distance. Somashekara Nayaka of Keladi Nayaka dynasty of Ikkeri built the fort. The place made well known by the Nithyanandasram with 45 caves.Hosdurg Fort (half a kilometre south of Kanhangad) is renowned for its chain of forts built by Somashekara Nayak of Keladi Nayaka dynasty of Ikkeri.

    Kauledurga : 8 Km to the West of Thirthahalli, there is a village with hillocks called "Kauledurga" or "Bhuvanagiri". There is a fort with seven walls, built in the last decades of 16th century by a pious Keladi ruler Venkatappa Nayaka. Inside this, one can find several small ponds and temples like Kashi Vishweshwara temple, Laxminarayana temple (built on Vijayanagar sculpture style) and palace monuments. Kauledurga was ruled initially by Keladi dynasty's Shivappa nayaka, followed by Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan, and finally by the British Empire . The fort is testament to many historical events including the crowning ceremony of Rani Chennamma (year 1672) and defeat of mughal emperor Auragazeb's army by Rani Chennamma's army.

    Kanoor fort is situated in the dense forest 50 kms from Jogfalls on the way to bhatkal. This Fort of Keladi dynasty was constructed by Kari Maneesena Rani Abbaka devi ( Spices queen). Kanoor is a small village situated in the Shimoga District of Karnataka. It is about 50 km from Jog Falls, one of the highest waterfalls in India, on the way to Bhatkal. Major point of attraction is the Kanoor Fort, built by Kari Maneesena Rani Abbaka Devi of Keladi dynasty. Rani Abbaka was a Bant, Mudiraj related queen.

    Chandragiri lies three kms. south of Kasargod town. It has a large square situated high above the Chandragiri river on its southern bank. The fort it said to have been built in the 17th century by Sivappa Nayak of Bednore, who established his authority over the area and built a chain of forts. The Chandragiri river, on the bank of which it rises, marked the traditional boundary between Kerala and the Tuluva Kingdom. There is a beautiful bridge over the Chandragiri river at Thekkil, five miles from Chandragiri. Chandragiri Fort offers a magnificent view of the river and the Arabian Sea, and is a vantage point to gaze at the sunset.

    KOTTAPPURAM Mud fort build by the Nileshwar Rajas and later annexed by Bednore Nayaks in the 18th century. Nileswar is abbreviated form of Nilakanta Iswar. Formerly seat of Nileshwar Rajas who belonged to the Kolathiri family. The place witnessed the battle between Bednore Nayaks and Nileshwar Rajas.

    It was annexed by Somasekhara Nayaka of Bednore in 1737 after a struggle of twelve years in which the French and the English took part. When the Bednore Nayaka invaded the territory, the Nileswar Raja obtained the aid of the English who had their factory at Thalassery. In 1737, a treaty was signed by which the Bednorians agreed not to advance south of the Valapattanam river and the English obtained commercial concessions including the monopoly of pepper and cardamom in those portions of the Kolathiri dominion, which were occupied by the Bednore people.

    Several forts were built by the Shivappa Nayaks of Badnore between 1650 and 1670 A.D. The two forts of Bekal and Chandragiri were originally under the Kolathiri or Chirakkal Rajas until the time of Shivappa Nayaka's invasion. Perhaps, the Bednore rulers might have rebuilt and improved it.

    Bekal : Ikkeri Rajas were the powerful rulers of Bednore kingdom in Shimoga, Karnataka. They had come at the beginning of 17th century spurred by their commercial and political rivalry with the Kolatheri Rajas. Bekal witnessed many a pitched battle. The fort they built is found to be in good condition and is the best preserved and possibly the biggest surviving fort of Kerala.

    The Keladi Nayaks of Ikkeri consolidated power in Kodagu and established the Paleri (Haleri) dynasty (so called because of their capital in Paleri).

    Coins of Keladi Kingdom
    Sadasiva Nayak of Keladi had issued some beautiful Nayak coins. One gold coin shows Lord Shiva and goddess Parvati seated next to each other. Shiva holds the trisula (trident) and the mriga (antelope) in his hands. Another gold coin of the same ruler features the mythical bird gandaberundha. This coin is almost identical to the gandaberundha coins minted by the Vijayanagara ruler Achyutaraya.

    The Nayaks of Bednur were vassals of the kings of Vijayanagar, and their coins represent Siva and Parvati, with sun, moon, and a deer.

    Architecture : The Keladi Nayakas built some fine temples in Ikkeri and Keladi using a combination of late Kadamba, Hoysala, Vijayanagar, and Dravida styles. The use of granite for their construction shows they simply followed the Vijayanagar model of architecture. The Aghoreshwara temple at Ikkeri and the Rameshwara temple at Keladi are the best examples of the Nayakas' art. After the fall and disintegration of the Vijayanagar empire, it was the Nayaks of Keladi and Ikkeri, and Wadiyars of Mysore who inherited the traditions of Vijayanagar.Some one his written that Mudiraj people were employed to guard the granite mines. These mudiraj people could be non other than valmikis ( Muddurajas ).

    Literature
    There are many works in Sanskrit and other Indian languages which are in the nature of encyclopaedia. One of the often quoted Sanskrit work of this type is Varahamihira's Brihatsamhita. The first one is Chavundaraya's "Lokopakara" written around 1025 AD in Karnataka. The second work was written by Keladi King Basavappa Nayaka I (1697 - 1714 AD) and it is titled "Sivatattvaratnakara".

    Shivatattvaratnakara was an encyclopedic Sanskrit work of Keladi Basavaraj ( 1697 - 1714). . Basavappa Nayaka, the king of Keladi, in his Sanskrit Shiavatattvaratnakara writes that the Basavanna found and promoted the Veerashaiva religion. Shivatattvaratnakara was written and published by Keladi Basavaraja in 1709.

    Religion
    Lingayatism was the state religion of the early Wodeyars of Mysore and of Ummatur from 1399-1610 and of the Nayaks of Keladi (Ikkeri or Bednur) from 1550-1763.

    Even in later times, the Virasaiva Nayaka rulers of Ikkeri / Bednur were patrons of the Sringeri matha. Interestingly, these Nayakas were also the sole supporters of the last few "emperors" of Vijayanagara, at a time when the Mysore Wodeyars and the Telugu Nayakas in Madurai and Tanjavur were all breaking away.

    The Goddess has resided at the holy place Kollur by the name Mookambika, fulfilling the wishes of all her devotees. The Mookambika temple was the state temple for the Nagara or Bednore Rajas and many of the jewels now adorning the idol are said to have been presented by them and by their overlords of Vijayanagara.

    The name Kundapur comes from Kundavarmapura, the town of Kundavarma, a petty ruler. Around the middle of the 17th Century, the King of Bednore donated 4 acres and 17 cents Inam land to the Christians to build a church.

    Migration of Hindu Goans into Bednore kingdom
    Shortly after the expulsion of the recalcitrant Hindu remnant from Goa, after they had been permitted by the King of Bednore to settle his forest lands and to open it to agriculture, the King of Bednore saw that the Goans were excellent agriculturists and therefore he sent some of these expellees to return to Goa and to solicit further emigrations by Goans to open progressively further tracts and thus to augment his revenues.

    The Goan Government under the Portuguese actively persuaded Goans to emigrate to Bednore to this purpose - which would be impossible if the earlier expulsion of the Hindus had rendered Goa a population deficient land.

    Further, these Goan Christian emigrants in Bednore were largely first generation converts to Christianity, yet, despite now being free of the political domination of Portugal, did not regress to Hinduism but persisted in Christianity.

    These migrants were welcomed by the Bednore rulers of Mangalore due to their dexterous agricultural skills, yielding efficacious labourers for cultivation of their forest lands which would thrive their economy. After migration and subsequent relocation, they named themselves Mangalorean Catholics to distinguish themselves form their antecedent Goan counterparts.

    It is forgotten that following the further emigrations of Goans to Bednore in two further waves to escape the Anti-Christian depradations of Shivaji and Sambaji, the Goan Christian emigrant population in Bednore came to be nearly as large as the Goan Christian population resident in Goa itself, until the depradations of Tipu Sultan in the former Kingdom of Bednore destroyed it and reduced it substantially in size.

    Konkani Christians of Goa and Kanara had grown into prosperous communities under the patronage of the Bednore Kings and Hyder Ali.

    The Church of Nossa Senhora de Milagres popularly called the Milagres Church, Kallianpur was founded in 1678 after a treaty between the Portuguese and Queen Chennamai relict of Soma Shekara I of Bednore who ruled Kanara from 1671 to 1697.

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    09. CHITRADURGA NAYAKA KINGDOM

    From History of Karnataka, it can be seen that the Valmiki people were rulers of some places such as Chitradurga, Surpur, Keladi, etc. In Karnataka the VALMIKI community are also called as Nayaka, Beda, Talavara. All these people are known as valmikis. The Beda(means Hunters), Talavar (means Natives) also use Nayak as the last names. Now Beda and Talavar communities are identified as Nayaks.

    "talavara" is a Telugu word in "maha'talavara". "tala'ri" or "talavara" means "gra'ma'dhika'ri" (head of the village or town). In Tamil, "talaiva'r" means "pedda adhipati" (big boss). This Telugu word was combined with a Sanskrit word "maha'". In Telugu and Kannada the word Talari or Talavara clearly meant a village head-man, and even now such post exists in the village panchayats. Mahatalavara is an equivalent to Mutharacha or Mudiraja.

    Maha = Mudi = Great
    Talavara = headman = chief = Racha = Raja
    Mahatalavara = Mudiraja

    The Chitradurga Paleyagar family was of the Beda or Boya caste and belonged to one of the hill tribes family who subsisted by hunting and tending cattle. The Chitradurga Fort, defined by walls of huge granite blocks, rises above the town. A series of three gates leads into the irregular inner zone, strewn with striking granite boulders. There are several small temples here, as well as a number of ceremonial gateways erected by the Bedas. The platforms and pavilions within the compound of the Sampige Siddheshvara Temple mark the spot where the Bedas were crowned. The remains of rubble and mudbuilt granaries and residences, and a large circular well can be seen nearby.

    The Bedas are the Bedars and the Bedars are Vedars. While Vedars are a subcaste of Tamil Muthuraja community, these people known as Valmikis are a subcaste of Telugu Mudiraj community today.

    Vetans = Vedars = the people of Kannappa Kula.
    Beda = Bedar = Vedar = Valmiki

    It is well known fact that the Mudiraj people worship Goddess Ankamma. There is one Ankali mutt near Chitradurga. Nestling amongst a group of rugged hills, west of Chitradurga, this mutt is known for its subterranean chambers. Near the Panchalinga cave (Wonder cave) entrance, is an inscription dated 1286 A.D. executed in the reign of the Hoysala King Narasimha III. This stronly proves that these Valmiki Nayakas and Mudiraj are one and the same. This region of Tirupati and Srikalahasti is known to be the home land of Kalabhras ( the ancestors of Muthurajas ) who inveded Chola, Chera, and Pandya kingdoms. These valmikis could be the descendants of kalabhras who are in turn are known as branch of Kalachuris of Central India.

    The term Nayaka means leader. The Nayaka community has three sub-castes namely Valmiki, Beda and Talavara. Valmiki claim direct descent from Valmiki, the author of Ramayana. Bedas practice hunting. Talavars function as messengers as well as village watchmen.NAIKADA, NAYAKA Popularly known as Palegar, Beda, Valmiki, Ramoshi Parivara etc., they are concentrated in the Chitradurga, Shimoga, Bellary and Tumkur.

    Muttaniraja => Mutturaja

    According to vettuva legend, Muttani Raja was a son of one Vijayan, born to him by a jungle girl, with whom he fell in love when hunting, and whose father he slew. Vijayan's father was kannappa nayanar was the eldest of ten brothers, sons of a vedar girl who contracted a gandharva marriage with a descending of yayathi, one of the heroes of the Mahabharata. NO historical evidence has been added to corroborate the migration legends of these castes, but the community of tradition probably points to a community of origin, and the legend of a vettuva Raja still clings to Sankaridrug (Sankaridurga), Salem district, Tamilnadu. Kannappa Nayanar was also known as Bedara Kannapa in Karnataka.

    Veta = Hunting
    Vetar => Vettuvar => Vettuva = Vettuvan
    Vetar => Vedar => Vedara
    Vetar => Betar => Bedar => Bedara

    Some Marathi records call them Kala Pyada in admiration for their fighting qualities. The use of word "Kala" gives an indication that they could be most probably the kalabhra related warriors of Vengadam (Thirupathi) region. They were known as Thondaimans and this is well known as birth place of Hanuman too. Hanuman could be ancestor of Thondaiman warriors.

    For more details about bedar valmiki nayakas, please surname analysis on TALARI in the web page "surnames" and valmikis, & bedars in the web page "war(rior)-tribes" in this web site.

    Chitradurga is situated on an umbrella shaped lofty hill and in the valley of the Vedavati river,with the Tungabhadra flowing in the north west. Many ancient temples can be found inside the fort Harihar, a town located 78 km has the temple of Harihareshwara built in the Hoysala style.

    One account says that by 1500, they comprised mostly of immigrant Bedar chiefs from southern Andhra Pradesh who won the attention and appreciation of the Vijayanagar kings through their acts of bravery and valour and were appointed as governors of the region under the empire.

    Between 1500-1800, Chitradurga was at times a province of Vijayanagara, an independent kingdom, a tributary of the Marathas, a tributary of the Mughals, a tributary of Mysore, and, finally, a Mysore province.

    Timmanna Nayaka of Matti was a chieften from Matti in Davangere taluk during the rule of Saluva Narasimha. He ruled areas covering Davangere district and Chitradurga district.

    The former military personnel, Timmana Nayaka rose to the rank of Governor of Chitradurga as a reward for his excellence in military achievements, from the Vijayanagara ruler. His son Obana is known by the name Madhakari Nayaka. Madakari Nayaka's son Kasturi Rangappa succeeded him and consolidate the kingdom to rule peacefully . As he had no heirs to succeed him, his adopted son - the apparent heir was enthroned but got killed in few months by the Dalavayis.

    Chitradurga region has been in existence much before the Vijayanagara empire (1300 AD), governed by local chieftains called "Nayakas". One such Chieftain by name Timmanna Nayaka rose to the rank of governor of Chitradurga under the Vijayanagara empire as a reward for his excellence in military achievements; this fort was built by him in 1562 AD. After the fall of the city of Vijayanagara in 1565, the Chitradurga family and most other central Karnataka nayakas soon declared their independence of the remnants of that empire. Later, in the 17th-18th centuries, Chitradurga became the headquaters of Bedas, until it was occupied by Haider Ali in 1799 and then annexed by the British.

    Although the territories of many former poligars in the region became parganas or lesser provinces under the Mughals, Chitradurga was one of the fortunate few to enjoy limited independence as a tributary of Sira.

    Origins of the Chitradurga Nayakas
    Chitradurga was one of several central Karnataka regions governed by local chieftains well before the rise of Vijayanagara, which inherited control of the region from the Hoysalas in the early 1300s. By the 1500s, it was largely dominated by Bedar (Valmiki) families who traced their origins to southern Andhra Pradesh ( Srikalahasti region of Bedara Kannappa ) from which they had emigrated with their herds. Like most of the families that rose to power in the 1500s, the Chitradurga nayakas based the legitimacy of their rule on their relationship with the Vijayanagara kings, who appointed several of their line as local governors after they attracted the attention of the Vijayanagara rulers through acts of daring and bravery.

    According to one tradition, it appeal's that three Beda families emigrated from Jadikal-durga, in the neighbourhood of Tirupati, and settled at Nirutadi near Bharamasngara about 1475. They are said to have belonged to the Kamageti family and Valmiki gotra. The son and the grand­son of one of these, named Hire Hanummappa Nayaka and Timmanna Nayaka respectively, afterwards settled at Matti in Davangere taluk. The latter, called Kamageti Timmanna Nayaka, was appointed by the Vijayanagara king, first as the Nayaka of Holalkere, then of Hiriyur and finally of Chitradurga. He fortified the hill at the last-mentioned place and conducted himself in such a manner that a force was sent by the king against him.

    According to another account, Timmanna Nayaka came with a small body of armed men from a place called Madakeri below the ghats near Tirupati and entered the service of the Paleyagar of Basavapattana. When later as some quarrel arose about a mistress he had kept at Matti, he left the place and took refuge at Mayakonda. Being pursued there also, he escaped to the jungle near Guntur and from there, collecting a band, started plundering on every side, and erected a small fort called Rangapatna near Haleyur. The neighbouring Paleyagars of Harapanahalli, Nidugal and Basavapattana, being annoyed by his depredations, united against him and, with the aid of some Vijayanagara troops, marched upon Rangapatna. Timmanna Nayaka was then forced to retire to Chitradurga, where he was closely besieged. At that time the following incident occurred, which led to his recognition as one of the chiefs dependent on Vijayanagara. This was in about 1562.

    Timma Nayaka
    Timmanna Nayaka was initially a chieftain of Vijayanagar kingdom and later became the first ruler of independent Chitradurga kingdom. He was attacked by a Vijayanagara force in the early 1560s because he had raided neighboring poligar territories. In a daring act of bravery and sheer arrogance, Timmanna Nayaka decided to steal the horse of the Vijayanagara prince who commanded the forces sent against him. Under cover of night, he stole into the enemy camp and found the prince's horse. Before he could make his getaway, a groom arrived to re-tether the horse. Hiding literally at the groom's feet, Timmanna Nayaka lay unnoticed in the darkness as the groom drove the tether rope peg through his hand. Pinned to the ground, Timmanna Nayaka waited for the groom to leave, cut off his hand to free himself, and rode away on the prince's horse. It is said that the event convinced the Vijayanagara army that they could not defeat Timmanna Nayaka and they sued for peace. The Vijayanagara king formally appointed him as the governor of Chitradurga and he enjoyed a brief interlude of favor at court. Regrettably, it did not last and he died in prison at Vijayanagara.

    Bharamappa Nayaka of Bilichodu (1689 - 1721) known as the greatest of the Chitradurga Nayakas became a Maratha ally and fought in the battle of Dodderi in 1695 but had to pay tribute later to the Mugals for helping the Marathas. He fought many pitched battles against the Mugals and built many temples and irrigation tanks.

    Madakari Nayaka V (1758 - 1779) was a brave soldier and a shrewd administrator. He allied himself with Haider Ali of Mysore Kingdom at times and at other times with the Marathas. It was during his time that Haider Ali attacked the Chitradurga Fort which lead to the heroics of Onake Obavva. Later having been betrayed by the Marathas and some local officers, Madakari Nayaka was defeated by Hyder Ali, taken prisoner and killed.The Chitradurga Nayakas form an integral part of Kannada folklore.

    The great personalities from this caste are MADAKARI NAYAKA of Chitradurga Samsthana. He won the war against Hyderali father of Tippu Sultan. Majority people are Telugu speaking in Bellary,Raichur and Parts of Chitradurga region. By thier culture and worshipping looks like all are migrated from ANDRA region. Still many families had roots in ANDRA region. In fact, this region was part greater Andhra country of ancient times. Even the vanaras, who were the ancestors of these bedar valmiki nayakas were Telugu speaking people.

    The history of Karnataka dates back to the period of epics. The capital of Vali and Sugriva, 'Vanara Sena' of the Ramayana, is said to have been Hampi in the present day Bellary district. Hidimbasura of Mahabharatha, a cruel and fierce demon, is said to have lived in present day Chitradurga district of Karnataka, who was then exterminated by Bhima who came there along with the other Pandavas and their mother Kunti during the Vanavaasa. Stone transcriptions from the period of Ashoka are the oldest available archaelogical evidence.

    Various Nayaka rulers of Chitradurga kingdom
    Timmana Nayaka a chieften under the Vijayanagar empire rose to the rank of governor of Chitradurga as a reward for his excellence in military achievements, from the Vijayanagara ruler. This was the beginning of the rule of the Nayakas of Chitradurga. His son Obana Nayaka (1588 - 1602) is known by the name Madakari Nayaka. Madakari Nayaka's son Kasturi Rangappa 1602 succeeded him and consolidated the kingdom to rule peacefully. As he had no heirs to succeed him, his adopted son, the apparent heir was enthroned but was killed in few months by the Dalavayis.

    Chikkanna Nayaka 1676, the brother of Madakari Nayaka II sat on the throne, and his brother succeeded him with the title Madakari Nayaka III in 1686. The unwillingness of Dalawayis to accept Madakari Nayaka III's rule gave an opportunity to one of their distant relatives, Bharamappa Nayaka to ascend the throne in 1689. He is known as dthe greatest of the Nayaka rulers. Somehow, the subjects of Chitradurga did not experience a good reign of the successive rulers as they ruled on the throne for very brief periods. The Hiri Madakari Nayaka IV 1721, Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka II 1748, Madakari Nayaka V 1758 ruled this area but there is not much to mention of their rule.

    The Chitradurga Fort of seven rounds
    The Historic Fort is a marvel of military architecture that made it impregnable by the Nayak PaLayagars. It has 19 gateways, 38 posterior entrances, a palace, a mosque, granaries, oil pits, four secret entrances and water tanks. Amidst rocky surroundings inside the fort complex on the hill are many temples. It is on a hilltop with a good view of the surrounding plains.

    Battle with Hyder Ali, Legend of Obavva
    No account of Chitradurga Fort would be complete without mention of the Vanake Obavva Kindi, a secret entrance associated with the heroic tale of a Beda woman, Obavva. Single handed, she vanquished hundreds of Haider Ali's soldiers, who were stealthily trying to enter the fort.

    During the reign of Madakari Nayaka, the city of Chitradurga was besieged by the troops of Hyder Ali. A chance sighting of a woman entering the Chitradurga fort through an opening in the rocks led to a clever plan by Hyder Ali to send his soldiers through the hole. The guard on duty near that hole had gone home for lunch and asked his wife to be on guard till he was back.

    The wife of that guard, Obavva while in her temporary seat, noticed soldiers emerging out of this opening. Obavva was not perturbed. She was carrying with her a Onake (a long wooden club meant for pounding paddy grains). She killed Hyder Ali's soldiers one by one as they attempted to enter the fort through the opening and quietly moved the dead. Over a short period of time hundreds of soldiers entered and fell, without raising any suspicion. Obavva's husband, upon his return from his lunch was shocked to see Obavva standing with a blood stained Onake and hundreds of dead bodies of the enemy around her. The opening in the rocks still remains as a historical witness for the story, beside the Tanniru doni a small water source which holds cold water all round the year. Though her sincere and brave attempt saved the fort on that occasion, Madakari Nayaka could not repel Hyder Ali's attack in 1779. In the ensuing battle, the fort of Chitradurga was lost to Hyder Ali.

    Young Bedas were converted to Islam by Tippu Sultan
    The Sultans of Srirangapattana and the Wodeyars of Mysore: It lias been stated above that after the capitulation of and Tipu Chitradiirga, 20,000 Bedas were taken away to people the island Sultan of Srirangapattana. All the boys amongst these were converted and trained up as soldiers, forming what were called Chela battalions.

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    10. GOND KINGDOMS OF CENTRAL INDIA:

    Gonds are Telugu speaking Konda Doras belonging to Koya Tribes:
    Manne is one of the surnames of Mudiraj community people in Andhra Pradesh. The Gonds have a subdivision called Mannewar, and as "war" is only a Telugu suffix for plural, the proper name Manne closely resembles Mana. Mane surname of Maharastrian Kaikadi Erukalas seems to be a modification of Manne. These Kaikadis are the people related to Telugu Kakatiya kings of Warangal.

    The Gonds are originally Telugu speaking Dravidians belonging to Central India. The Telugu language could be a spoken language of many Dravidians tribes of Central and North India before the arrival of Aryans and other alien tribes who came from across Himalayas. Today the archeologists have finally accepted that Sindhi language is a Dravidian language and the script found at ruins of Mahenjodaro resembles to a dravidian language which could be a mixure of present day Telugu & Tamilin South India. It is believed that the name Gond is derived from Telugu word Konda, meaning hill.

    Mudi = Great
    Kond = Hill
    Mudi + Konda => Mudigonda = Great Hill

    Konda => Gonda => Gond
    Mana => Mane => Manne => Mannewar

    The Mana is one of the important tribes of Maharashtra. From the cultural point of view the tribe represents a unique culture which helped them to keep their identity. This very term Mana is a constant reminder that the Mana still constitute a distinct society to which each individual has a strong sense of belonging. The other form of cross-cousin marriage, viz.. the marriage of the brother's son to the sister's daughter is practised by some Gonds and other tribes among whom it is considered as doodh lautna (give back the milk). Certain rituals and traditions of some of the tribes of Gond people in the wild Satpura forests of Betul in Madhya Pradesh, India, which are on the verge of extinction, were noticed.

    Owing to their general adoption of Maratha customs, the Manas are now commonly regarded as acaste and not a forest tribe, and this view may be accepted. They have two subcastes, the badwaik Manas, or soldiers, and the Khad Manas, who live in the plains and are considered to be of impure descent. Badwaik or the "The great Ones" is a tutilar term applied to a person carrying arms , and assumed by certain Rajputs and also by some of the lower castes.

    Bada => Badwaik
    Bada = Big = Great
    Mudi = Great

    Gond , ethnic group in central India. The group is now divided among the states of Andhra Pradesh, Maharshtra, and Madhya Pradesh; in Madhya Pradesh there was a small but powerful Gond kingdom until the 18th cent. The Gonds, predominantly Hindu, speak a Dravidian language and are mainly organized into tribes in small villages.

    The Gonds, or Koyathor, as they call themselves, are one of the most significant of the primitive central Indian tribes. They live mainly in the Chhindwara District of Madhya Pradesh, but have also settled in other parts of the State like Betul, in the Bastar District of Chhattisgarh and in parts of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.The Gonds have a rich legendary history. In the fourteenth century they were the ruling class in many parts of central India. During this time several small Gond kingdoms were consolidated by Gond kings to form a Gond dynasty. They built numerous palaces, forts, tanks and lakes, but were overcome by Muslim armies in 1592. Towards the end of the eighteenth century the Gonds had scattered into many tribes.

    Maria, Muria, and Dorla are some of the subcastes of the Gond Tribe. They have a complex social structure and a wealth of artistic heritage. Agriculture, collecting minor forest produce, fishing, and hunting are their main activities. The Gonds are Hindus and they make idols of their deities with flour, sugar and ghee. The languages they speak are Dravidian.

    For more details about Gonds, Manas , Mannewars and Kolams, readers are requested to see web page "WAR(RIOR) TRIBES" in this website MUDIRAJA.

    GOND KINGDOMS

    Gond kingdom of Kherla
    All over the District are scattered Monuments and relics of historical interests such as Khedla which was the seat of the Gond Dynasty way back in the 13th century. The inscriptional records cease abruptly in the 12th century, and no more is known of the country until the rise of the Gond dynasties from the 14th to the 16th centuries. The first of these is mentioned in 1398, when Narsingh Rai, raja of Kherla, is said by Ferishta to have ruled all the hills of Gondwana. He was finally overthrown and killed by Hoshang Shah, king of Malwa. The ,6th century saw the establishment of a powerful Gond kingdom by Sangram Sah, who succeeded in 1480 as the 47th of the petty Gond rajas of Garha-Mandla, and extended his dominions so as to include Saugor and Damoh on the Vindhyan plateau, Jubbulpore and Narsinghpur in the Nerbudda valley, and Seoni on the Satpura highlands. Sangram Sah died in 1530; and the break up of his dominion began with the enforced cession to the Mogul emperor by Chandra Sah (1563-1575) of Saugor and Damoh and of that portion of his territories which afterwards formed the state of Bhopal.

    The state was established in 1724 by the Afghan Sardar Dost Mohammed Khan, who was a commander in the Mughal army posted at Mangalgarh, which lies to the north of the modern city of Bhopal. Taking advantage of the disintegration of the Mughal empire, he usurped Mangalgarh and Berasia (now a tehsil of the Bhopal District). When Dost Mohammed Khan's nephew assassinated the Gond Queen Kamalapati's husband, he executed his own nephew and restored the Queen's little kingdom back to her. The Queen gave him a princely sum of money and the Mouza village (which is situated near modern Bhopal city).

    After the death of last Gond queen, Dost Mohammed Khan took his chance and seized the little Gond Kingdom and established his capital 10 km away from modern Bhopal, at Jagdishpur. He named his capital Islamnagar, meaning the city of Islam. He built a small fort and some palaces at Islamnagar, the ruins of which can still be seen today.

    About 200 years after Sangram Sah's time, Bakht Buland, the Gond chieftain of a principality seated at Deogarh in Chhindwara, having visited Delhi, set about introducing the civilization he had there admired. He founded the city of Nagpur, which his successor made his capital. 1400 Firuz ravaged the Gond kingdom of Kherla and slaughtered over 20,000 Hindus and adds the daughter of the Gond kingdom to his harem.

    The Gond Kingdom of Garha - Mandla
    The Gond Kingdom of Garha is mostly remembered with reference to the challenge put by Queen Durgawati before the powerful army of the Mughal emperor Akbar and the rest of the history of this kingdom is mostly obscure. Mandla ( 96 KM from Jabalpur) was the capital of the ancient Gond Kingdom of Garha- Mandla early in the Christan era. The Gond Queen Rani Durgavati took here when her army was concerned by Mugal forces under Asaf Khan in 1564. A 17th-century fort surrounded on three sides by the Narmada River is the main attraction here. The Gond Raja, Hirde Shah built a large palace in a commanding site nearby in Ramnagar(15 km) of which little remains. Kanha national park is about 40 km from Mandala.

    Mandla city, east-central Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It lies just north of the Narmada River. Formerly the capital of the Garh-Mandla Gond kingdom, it was constituted a municipality in 1867. The city is a road junction and rail-spur terminus and is heavily engaged in agricultural trade. Sawmilling and the manufacture.

    The 16th century saw the establishment of a powerful Gond kingdom by Sangram Sah, who succeeded in 1480 as the 47th of the petty Gond rajas of Garha-Mandla, and extended his dominions so as to include Saugor and Damoh on the Vindhyan plateau, Jubbulpore and Narsinghpur in the Nerbudda valley, and Seoni on the Satpura highlands. In the last quarter of the 15th century, Sangram Shah of Gond dynasty annexed the region of Damoh into its dynamic and mighty empire consisting of 52 forts. Sangram Sah died in 1530; and the break up of his dominion began with the enforced cession to the Mogul emperor by Chandra Sah (1563-1575) of Saugor and Damoh and of that portion of his territories which afterwards formed the state of Bhopal.

    Several tribes, among whom the Gonds are most prominent, inhabit this part of the central Indian highlands. In early 17th century the Gonds were politically very active and ruled much of this tract. The first Gond king was Jataba who built the Deogarh fort and formed the Gond Kingdom. Captain J. Forsyth mentions in his writings that it was after the Gonds this tract of the country got the name "Gondwana Land". He further goes on to explain about lingual similarity between Gonds and Telugu - Tamil folks of southern India, and stated that this bears the testimony that the Gonds are a part of same lineage as the Dravidians of south India. Strendales in his book 'The camp life of Seoni' had given the most explicit account of true Gonds and their life style.

    Jabalpur was one of the major centers of the Garha-Mandla kingdom and like other major dynastic capitals had a large fort and palace. Temples and palaces with extremely fine carvings and erotic sculptures came up throughout the Gond kingdoms. The Gond ruling clans enjoyed close ties with the Chandella ruling clans and both dynasties attempted to maintain their independence from Mughal rule through tactical alliances. Rani Durgavati of Jabalpur (of Chandella-Gond heritage) acquired a reputation of legendary proportions when she died in battle defending against Mughal incursions.

    The authentic history of the Chindwara district begins from the 16th century when parts of the district fell under the domination of the rising Gond dynasty of Deogarh. The earliest headquarters of the Deogarh family were at Harya or Haryagarh, a village 40 km southwest of Chhindwara. Deogarh was originally a Gaoli kingdom and was conquered by a Gond king of Garha.

    After the falling of Vakatak dynasty Chhindwara was included in the Gond dynasty, which was spread from united province and Bengal. The King Gupt of Gonds defeated and killed the King of Kannauj in 606 AD while the latter was going for an attack on Malwa with his 10000 personnel strong army. According to Gen. Cunningham the King Gupt later became the King of the Gond dynasty. But this belief too is thought to be mythical.

    The Gonds were lovers of art and worshippers of the Janani or the mother creator. The power to procreate is truly divine and their unsullied culture recognized sex as an ultimate worship. They built the exotic temples and palaces with erotic sculptures and the exquisite fine carvings all over the Gond Kingdom. The beauty of the temples and palaces in Jabalpur is an apt statement of their craftsmanship.

    Rani Durgavati of the kingdom of Gondwana was a very brave lady who was inspired by a sense of genuine loyalty to the interests of her country. She was the daughter of the Rajput chief of Mohaba. She was married to Dalpat Shah, a descendant of Jadurai who was the founder of the Gond kingdom. The places of interest at Jabalpur are Madan Mahal Fort – the imposing fort on top of the hill was constructed by Raja Madan Shah of the Raj Gond dynasty during the 12th century. Madan Shah was the husband of Gond Queen Rani Durgavati.

    Nohta village, 81 km from Jabalpur, was the capital city of the Chandela kings in the 12th century. The Lanji Fort is also related with Gond dynasty. The Fort is located at Lanji Tehsil of Balaghat. It was made by Cultury ( Kalchuri ) Rajwansh. There are so many temples within Fort with lot of Statutes. Like Mahadev, Mahamaya, Lanjkaidevi etc.

    The Gond Kingdom of Nagpur
    The dominant power in the area of Central India in late Mughal times was the Gond kingdom centered on Nagpur. This had already suffered from family feuds, and one member of the ruling power converted to Islam in 1686 under the title Bhakt Buland in order to secure the Mughal emperor Aurangazeb's support in his qurrel. Bhakt Buland duly came to power. He was succeeded by Chand Sultan. hough founded by Bakhta Buland Shah, Nagpur was never the seat of power of the Gond dynasty. The Gonda continues to rule from their capital Deogarh (Devgad) located in Chhindwara district.

    The city of Nagpur was founded by a Gond Raja in the early 18th century. The Kingdom of Nagpur was a kingdom in east-central India founded by the Gond rulers of Deogarh in the early 18th century. It came under the rule of Marathas of the Bhonsle dynasty in the mid-18th century. The kingdom clashed with the expanding British in the early 19th century, becoming a princely state of the empire in 1818, and annexed to British India in 1853.

    About 200 years after Sangram Sah's time, Bakht Buland, the Gond chieftain of a principality seated at Deogarh in Chhindwara, having visited Delhi, set about introducing the civilization he had there admired. He founded the city of Nagpur, which his successor made his capital. The Deogarh kingdom, at its widest extent, embraced the modern districts of Betul, Chhindwara, Nagpur, with parts of Seoni, Bhandara and Balaghat. In the south of the province Chanda was the seat of another Gond dynasty, which first came into prominence in the 16th century. The three Gond principalities of Garha-Mandla, Deogarh and Chanda were nominally subject to the Mogul emperors. In addition to the acquisitions made in the north at the expense of Garha-Mandla, the Moguls, after the annexation of Berar, established governors at Paunar in Wardha and Kherla in Betul. Having thus hemmed in the Gond states, however, they made no efforts to assert any effective sovereignty over them; the Gond rajas for their part were content with practical independence within their own dominions. Under their peaceful rule their territories flourished, until the weakening of the Mogul empire and the rise of the predatory Bundela and Mahratta powers, with the organized forces of which their semi-barbarous feudal levies were unable to cope, brought misfortune upon them.

    There is no historical record of Nagpur prior to the beginning of the 18th century, when it formed part of the Gond Kingdom of Deogarh, in Chhindwara District. Bakht Buland, the ruler of Deogharh, visited Delhi, afterwards was determined to encourage the development of his own kingdom. This Gond king is said to have embrassed Islam to save his royal power and continue as a king under the pressure of Mughals. To this end he invited Hindu and Muslim artisans and cultivators to settle in the plain country, and founded the city of Nagpur. His successor, Chand Sultan continued the development of his country, and moved his capital to Nagpur.

    In the late 17th century, Prince Bakht Buland went to Delhi, where he entered the service of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. He gained the emperor's favor by his military achievements, and the emperor persuaded him to become a Muslim. He returned from Delhi with a number of craftsmen and farmers, both Hindu and Muslim. He enlarged his dominions at the expense of the states of Chanda and Mandla, and established many new towns and villages, including the city of Nagpur. Bahkt Buland's successor, Chand Sultan, moved the capital of the kingdom from Deogarh to Nagpur. After Chand Sultan's death in 1739, struggles over his succession led to the intervention of the Maratha leader Raghoji Bhonsle, who governed neighboring Berar in the name of the Maratha Peshwa. The Gond kingdom was annexed to the Maratha empire, and ruled by Raghoji's successors.

    The history of Bhandara as of most other Districts of the Province is practically blank between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries. During this period the old Rajput dynasties, whose existence is known from inscriptions and from the ruins of their temples, disappeared and were probably supplanted by petty Gond chiefs who left no record or other monument. Of Bhandara nothing more is known until the end of the seventeenth century, when Bakht Buland, the Gond prince of Deogarh in Chhindwara, incorporated a portion of the District within his dominions.

    Katol : The mud fort dates from the time of the Gond dynasty, and in the time of Dharmaji Bhonsla it was held by a Pindari confederacy which paid more or less regular tribute to the Raja and protected the country side from other raiding bands.

    The Gond Kingdom of Devgarh
    Deogarh, also known as Devgarh, is a village in Chhindwara District of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is located 24 miles southwest of Chhindwara, picturesquely situated on a crest of the hills. Deogharh was formerly the capital of a Gond kingdom, which rose to prominence in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. The numerous wells, tanks, and buildings show that the Gond capital once extended over a large area.

    Popular tradition tells of a Gaoli Kingdom preceding the Gonds. The mythical Gond hero Jatba, who founded the dynasty, was born from a virgin under a bean plant, and was protected by a cobra, who came and spread its hood over him during the heat of the day, when his mother left him to go to her work. When he grew up he became famous for his feats of strength, and entered the service of the twin Gaoli kings, Ransur and Ghansur, whom he subsequently slew with a magic sword, and taking the kingdom in their stead became the first Gond ruler. The forts of Patansaongi and Nagardhan in Nagpur District are attributed to him.

    At the beginning of the 18th century, the Balaghat district was divided among two Gond kingdoms; the portion of the district west of the Wainganga was part of the Gond kingdom of Deogarh, while the eastern portion was part of the Garha-Mandla kingdom.

    The Gond Kingdom of Chandrapur
    In Chanda, where a Gond dynasty reigned for some centuries, they would be in contact with the Telugus, and here they may have got their name of Gond, and carried it with them into the North and East proviences. In the south of the province Chanda ( Siripur ) was the seat of another Gond dynasty, which first came into prominence in the 16th century. The three Gond principalities of Garha-Mandla, Deogarh and Chanda were nominally subject to the Mogul emperors.

    A History Filled With Legends the ancient history of the district earlier known as Chanda and now Chandrapur is shrouded in mystery. Tradition and legends tell that the name of this place was "Lokapura", which was first changed to "Indupur" and subsequently to Chandrapur. Chandrapur was the capital of the Gond dynasty from 12th to the 18th century. and was later conquered by the Maratha Bhosles from Nagpur. It formed part of the British Central Provinces from 1854 until Indian independence in 1947. The tombs of the Gond kings and several temples are in the town.

    The fall of the Yadavas of Devagiri and the Kakatiyas of Warangal at the hands of Alauddin Khilji marks a turning point in the history of the Deccan and the peninsular South. It was an event of extraordinary historical significance. On the one hand the immense wealth which Alauddin carried from his Devagiri expeditions enabled him to accomplish his political designs at Delhi and on the other it paved the way for the domination of Islam to the south of the Deccan. In the aftermath of the fall of these two once mighty kingdoms, Devagiri and Warangal, the Gonds of Chandrapur- Gadchiroli seem to have made their rise as a political power.

    The original seat of the Gond kings of Chandrapur-Gadchiroli is considered to be Sirpur, twenty miles to the south-west of Chandrapur proper, on the southern bank of the Painganga river, also known as Wardha here. From here they shifted their capital to present Ballarsah and finally to Chandrapur of historic fame. A long list of the Gond Kings who ruled from these places is given by Major Lucie Smith in his Settlement Report of Chanda District, 1869. When he was preparing the land revenue settlement report of Chandrapur, 1863-1869, he compiled a genealogy of the Gond Kings based on oral and written traditions which he had collected.

    Chandrapur is on the banks of the Irar River. Chandrapur is near the Wardha valley coalfields. A wall that acts as a flood barrier surrounds the town. It was the capital of the Gond kingdom (12th–18th cent.). The tombs of the Gond kings and several temples are in the town.

    Kol Bhilla first Gond ruler : According to the local Gond traditions there arose among them a hero known as Kol Bhill of great strength and wisdom. He rallied round the scattered Gond tribes and formed them into a sort of nation, teaching them how to extract iron from the ore. It is significant to note that Kol Bhilla while gathering the scattered Gonds together felt the need of teaching them the extraction or iron from the ore. In order to carve out an independent kingdom for the Gonds it was necessary to teach them the use of iron for the manufacture of war weapons, which they probably did not know before. The political powers which surrounded the Gonds learn the use of iron. Gonds had known the use of iron long since. In the history of human civilization it is a well known fact that iron weapons gave superiority to those who possessed them over their rivals having non-ferrous weapons. Kol Bhill, therefore, ushered in a revolution when he taught his Gond brethren the use of iron. It at once put the Gonds on par with the neighbouring political powers in the struggle for supremacy.

    The first three kings who ruled at Sirpur were Bhim Ballal Sing, Kharja Ballal Sing and Hir Sing. Kharja was of gentle nature . His son Hir was warlike and prudent. He for the first time levied tax on occupied land. He was respected by his people. He was succeeded by Adiya Ballal Sing, who was a tyrant. The fort of Ballarsah according to the anecdote recorded in the old Gazetteer of Canda district was constructed by Khandakya Ballal Sah, the tenth descendant of the dynasty. But the credit of constructing the fort is given to Adiya by the account given in the History of Wani. It is more likely that Adiya who shifted the capital from Sirpur to Ballarsah should have construct-ed a fort there for protection and defence as practically every capital in those days had a fort.

    On the death of Surja alias Ser Sah, his son Khandkya Ballal came to the throne. This prince had tumours all over his body. He was looked after by his wise and beautiful wife. When no remedy could heal Khandkya she induced him to leave Sirpur and reside on the northern bank of the Wardha, where he erected a fort named Ballalpur. Khandkya Ballal Sah thus founded the city of Chanda or Chandrapur. He used to reside both at Ballalpur. or Ballarsah and Chandrapur. He died at Ballalpur.

    Genealogy of Gond Kings : Following Kol Bhill, we have Bhim Ballal Sing, who is said to have established a Gond Kingdom with Sirpur ( Now in Telangana ) as its capital. From Bhim Ballal the line of Gond Kings ruling over Chandrapur-Gadchiroli is as below:



    In the light of the historical facts the traditional date of the foundation of the Gond Kingdom of Sirpur, 870 A.D., recorded by Major Lucie Smith has got to be rejected. Some time around 1340 the kingdom was founded at Sirpur by Bhim Ballal Sing. The dates of Babji Ballal Sah who was a contemporary of Akbar, and those of Ram Sah and Nllkanth Sah who were contemporary personalities of Bhosale Raghuji I, could be determined without any difficulty.

    Mughal cavalry pursued Jujhar Singh, his family and fragments of his army into the forested lands of Chanda, another Central Indian Gond kingdom, which had not acknowledged imperal suserainity.

    Akbar, after the conquest of Berar, turned his attention to the rulers of Gondavana to the east of the present Wardha district. The Gond king of Chandrapur accepted the supremacy of Akbar. At one time the territory of the Gond Kings extended as far as the Wardha river up to its eastern bank.

    With the changes in the history of Berar one might presume that the Gond Kingdom of Chandrapur after the Bahamanis first passed under Imad Sahi and later under the Nizam Sahi.

    Chandrapur Mahankali Temple : Rani Hirai reconstructed the temple of Mahakali as the Goddess had proved to be propitious when Bir Sah vowed to kill his son-in-law Durga Sah. The present temple of Mahakali was built by her. In memory of the victory over Durga Sah atop the templ e his head in stone was placed facing Devgad. In honour of the Goddess Mahakali a fair is held on the full-moon day of Caitra when devotees flock to Chandrapur from places far and near Rani Hirai.

    Fort of Gond Raja, Mahakali Temple and Anchaleshwar Temple (Lord Shiva)are the main places to visit in Chandrapur.

    Another temple belonging to antiquity and worthy of notice is that of Mahakali, situated across the Jharpat river about a furlong's distance from the Acalesvar gate. The original temple is said to have been built by Khandkya Ballal Sah at the time of building the Acalesvar temple, the present one being built by Rani Hirai in commemoration of the victory of her husband, Birsah, gained over their son-in-law. It so happened that Birsah and Hiral had a daughter who was given in marriage to Durgasah alias Durgpal, the prince of Devgad. This prince so insulted his wife that she returned to her parents upon which Birsah vowed to punish him, praying the goddess Mahakali that in the event of success he would present her with Durgasah's head and construct a bigger temple. When Birsah advanced with his army Durgasah came forward to challenge him and in the battle that ensued, the latter was defeated and killed. His head was severed and presented to the goddess ceremoniously. Later, about 1650, when Hirai constructed the temple, a stone head of Durgasah was fixed on the temple in order to perpetuate the memory of the victory. It faces north.

    Raigarh State : Earlier Raigarh State had area about 1486 square miles. In its South there was Sarangarh State, in North Jashpur, Udaipur and Gangpur states and in East only Gangpur State was there. Its ancient history is not well known but on basis of some historical informations the state was related to Gond dynasty of Chanda. The Raigarh state was established by Madan Singh who came here from a small village Bairagarh of Chanda District. After reaching Raigarh how he established his kingdom it is not known. After his death Takhat Singh, Beth Singh, Dilip Singh and Jujhar Singh, Devnath Singh, Ghanshyam Singh, Bhupdev Singh became kings one by one.

    The Gond Kingdom of Bilaspur
    Bilaspur city, Chhattisgarh state, central India, lying just west of the Arpa River. Bilaspur was the capital of a Gond kingdom until captured by the Marathas in the 18th century. Just north lies Ratanpur, an ancient Hindu capital of the Haihaya.

    Apart from Garha-Mandla covering the area around Jabalpur and south of the Narmada to Mandla itself, two other historic Gond centres are notable: Deogarh, whose Gond Raja Bakht Buland founded Nagpur at the dawn of the 18th century, and, farther south in Maharashtra towards the borders of Bastar, Chandrapur (Chanda).From here the Kawardha Raj Gond dynasty traces its antecedents via the Pandaria Raj to the west of Bilaspur in Chattisgarh.

    Always protected to a degree by their wild and impenetrable hills and forests, the Gonds nevertheless were touched by the waves of imperial movement that swept up and down peninsular India for many centuries. Their Dravidian language itself indicates a southern connection and their tribal religious practices, with strong vestiges of serpent worship and pre-Vedic animism, suggest links to a more ancient and unrecorded past.

    Gond dynasty was ruling in the latter part of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries with its capital at Amrakantaka, which extended in Kosala area and also occupied some parts of the ancient Akara (the area around Bhopal). This area is famous in history for the chivalry of Rani Durgabati who gallantly opposed the Mughal Governor Asaf Khan, who had invaded her kingdom on 1564 A.D. Her father-in-law, Sangram Shah had issued some gold coins of about 167 grains. The obverse of his coins has a crested lion in a square.

    Jamindar 'Mansadhar Singh' of Kolabira.
    During the 13th Century the 'Gond' tribe was ruling the Gondwara region (Modern Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh). At that time small Gond kingdoms such as Kherlu, Betal etc. were created. During the later part of 14th Century, the Gond kingdom disintegrated. As a result the ferocious Gonds migrated in large numbers to the Sambalpur kingdom and settled there. During the 16th Century the kings of Sambalpur appreciating the physical prowess, valor and loyalty of Gonds gave them shelter as subjects and the Gond Chieftains were given responsible posts in the earning. Jayant Singh the King of Sambalpur had appointed 'Mansadhar Singh' as the Jamindar of Kolabira. After Mansadhar Singh his son 'Karunakar Singh' (Nayak) took charge of Kolabira Jamindari.

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    Date : 27/11/ 2008




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    11. KALABHRA DYNASTY:

    Historians have accepted that the people Muthuraja and its subsects are the descendants of the Kalabhras who invaded the South Indian peninsula including Ceylon and ruled it over for about 300 years.

    Mutharayars andThe Kalabhra dynasty ruled over entire Tamil country in South Indian between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. It is speculated that a warrior race called Kalabras were causing havoc all over south India. They terrorized the region for several centuries until at the beginning of the seventh century when the Pandias defeated them. They won over the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties and replaced them. There is little information about their origin and details about their reign. They did not leave any monuments. The only source of information on them are to be found in Buddhist and Jain literature.

    A tribe called Kalabhra hailing from the northern borders seems to have occupied and ruled the central and southern parts of the Tamil country. The northern languages, Prakrit first and Sanskrit subsequently, became to some extent the languages of the court and the elite in South Indian lands. Marches and migrations of warlike groups seem to have marked the later half of this period. A prominent martial group called the Kalabhra (or Kalappalar) occupying and ruling over the central and southern parts of the Tamil country is mentioned in some Pali works of the fifth century and in a few later records.

    They were displaced around the 7th century by the revival of Pallava and Pandya power. Hindu scholars and authors who wrote in the 7th and 8th century C.E. when Pandya and Pallava had taken over again have written very little about the Kalabhra in their texts. Perhaps therefore the period of their rule is known as a 'Dark Age' – an interregnum.

    The identification of the Kalabhras is difficult. The most satisfactory theory identifies the Kalabhras with the Kalavar. The chieftains of this tribe mentioned in Sangam literature are Tiraiyan of Pavattiri and Pulli of Vengadam or Tirupati. The latter is described as the cattle lifting robber chief of the frontier. The Kalavar must have been dislodged from their habitat near Tirupati by political events of the third century A.D., viz. the fall of the Satavahanas and the rise of Pallavas, resulting in political confusion in Tondaimandalam.

    Kalabhra => Kalabhrar => Kalabrar => Kalabar => Kalavar
    Kalavar => Kalvar => Kallar

    These Kalavars are the same as Kalabhras. When Satvahanas put pressure on them, these anti-Brahmanic Buddhist people who were ruling around Tirupati migrated to whole of South India and ruled most of it for centuries, and these centuries are now termed by Brahmin historians as `dark age', not only because scanty information is available from Brahmanic sources but also because it was anti-Brahmanic age. They were abused by the Brahmins and their history was wiped out. But the Buddhist books still preserve their history.

    They have also been identified with the line of Muttaraiyar of Kondubalur eighth to eleventh century C.E. Another view is that the Kalabhras were Kalappalar, belonging to the Vellala community referred to in Tamil literature and inscriptions.

    Kalabhra => Kalabhra => Kalabbra => Kalabba => Kalappa => Kalappalar

    Others regard Kalabhras as Karnatas on the strength of a reference in Tamil literature to the rule of a Karnata king over Madurai. Kalappirar or Kalabras were native karnatakas and some claim they even belong to Southern Madhyapradesh.

    Even after Sangam Chola's period, Poompuhar occupied a significant place during the regime of Kalabras, in the 6th century A.D. After Kalabras, Poompuhar came under the Pallava rulers and during that time they built the Pallavaneeswaran temple. Poompuhar in ancient times was the port capital of the Cholas, and indeed puhar means "estuary" or "river mouth of the sea." During the reign of Karikala Cholan, Poompuhar became a great city and Inscriptions at Thiruvengadu talk of a grand festival of Indra later Chola's times.

    Kalabhras of South India were the Kalachuris of Central India
    Basically, Kalchuri kings were supporters of Jainism. Many Pallava and Pandya writings describe that the Kalabhras attacked the Tamil country and defeated the Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas and established their kingdom. Prof., Ramaswami Ayangar asserts that these valiant Kalabhra kings were the devoted followers of Jainism. He proved it on the basis of copper plate of Veluikudi and Painyapuranam of Tamil language. Jainism flourished after their reaching in Tamil country. Shri Ayangar presumes that these Kalabhras were a branch of Kalchuri clan. The Kalchuri kings of M.P. wore supporters of Jainism. The evidence on this is that they were closely related to Rashtrakuta. The Rashtrakuta kings had their faith in Jainism. The influence of Jainism during reign of Kalchuri kings of Kalyani was perceptible. The prominent king Vijjala of this clan and his several statesmen had adopted Jainism. Rechmayya, the minister of Kalchuri State set up the image of Tirthankar Shantinath at Shravanabelagola.

    A lot of feudatories of the cholas had kalabra origin.It is the openion of some historians that in the lack of absence of one fight to break the back bone of the all powerful kalbras is that they slowly broke up and emerged as mutharayar, sambuvarayars etc.

    Meenavars ( Kolis ?) might have mixed with Parada or Paratarajas or Parvata Raja Kulam ( Valmikis ? ) , an Indo- Scythian clan and got alienated from the Villavar and Nadalvar (Nadar) clans. Mudirajus or Mutharaiyar a Kalabhra aristocracy who once ruled Chera, Chola and Pandyan kingdoms as Muvendars regard Paratas as one of their own clan. Parataraja.

    Kalabhras were Buddhist & Jain Kings
    Tamil Sangam Literature such as Manimekalai indicate that there were Buddhists in the Tamil country and that the Buddhist missionaries were active in spreading their religion. Buddhism entered South India during the period of Asoka who established Buddhist missions all over the Indian sub continent and sent missionaries to Sri Lanka and to China.

    Some controversial historians speculate that the Kalabhras followed the Buddhist or Jain faiths and were antagonistic towards the Hindu and Brahman religions of the majority population of the Tamil region during the early centuries C.E. Other controversial historians speculate that they were the product of 'Brahmanism' and tried to destroy 'casteless society'.

    Kalabhras, by invading the Tamil country, disturbed the prevailing order. The Velvikudi inscriptions of the third regnal year of Pandya king Nedunjadaiyan (c.765 - c. 815 C.E.) say that Pandya king Mudukudumi Peruvaludi gave the village of Velvikudi as brahmadeya (gift to a Brahmins). It was enjoyed for a long time. Then a Kali king named Kalabhran took possession of the extensive earth, driving away numberless great kings.

    The period of Kalabhras was marked by the ascendancy of Buddhism, and probably also of Jainism. It was characterized by considerable literary activity in Tamil. Most of the works grouped under the head, 'The Eighteen Minor works' might have been written during this period as also the Cilappadhikaram, Manimekalai and other works. Many of the authors were characterised as belonging to the `heretical' sects (meaning Buddhists and Jains).

    The Kalabras were Buddhist, but a remarkable thing about their coins is their popularization of the gods of the Hindu religion like that of Subramanya and Vinayaka. Kalabhras fought against Brahmin supremacy and were abused by Brahmin epigraphists after their rule ended.

    The late Kalabras appear to have been Shivite and Vaishnava. Scholar F.E. Hardy traced the palace ceremony to a Vishnu or Mayon temple to the rule of the Kalabras. Scholar Alice Justina Thinakaran writes that perhaps they were Saiva, Jain or Buddhist.

    In the Brahmanical literature, the Kalabhras are "roundly as evil kings (kali-arasar) who uprooted many and abrogated brahmadeya rights". However, the modern researches have shown that the Kalabhras were neither nor enemies of civilization but were a very civilized people and in fact their reign saw the creation of excellent Tamil mixture. The primary reason as to why they were ignored or by the brahmins was because they were Buddhists.

    The date of Kalabhra invasion looks realistic as we have approximately determined the date of the Arimarthana Pandiyan around A.D.312, and possibly the Kalabhra invasion took place during the rule of his son the Sakanaatha Pandiyan in A.D.350 who is known to us from the "Thiruvilaiyaadal Puraanam". The Buddhism and Jainism had already spread to some extent in Tamil Nadu earlier during the 3rd Sangam Period, but it was only after the Kalabhra capture of Tamil Nadu the Jainsm became deeply rooted as a religion of this region with the patronage of this king.

    The Velvikkudi Grant
    These inscriptions are one of the few sources that provides information about the Kalabhra Dynasty rule in South India.

    The Velvikkudi grant of Parantaka Nedunjadaiyan, consists of two parts, the Sanskrit and Tamil parts (like the other copper plates) The Sanskrit portion stops with the listing of the geneaology of Parantaka. The Tamil part begins straight away with the details of the appeal that the village Velvikkudi was gifted to one Narkorran (also kniown as Korkai Kilan), by the Pandya ruler, Palyagasalai Mudukudumip peruvaludi, when he completed a Yaga (Velvi). It is said that the village was in the long possession of the donee (nidu bhukti tuyttapin) when the Kali king, named Kalabhra, who overthrew a number of rulers (Adhirajaas), deprived the donee's family, the enjoyment of the village.

    Kalabhras, by invading the Tamil country, disturbed the prevailing order. The Velvikudi inscriptions of the third regnal year of Pandya king Nedunjadaiyan (c.765 - c. 815 C.E.) say that Pandya king Mudukudumi Peruvaludi gave the village of Velvikudi as brahmadeya (gift to a Brahmins). It was enjoyed for a long time. Then a Kali king named Kalabhran took possession of the extensive earth, driving away numberless great kings. and resumed the (village mentioned) above. After that...the Pandyadhiraja Kodungon recovered the territory under the Kalabhra occupation.
    What copper plate grant says ? : One Narkorran complained to the Jatila Varama Parakantan that the village which was given to one of his ancestors by Mutukudumi Peruvaludi was taken possession of by the Kalabhras during their invasion of Madura and that, since then it had remained as Government property. After satisfying that the proofs furnished by Narkkoran were authentic, the king granted the village back to him.

    Not much is known about Kadungon. Most of the knowledge about him comes from the Velvikudi (or Velvikkud) inscription of the Pandya king Parantaka Nedunchadaiyan (also Nedunjadaiyan or Nedunchezhiyan). According to this inscription, Kadungon defeated several petty chieftains and destroyed "the bright cities of unbending foes". It describes him as the one who liberated the Pandya country from the Kalabhras and emerged as a "resplendent sun from the dark clouds of the Kalabhras". His defeat of Kalabhras (considered Jains or Buddhists) was hailed as the triumph of Brahminism.

    In the Sendalai Pillar inscription of Perumbidugu Muttaraiya, the latter is styled "the king Maran, the Lord of Tanjai (Ko-Maran-ranjai-kkon) and Kalvar-Kalvan, Tanjai-nar-pugal-alan, a Kalva of Kalvas, the distinguished Lord of tanjai." It is very likely that in the title Kalvar-Kalvan we have to seek the origin of the name Kalabhra. Perhaps Perumbidugu Muttaraiyan was a member of the latter family which in the Velvikudi plates is said to have held the Pandya country under its sway prior to Kadungon.

    King Achchutavikranta
    The history of Cholas of Uraiyur (Tiruchirappalli) is exceedingly obscure from fourth to the ninth century C.E., chiefly owing to the occupation of their country by the Kalabhras. Buddhadatta, the great writer in Pali, belonged to Uraiyur. A Buddhist writer Buddhadatta or Thera Buddhaatta as he is called lived during the time of Accyutarikkanta, Kalabra ruler of the Cola-nadu. He mentions his contemporary, King Achchutavikranta of the Kalabharakula, as ruling over the Chola country from Kaveripattinam. He was a Buddhist. Tamil literary tradition refers to an Achchuta who kept the Chera, Chola and Pandya kings in captivity. On the basis of the contemporaneity of Buddhadatta with Buddhaghosha, Achchuta may be assigned to the fifth century. Thus, after the Sangam age, the Cholas were forced into obscurity by the Kalabhras, who disturbed the placid political conditions of the Tamil country. Acchchutakalaba is likely the last Kalabhra king.

    The best known of the Kalabhras, Accuta Vikkanta, the Kalabhra ruler and conqueror of Madurai was himself, according to Stein, probably a Buddhist. Jainism and Buddhism had thus a practical egalitarian significance for those who did not want to accept the rigid caste-based socio-ideological frame which was advancing with the agricultural civilization".

    Accuta Vikranta could be the same as Achutha Kalappalan
    We have little information about the Kalabhra rule in the Tamil country. The Tamil grammar Yapperunkalam refers to a Kalabhra king, namely Achutha Kalappalan. It appeared that he ruled the Tamil country from Uraiyur. He had also patronised the Tamil poets. A Buddhist scholar namely Buddhadatta lived in his kingdom. According to traditions, he imprisoned the Chera, Chola and Pandyan rulers. He had extended patronage to Buddhism and Buddhist monasteries.

    King Kootruva Nayanar
    In Periya Puranam we find a Kalabhra King (Kootruva Nayanar) asking theDikhsitars to crown him.But the dikshtars say that "Chozharku anri Veru yarrukum Mudi sootamaatom" and refuse.Also as they have refused to crown the kalabhra they fled to north for safety leaving behind several families.

    For more details about the abovekalabhra kings, readers are requested to see web page "KINGS" in this website.

    King Karunada Venthan
    According to the text "Life and Works of Buddagosha" by K.C.Law, extracted from "Pallavar Varalaaru" by Dr.M.Rasamanikkanar) and confirmation by the following reference in in Tamil Saiva work titled "Kalladam"

    "……padai naangu udan Panchavan thuranthu Mathurai vaviya Karunada venthan Aruhar sarnthu nintru arutpani adaippa…….",br>
    Panchavan is the Pandiyan and "Karunada venthan" is the Kalabra king, and "Aruhar" are the followers of Jain religion.This Venthan could be a Vethan / Vedhan / Vedan. So the Kalabheas who invaded the South Indian Penensula could be the Valmikis of Thirupathi - Srikalahasti region of Andhra Pradesh. These Valmikis were part of Mudiraja community during medieval times and still a subcaste of Mudiraj in some parts of Andhra Pradseh. These valmikis who are known as vetars / Vetans / Vedans / Kannappakula in Tamilnadu are also a subcaste of Muthuraja community. In Telugu Veta means hunting and Vetar means hunter.

    Veta => Vetar => Vetan => Vethan => Venthan

    King Kurran
    From about the end of 4th century about the last quarter of 6th, the district, like many other parts of Tamil Nadu was under the Kalabhras. It must have come under the King Kurran, inscription of whom has been found in Pulankurichi near Ponnamaravathi in the district.

    Dr.R.Nagaswamy : Epigraphy The most outstanding discovery in the field of Epigraphy in recent years, is the Pulankuruchi rock inscriptioin of King Cendan ( Centan ) Kurran, brought to light by the Tamilnadu State Department of Archaeology, during the village to village survey of Epigraphs and Antiquities. The Trichy District Archaeological Officer, Thiru D. Tulasiraman discovered this epigraph, inscribed on the slopes of a hillock. The inscription is significant in many respects. It is the longest early inscription noticed so far, running to over 15 metres (45 feet) in length and two metres (6 feet) in height. The record is in excellent Tamil and written with great care, free from orthographical errors. The inscription is dated in the year 192, (Nurru Tonnurru Irandu) and day 36, and month Tai and is inscribed in the reign of King Ko-Cendan Kurran.

    Pulamkuruchi / Pulankuruchi: In this connection, a remarkable epigraph in Tamil, from Pulamkuruchi in the Pudukkotai region deserves notice. (Read and published by me for the first time in 1981). The inscription, is dated in the 3rd cent. CE. There are three segments of the inscriptions. The central one is damaged fully, the first one is damaged at the beginning while the third is in good shape. The record is dated in the year, one hundred ninety two, probably Saka era, and was issued by the king Koccendan Kurran.

    Krishnan reads "Koc Cendan marraimpadu". The word after Cendan has been read as "marrai" i.e. 'and' consequently it is taken that the record dated in the 30th regnal year of Koc Cendan. The ruler is identified by Krishnan with Cendan, the son and successor of Maravarman Avani sulamani. The revised reading according to me would be "Koc Cendan Maran aimpadu" which means the 50th regnal year of Cendan Maran,i.e.Maran, son of Cendan and not of Cendan himself.

    Kalabhra King of Pundra
    Details about this Kalabhra king of Pundra are not available except that he is known to be the ancestor of Dhatusena King of Ceylon 459-477 AD. Kasyapa son of king Dhatusena (459 - 477 AC.) had his father arrested and walled alive within his tomb. His brother Moggallana, who was the legitimate successor to the throne, was sent into exile abroad, and Kasyapa was named king. For more details about King Dhatusena and his sons, readers may see web page "KINGS" in this website. Kasyapa or Kassapa is one of the gotrams of Telugu Mudiraj people today.

    The standing Buddha statue at Aukana, is the one of the tallest in Sri Lanka and is an architectural marvel of the ancient Sri Lankans, and is carved out of a rock boulder. The rock cut statue which stands 38 feet 10 ins (39') above its decorated lotus plinth and 10 feet across the shoulders, belongs to the period of King Dhatusena (459-477 AD), the builder of the great reservoir Kalawewa.

    End of Sangam period with the advent of Kalabhras
    The Sangam Age came to an end during the middle of theThird century A.D. The closing years of the Sangam Age was called the post-Sangam period. Then the Kalabhras captured the Tamil country from the Chera, Chola and Pandyan rulers.

    The classical period ended around the fourth century AD with invasions by the Kalabhra, referred to as the kalappirar in Tamil literature and inscriptions. The Cheras of the Sangam Age temporarily went off the stage of Tamil history when the country came under Kalabhra rule. The Tamil Navalar Charitai speaks of Chera submission to the kalabhras.

    There were indications of the declining trends in the Tamil society even during the post-Sangam period. The North Indian religions, namely Buddhism and Jainism began to spread in the Tamil region. The traditional religious beliefs of the Tamil people gave way to the new religious ideas.

    The post-Sangam literature consists of the twin epics - Silappathikaram and Manimekalai and also Pathinen Keezhkanakku. The impulse of these works was oriented towards reforming the society. Morality in political and social life had been strictly insisted in the poems of Thirukkural, Inna Narpathu, Iniyavai Narpathu and Naladiyar. But finally, the Kalabhra rule had put an end to the classic age of the Sangam.

    The Golden Age of Kalabhras termed as Dark Age ( Kalabhra Interregnum )
    The last Sangam ended around the 2nd century CE with the invasion of Kalabras from the north. Interregnum is the period starting sometime after the end of the third Sangam and ending sometime prior to the rise of the Pallavas (mid 5th century CE), during which there was a definitive break in the continuity of Tamil culture.

    Kalabhra interregnum is called as 'dark period' because it is so called by earliest Pallava and Medieval Pandya sources. 95% of the earliest Tamil inscrptions called Tamil Brahmi are for the sake of Jain ascetics. These inscriptions are very short, one or two lines only. During kalabhras rule, the Jain and Buddhist religions and literature flurished. Unfortunately, we have very few sources to study the history of the Kalabhras other than the Jain & Buddhist literature. This is one of the reasons to call this period as Dark Age.

    Kalappirar are Jains, and appear to have come from Karnataka, a Jain strong hold. During the Kalabhra period, heterodoxy, opposed to Brahmanical orthodoxy, reigned supreme. Pallavas and Medieval Pandyas, who accepted the varnashrama and Brahmanical orthodoxy, driven out the kalabhra rulers and completely routed out the "heterodox" religions. Both Buddhism and Jainism were practically extinguished. Hence, these "orthodox" sources portray Kalabhra period as "dark period".

    With the ending of the progressive Sangam Age that was beamed with the literary advance in South Indian literature, the light faded and Kerala underwent a dark phase that lasted almost for four centuries. This epoch is known as 'Kalabhra Interregnum' and has been referred as the Dark Age in the history of Kerala. The Kalabhra Kings created mayhem and disrupted the social and political order of the South Indian Peninsula by overthrowing and deracinating the Adhirajas of Chera, Chola and Pandya dynasties which were a part of present day Kerala and Tamil Nadu. These valorous Kalabhra Kings ruled with an upper hand, relentlessly for almost three hundred years from 300 AD to 600AD. The reign of Kalabhras of South India finally came to an end in the 8th Century AD when the Pallavas, Pandyas, Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas extirpated them from South India.

    Little is known about the transition period of around three centuries from the end of the Sangam age (300 AD) to that in which the Pandyas and Pallavas dominate the Tamil country. An obscure dynasty, the Kalabhras, invaded the Tamil country, displaced the existing kingdoms and ruled for around three centuries. Later Kalabhras were displaced by the Pallavas and the Pandyas in the sixth century AD.

    The Kalabhras had occupied the Tamil country from the middle of the Third century A.D. to the end of the Sixth century A.D. The literary sources for this period include Tamil Navalar Charithai, Yapperunkalam and Periyapuranam. The Velvikkudi and Dalavaipuram copper plates also mention about the Kalabhras. The inscriptions at Thiruppugalur and Vaikunda Perumal temple in Kanchipuram also refer to the Kalabhra rule.

    It is significant that during the Kalabhra reign which lasted nearly 300 years, Buddhism was at its best in and around Kanchi, ancient Tondaimandalam. And there flourished a number of Buddhist saints and scholars, such as Nagaguttanar, author of Kundalakesi, (4th century), Buddhadatta, the Pali commentator, (5th Century), Dinaga, the great logician, (5th century), Dhammapala, another Pali commentator, (6th century), and Bodhidharma, the great Dhyana teacher, (6th century). The association of Buddhaghosha, the greatest Pali scholar and commentator, who was contempoary of Buddhadatta, further confirms the ascendency of Buddhism during the Kalabhra Interregnum in the Tamil land.

    Even the Tamil literature got a boost during the Kalabhra reign and this period was marked by great literary activity. Nilakanta Sastri observes: "This dark period marked by the ascendency of Buddhism and probably also of Jainism, was characterized also by great literary activity in Tamil. Most of the works grouped under the head The Eighteen Minor Works were written during this period as also the Silappadikaram, Manimckhalai and other works. Many of the authors were the votaries of the 'heretical' sects.

    We can find a lot of difference between the society and culture of the Sangam Age and those of the Kalabhra rule. There was a political chaos during the Kalabhra rule. The secular outlook of the Sangam period gave way to the religious outlook of the Kalabhras. Both Buddhism and Jainism became dominant religions during the Kalabhra period. Particularly, the Jain monks had preached Jainism in the Tamil country. They were patronised by the Kalabhra rulers. At the same time, efforts were made to remove the evils from the society. The Tamil Siddhars like Thirumoolar had preached their philosophical ideas. Morals and ethics had been preached through education and literature.

    The Kalabhra rule in the Tamil country had witnessed the growth of education and literature. Sanskrit and Prakrit languages had been introduced in the Tamil region. This had resulted in the development of a new script called Vattezhththu. The Tamil literature had also taken new forms and the Tamil grammar had also undergone a few changes during this period. Many works under Pathinen Kilkanakku were composed during this period. Epics like Sivaka Chinthamani and Kundalakesiwere written. Nigandus were also composed during the Kalabhra period.

    The Buddhist and Jain monks had contributed much to the growth of education. The Buddhist educational institutions were called Ghatikas. Scholars like Buddhadatta, Buddhaghosha and Bodhidharma lived during this period. The Jain Pallis had remained important educational centres during the Kalabhra rule. The Jain Palli (School) at Thirupathirippuliyur remained an important educational centre during this period. Sarva Nandi and Vajra Nandi were the two great Jain scholars, who lived in this period.

    Vajra is a gotra among Telugu Mudiraj people today and it is difficult to to say if it is having any direct or indirect relation to Vajra Nandi, the jain scholar.

    During the end of the Kalabhra rule, the religion Saivism began to emerge as a great religion. Some of the Kalabhra rulers had embraced Saivism. However, it was only after the end of the Kalabhra rule, the Bakthi-cult flourished in the Tamil country through which both Saivism and Vaishnavism began to flourish.

    It is significant that during the Kalabhra reign which lasted nearly 300 years, Buddhism was at its best in and around Kanchi, ancient Tondaimandalam. And there flourished a number of Buddhist saints and scholars, such as Nagaguttanar, author of Kundalakesi, (4th century), Buddhadatta, the Pali commentator, (5th Century), Dinaga, the great logician, (5th century), Dhammapala, another Pali commentator, (6th century), and Bodhidharma, the great Dhyana teacher, (6th century). The association of Buddhaghosha, the greatest Pali scholar and commentator, who was contempoary of Buddhadatta, further confirms the ascendency of Buddhism during the Kalabhra Interregnum in the Tamil land.

    There are also literary sources which tell that Woraiyur continued to be under the control of Cholas even during the days of Kalabhra interregnum (A.D. 300 - 575). Tamilakam, the traditional name for the Tamil lands, was politically united during the Kalabhra rule in 3rd and the 6th century CE.

    There was the concept of the Kalabhra Interregnum, based on the statement in Iraiyanar Akapporul that the Kalabhras displaced the Three Great Kings – Muvarasar of Tamilakam – and uprooted the old order of society, polity and culture. In the absence of clear evidence it is difficult to accept that a major shake up of this magnitude occurred in South India. On the other hand we find the continuation of the Muvarasar politics in the later period also.

    Coins of Kalapiras
    A small number of coins attributed to this dynasty have recently come to light, found in and around Madurai. One of the Kalabhra coins is a small, square specimen, each side measuring 2 cm. made of copper and weighs 7.45 grams. The obverse portrays a big tusker with its trunk hanging downwards and terminating in an inward twist. Above the elephant is a legend in Tamil language and Tamil-Brahmi script, written in anti-clockwise direction. It reads Kalapira.

    The most remarkable thing about the coins is the popularisation by the Kalabras of the cults of the Hindu pantheon like that of Subramanya and Vinayaka. It appears that at a later stage the Kalabras became Hindu. The Kalabras appear to have been Vaishnava. Scholar F.E. Hardy traced the palace ceremony to a Vishnu or Mayon temple to the rule of the Kalabras. Scholar Alice Justina Thinakaran writes that perhaps they were Saiva, Jain or Buddhist

    Kalabhras could be internal revolters but in favour of Buddhism and against Hinduism
    he Tamil Kings (Pandiyan, Cholan and Cheran) had friendly relations with Mauryan Empire. The Brahamin champaign gradually spread to South India and destroyed the casteless Sanagam Tamil Era. In Tamilnadu a casteless, Sangam period came to an end at about the 2nd or 3rd Century A.D. with the attack or upraisal of Kalavars. With this attack the Tamil Sangam (Champaign to spread Tamil) came to a halt. Kalavaram means upraisal, revolution, chaos in Tamil; The Kalavars were later on called as Kalabras. The raise of the Kalabras made sweeping changes in the South Indian Society. (Though there is no details on who the Kalavars / Kalabras were, Thiru.Devasirvatham thinks the Kalavars / Kalabras were internal revolters that revolted against the Tamil Kings to establish a new order). So the Kalabras may be part of a Brahamin campaign to destroy Tamil Kingdoms that did not support Brahamanism or can be Jain revolters or Robbery tribes that simply looted the well established and civilized non-Brahamin Tamil society and established a different order from 3rd Century A.D. to 5th Century A.D.

    After the 5th Century A.D. the Pallavas and Later Cholas who were Mallas, destroyed the Kalabras and rose to power but gradually and partially adopted Brahamanism because by the time Brahamanism became an unavoidable phenomenon.

    The City of Poompuhar
    Kalabhras invaded the Poompuhar city of Cholas. Presently it is known as Kaveripoompattinam. Puhar means the estuary of river in the sea. Poombuhar is located in Sirkali Taluk of Nagapattinam District. The ancient Kings like Sembiyan, Musugundhan, Manuneethicholan and Karikal cholan.

    Even after Sangam Chola`s period Poompuhar occupied a significan place during the regime of Kalabras. After the Kalabras in the 6th century A.D. Poompuhar came under the Pallava regime and during that time Pallavaneesswaram temple was built by them.

    The City of Uraiyur
    he early Chola Empire lasted from 300 BC to 200 AD. Its major cities were Urayur and Kaveripattinam with the original capital being at Urayur. Around 200 AD, they were conquered by the Kalabhras.

    The history of Cholas of Uraiyur ( Tiruchirappalli ) is exceedingly obscure from fourth to the ninth century C.E., chiefly owing to the occupation of their country by the Kalabhras. Buddhadatta, the great writer in Pali, belonged to Uraiyur. He mentions his contemporary, King Achchutavikranta of the Kalabharakula, as ruling over the Chola country from Kaveripattinam.

    The first Pali scholar of Tamil Nadu was Buddhadatta. He was at Uragapura, modem Uraiyur, in the fifth century AD. He called Pali and Buddhism at the Mahavihara at Anuradhapura of Sri Lanka. Buddhadatta was contemporary of the great Pali and commentator, Buddhaghosha.

    The Tamil grammar Yapperunkalam refers to a Kalabhra king, namely Achutha Kalappalan. It appeared that he ruled the Tamil country from Uraiyur. He had also patronised the Tamil poets. A Buddhist scholar namely Buddhadatta lived in his kingdom. According to traditions, he imprisoned the Chera, Chola and Pandyan rulers. He had extended patronage to Buddhism and Buddhist monasteries.

    End of Kalabhra Dynasty rule
    The rule of Kalabhras of South India was ended by the counter invasions of Pandyas, Chalukyas and Pallavas. There are other references to the Kalabhras in Pallava and Chalukya inscriptions. They were conquered by Pallava Simhavishnu and Pandya Kadungon.

    By the end of the Sixth century A.D. the Pandyan ruler Kadungon had liberated the southern part of the Tamil country from the Kalabhras. By the same period, the Pallava king, Simhavishnu had captured Tondaimandalam and Cholamandalam from the Kalabhras. Thus, the Kalabhra rule in Tamil country came to an end due to the ascendancy of the Pandyas and Pallavas.

    The rise of the Pallavas began with Simhavishnu about the middle of tile sixth century A.D. He put an end to the Kalabhra Interregnum in Tandaimandalam (Kanchi Region), and extended his kingdom southward up to the Kaveri delta.

    Vikramaditya II (733 – 744 CE) was the son of King Vijayaditya and ascended the Chalukya dynasty throne following the death of his father. The capture of Kanchipuram which in itself symbolised the cumulative power of the three traditional kingdoms of Tamil country placed the Pandyas, Chola and the rulers of Kerala kingdoms at the mercy of Vikramaditya II. He then overran these kingdoms and defeated a Kalabhra ruler as well. These victories were inscribed in his inscription on the shores of the Indian ocean.

    After the decline of the Kalabhra rule, Hinduism was once again revived and Buddhism and Jainism began to decline. The Pandyan kings had patronized Vaishnavism, Saivism and Jainism. The Nayanmars had preached Saivism while the Alwars preached Vaishnavism. They had spread the spirit of Bakthi among the people. The spread of Bakthi cult inculcated religious feelings and service mindedness among the people. These qualities had taken deep roots in the Tamil society.

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    Kokolu Anka Rao
    Date : 23/ 01/ 2009
    Nagpur, Maharastra, India




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    12. VIRATA & MATSYA KINGDOMS :

    Virata was a kingdom ruled by the Matsya king by the name Virata. It was here that the Pandavas spent their 13th year of anonymity (Ajgnata Vasa) after their 12 years of forest-life (Vana Vasa) in the forests of Kamyaka and Dwaita. Its capital was Virata Nagari, modern Bairat in the Jaipur district of Rajasthan. This Virata kingdom ruled by fishermen race is related to the people of Mudiraj. Virat means great, maha, mudi, etc and hence virataraja means mudiraja.

    Virat => Virata
    Virataraja = Mudiraja

    Virata = Great = Maha = Mudi = Mutta
    Virata Raja = Great King = Maha Raja = Mutta Raja = Mudi Raja = Mudiraja

    Matsyas = Fishermen
    Matsya King = Koli King = Fishermen King

    Matsya or Machcha (Sanskrit for fish), classically called the Mese, was the name of a tribe and the state of the Vedic civilization of India. It lay to south of the kingdom of Kurus and west of the Yamuna which separated it from the kingdom of Panchalas. It roughly corresponded to former state of Jaipur in Rajasthan, and included the whole of Alwar with portions of Bharatpur. Fishing was the main occupation of the people who lived near river Saraswati. After the river dried up, they migrated to river Charmanwati now known as "Chambal" meaning "fish" in Dravidian languages. And from there, they further moved down to South India.

    The capital of Matsya was at Viratanagara (modern Bairat) which is said to have been named after its founder king Virata. In Pa-li literature, the Matsya tribe is usually associated with the Surasena. The western Matsya was the hill tract on the north bank of Chambal.

    In present days Meenas of Rajasthan are considered the brothers and kinsmen of Virata, the ruler of Virat Nagar. They ruled this area (near to Virat Nagar) until the 11th century. Much historical evidence is recovered from this area all belonging to time of Lord Buddha. Among their last Kingdoms Dhundhar was the biggest and later on the region was governed by the Kachwaha dynasty from the 11th century until after India's independence in 1947.

    The meenas of North India, the Meenavars, valaiyars and araiyars of South India are closely related to each other in their blood and profession even today. All these South Indian fishermen communities are now subsect of Muthurajas of Tamilnadu & Kerala.

    The Hindu Puranas (Kaveri Purana of Skanda Purana) claim that Chandra Varma, son of Emperor of Matsya Desha and a Chandravamshi Kshatriya, was the ancestor of the Kodavas.He had 10 sons, the eldest was called Devavrata.The Kodavas were freeholder farmers and soldiers.They served as lords and vassals. The chandravamsa ( lunar lineage ) connection of Matsya Desha emperor indicates that these kings were most probably related to Uparichara Vasu, the chedi emperor and his son Vitararaja who established the first Mtsya country in North India.

    The most famous son of Kodagu is Field Marshal Kodandera Madappa Cariappa the first Commander-in-Chief (as a general) of the armed forces of free India. General Kodendera Subayya Thimayya, of the same clan as K.M. Cariappa, served as a consecutive Army chief ( as a general ).

    The Kodagu region in Karnatka was once known as Matsya Desha. According to purana Chandravarma the youngest son of King Siddhartha of Matsya country in North India came on pilgrimage to Brahmagiri the origin of river Kaveri. He settled down with eleven sons married and each having more than hundred sons. The eldest son Devakanta was crowned who with all the members presented before Goddess Kaveri flowing down at Balamuri (Balumberi) in the early hours of Tulasankranthi, the time of sun's entering the sigh of Libra. During the flow the sari knot of Kaveri got turned backwards at Balamuri while she blessed the members present. All of them (Kodavas) took the first bath in the river here.

    Kodagu dynasty rulers were all Muddurajas who were non other than Mudirajas of Andhra Pradesh and Muthurajas of Tamilnadu.The Valmiki Nayakas ruled as Haleri Rajas of Kodagu till 1834 except Hyder and Tippu Sultan (1780-89). The prominent rulers were Mudduraja (1633-87), Lingaraja (1775-80) and Virarajendra Wodeyar (1789-1809).

    Other than the Matsya kingdom to the south of Kuru Kingdom, which falls in the Alwar, Bharatpur districts of Rajasthan, the epic refers to many other (as many as, six other) Matsya kingdoms. The main Matsyas under Virata had its capital named Viratanagari which is now known as Bairat in Jaipur district of Rajasthan. Upaplavya was another famous city in this kingdom.

    In early 6th century BCE, Matsya was one the solasa (sixteen) Mahajanapadas (great kingdoms) mentioned in the Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya, but its political clout had greatly dwindled and had not much of political importance left by the time of Buddha. The Mahabharata (V.74.16) refers to a King Sahaja, who ruled over both the Chedis and the Matsyas which implicates that Matsya once formed a part of the Chedi Kingdom. Meenas are considered the brothers and kinsmen of Virata, the ruler of Virat Nagar. They ruled this area (near to Virat Nagar) till 11th century CE.

    The ancestors of Mudiraj people are said to be Kalabhras who were in turn either Kalchuris or a branch of Kalchuris. Kalchuris were Indo-Aryan Chedi Matsyas having blood of Aryan Chedis and Black ( Kala ) dravidians. These dravidians seems to be the virata fishermen ( koli ) people from whom the kalachedis or kalachuris descended as a result of their matrimonial alliances with Aryan Chedis. For more details readers are requested to go throgh "Kalabhras" in this website. A branch of these Indo-Aryan fishermen warrior could be the Western & Eastern Gangas who migrated from banks of Ganga to Kolar region in South India. We have record that Western Ganga kings assumed the title of Muttarasa.

    Chedi Mastyas = Kalchuris => Kalabhras => Muthurajas .

    Matsya Kingdom was founded by fishermen community who later attained kingship. The Sanskrit word Matsya means fish. Satyavati, the wife of Kuru king Santanu was from this community. King Virata, a Matsya king, founded the kingdom of Virata. He was the father-in-law of Abhimanyu the son of Arjuna. The epic Mahabharata relates the founder of Matsya kingdom to the ruler of Chedi, viz Uparichara Vasu.

    Fishing was the main occupation of the people who lived near river Saraswati. After the river dried up, they migrated to river Charmanwati now known as Chambal meaning fish in Dravidian languages. Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa, was son of Satyavati who belonged to this fishermen community and yet was a Vedic scholar.

    Virata Parva
    King Virata and his sons took part in the great war and perished. Virata's daughter Uttara married Arjuna's son Abhimanyu and gave birth to Parikshit who later became the Kuru king after the reign of the Pandavas.

    Pandavas selected the Virata Kingdom to be their abode for one year, to live in anonymity, after the expiry of their twelve-year long forest life, both (12-years of forest life and one year of life in anonymity) being the conditions set up by their enemies viz the Kauravas, to give them back their kingdom.

    Kichak, in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, was the brother of queen Sudeshna of King Virata, the king of Matsya. Kichak was slain by Bhima during one year of incognito exile spent by Pandavas at the court of king Virata.King Virata was killed by Drona during the great war. Virata's son Uttara, slain by Shalya, Virata's son Sweta, slain by Bhishma.

    In fact, all recensions of the text are agreed that the Pandavas spent their incognito year in the court of king Virata, and a complete parva of the Epic, called virata-parva, is devoted to this part of their story. Near the end of the year, Bhimasena, one of the Pandavas, killed Virata's powerful brother-in-law Kicaka for attempting to molest Draupadi. Upon hearing news of the mighty Kicaka's death, Duryodhana decided to attack Virata's kingdom and steal his cattle, suspecting that the deed could only be the work of the Pandavas, and also calculating that Virata's kingdom would be weak, being sans Kicaka. The attack was thwarted and Virata's kingdom saved, in large part owing to the heroic martial deeds of the Pandavas upon the occasion. However, Duryodhana insisted that the Pandavas had revealed themselves before the year was up (although his grandsire Bhisma and other counselors advised otherwise), and insisted that they go back to the forest. This set the stage for the great war, in which Virata was an important ally of the Pandavas.

    King Virata honored the Pandavas. He offered his daughter, in marriage to Arjuna's son, called Abhimanyu who was born to Subhadra. Subhadra was Krishna's sister. Subhadra and her son were staying at Dwaraka during the period of exile of the Pandavas.

    Trigarta's invasion of the Matsya kingdom
    Kichaka, the commander of the Matsya army was slain by an unknown person (actually by Pandava Bhima). The mighty king of the Trigartas, Susarman, who owned innumerable cars, regarded the opportunity to be a favourable one to attack Virata Kingdom.

    Virata Kingdom attacked by Trigatras aided by the Kurus to steal cattle from there. The Pandavas living there in anonymity helped the Viratas to resist the combined forces of Trigartas and Kurus. Trigarta army was the part of the army of Jayadratha, the king of Sindh supported by which he tried to abduct Draupadi the wife of the Pandavas.

    The two armies speedily set out, drawing up the forces in battle array and marshalling them in divisions. Susarman proceeded first, carefully concealing his intention. Following in their wake, Kauravas set out the day after in close array, for the prosperous dominions of king Matsya. The Trigartas, however, suddenly repair to the city of Virata, and coming upon the cowherds, seize that immense wealth (of kine). Kauravas also marching in two divisions, seized thousands of excellent kine furnished with auspicious marks.

    Mysteriously, cows of Virata were being stolen. Cowherds were not able to protect them. They ran to the court of the king. The king, hearing the cowherds, collected a huge army and marched to catch the cow thieves and to punish them. Yudhisthira suggested to the king that he, the chief of royal kitchen incharge of stable, and the incharge of cowsheds were great fighters and they would help the king. Thus king Virata took Yudhisthira, Bhima, Nakula and Sahdeva in his army. Soon they discovered that Trigarta brothers stole the cows.

    The king challenged them. A big war began. Thanks to heroism shown by the Pandavas, the king Virata was victorious. The Trigarta, chief Susarma was taken a prisoner. The king Virata on advice of Yudhisthira released Susarma from captivity. Susarma had expected a very weak Virata army after the death of Keechaka, met with very unexpected and unpleasant Surprise in the Pandavas led Virata army. After the cows were restored from Trigartas, the cow thieves punished, the king returned to his capital amid great rejoicing.

    Next day citizens of Virata were in for a surprise. The Kauravas's army as per their plan attacked their city from the north side. They took away all their cows.The cowherds again came running to the kings court. Only Uttara Kumar, the son of a king was there sitting among the palace women, the young prince was busy playing music. The cowherd told him about the attack. The prince was young and was given to boosting. He started telling all the women in the palace how great warrior he was. All that was needed was a skilled charioteer. Then he will defeat all Kauravas easily. Controlling her laughter, Draupadi told Uttara, the princess that her dance teacher Brihannala was a charioteer of repute. He could rival Matali, the Indra's charioteer in his skill. The princess, Uttara told her brother that Brihannala was the charioteer he needed.

    The young prince set out for the battlefield. But after seeing the Kaurava army he became very nervous. He ran away from the battlefield. Arjuna, ran after him and caught him. Telling the prince about the dharma of the Kshatriyas. Arjuna asked him to act as his charioteer. The Perplexed prince did as he was told. Arjuna took the chariot to the tree in which his weapons were hidden.

    After retrieving his Gandiva and other weapons Arjuna was ready to face the Kauravas. A fierce battle started. All the Kauravas together could not match Arjuna?s bravery and skill. They were routed. Arjuna defeated them single-handedly. Bhishma, Drona, Kripa, Karna and Duryodhana all had to admit defeat. After the battle Arjuna came back to Virata?s palace with Uttara Kumar. After the prince knew that the great Pandavas had been serving in his Palace as menials he was aghast. Arjuna told him all the circumstances, which had caused them to serve in the Virata?s palace. Arjuna told the prince to keep quite and took the reins of the chariot and started towards the court of Virata.

    Virata family members in Kurukshetra war
    Upaplavya was another city in the Virata kingdom where the Pandavas and their allies camped before the beginning of the great Kurukshetra War.Upaplavya was a city in the Matsya Kingdom ruled by king Virata as per the epic Mahabharata. It was the city where the Pandavas camped and planned their strategy for the Kurukshetra War. The allies of the Pandavas held extensive meetings in the tents constructed at Upaplavya, and stayed there as guests of king Virata. Vasudeva Krishna started his famous peace mission to Hastinapura, starting his journey from Upaplavya. It took Krishna 2 days of travel by his fast chariot to reach Hastinapura from Upaplavya. The location of this city is somewhare in the boarder of Rajastan and Haryana states of India.

    The Pandava army on day one, had Bhima at its front. The rear of the army was protected by king Virata of Matsya and king Drupada of Panchala, both old in age. On the day one of Kurukshetra war, Virata clashed with bhagadatta. In the great Kurukshetra war Uttara fought valiantly and died a hero's death. He died on the first day fighting the great warrior Salya. Later in the day, after the slaying of Uttara (son of Virata ) by Shalya, his brother Sveta was greatly upset. He gave a very fierce fight to Srutakarama and later also he clashed valiantly with seven maharathas of the Kauravas viz., Brahadala, Jayatsena, Rukamratha, princes Vinda and Anuvinda of Avanti, Sudakshina of Kamboja and Jayadratha of Sindhudesa. Sveta was also finally slain by Bhishma.Bhishma also killed Virata’s brother.

    Virata's son Sweta was a great warrior, described as a commander of Matsya army. However the role he played was that of a commander-in-chief, for the whole of Pandava army for Day One.

    On Day One night, after the death of this hero, and after the Pandava's defeat in the day's battle, there is mention of a meeting in which Dhristadyumna was elected as the commander of Pandava army. This arises a doubt, that Dhristadyumna was not the commander in chief for day one. He might have taken that position only after Sweta's death.

    The fisrt King of Matsya Dynasty
    The first Matsya king was mentioned to be the son of a Chedi king named Uparichara Vasu. He was a Paurava, meaning a king beloning to the Puru dynasty. Apart from the five royal sons of this king, he had a son and a daughter born of a women of fisherman community. The male child, in due cource established the Matsya Kingdom and founded the royal dynasty called Matsya Dynasti. The female child lived as a member of fishermen community. Her descendants established as fishermen on the banks of river Yamuna, in the kingdom of Kurus. The famous Kuru king Santanu's wife Satyavati was from this fishermen community. The author of Mahabharata, vis Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa and the Kuru kings viz Chitrangada and Vichitravirya were the sons of Satyavati. Pandavas and Kauravas where the grandsons of Vichitravirya. A king named Sahaja ruled the united Chedis and Matsyas. As per Bhima he became cause for the destruction of his own race.

    Uparicharavasu
    Uparichara Vasu was a king of Chedi belonging to the Puru Dynasty. He was known as the friend of Indra. That monarch was devoted to virtue. He was very much addicted also to hunting. That king of the Paurava race, called also Vasu, conquered the excellent and delightful kingdom of Chedi under instructions from Indra. Uparichara Vasu was a demigod, who, according to the Mahabharata, became king of Chedi by command of Indra. He had five sons by his wife; and by an Apsaras, named Adrika, condemned to live on earth in the form of a fish, he had a son named Matsya (fish), and a daughter, Satyavati, who was the mother of Vyasa. This son Matsya was Virata according to Indonisian version.

    Satyavati was the daughter and Virata was the son of Uparichara Vasu
    Uparichara is the ruler of the kingdom of Chedi. One day, far from home, he dreams about his wife and his semen spurts out. Uparichara asks a hawk to carry his semen back to his wife, but the semen instead falls into the river where it is swallowed by a fish. Later, a fisherman dashabala catches a fish with a baby girl inside. He raises the child as his own daughter and names her Satyavati.

    Satyavati's mother was not a fish but a beautiful girl from koli fishermen community. The story - King Uparichara had gone to the jungle on a hunting trip rejecting his wife’s invitation to him to go to bed with her. She had made her desire known to him through a message she had sent him informing him she had just had her ritual bath after her monthly periods and was eagerly waiting for him in their bedchamber. In the jungle the king was unable to control his lust – all around him nature stood bathed in all her estrous glory, the mating calls of birds filled the air around him thick with the scent of passion. Satyavati was the child born to that king who had lost control over himself, born to an apsara living as a fish in the Yamuna according to the Mahabharata – in all probability a fishergirl who satisfied the king’s lust of the moment. Wherever fish or ganga is mentioned, they must be taken as symbol for a beautiful koli fishermen girl. Son Satyavati was also the daughter of a koli girl.

    In the Indonisian version, it is said that the fisherman found one baby girl and one baby boy inside the stomach of fish. The King Uparichara Vasu kept the boy with him and gave away the baby girl to the fisherman.

    King Uparichara Vasu and the festival of bamboo pole ( Chola's Indra Vazha ?)
    Uparichara Vasu was a king of Chedi belonging to the Puru Dynasty. He was known as the friend of Indra. During his reign, Chedi kingdom contained much mineral wealth. It was abundant in animals and corn. There were many towns and cities in the kingdom. He possessed a very special chariot. He was also in the habit of visiting Indra in heaven, riding his crystal chariot in the sky.

    Uparichara = Upari + Chara
    Upari = Above = In the sky
    Chara = Move = Fly
    Oopar => Upar => Upari

    He introduced a festival in his kingdom in the honor of Indra. The festival involved planting of a bamboo pole every year, in honor of Indra. The king will then pray for the expansion of his cities and kingdom. After erecting the pole, people decked it with golden cloth and scents and garlands and various ornaments. From Chedi, he ruled a large territory, placing his sons as governors of various provinces. His son Vrihadratha (Maharatha) was installed in Magadha. His other sons, viz Pratyagraha, Kusamva (Manivahana), Mavella and Yadu also became governors at various places. Thus the Chedi king attained the status of an emperor and his kingdom became a vast empire. He diverted the waters of river Suktimati from the locks of the Mountain Kolahala, for irrigating his capital-city which he named Suktimati. Deatails of Chola's Indravazah can be seen at the bottom of this chapter.

    Shantanu was a descendant of Yayathi through Kuru
    It is a well known fact that Mudiraj people are the descendants of Yayathi through one of his sons. His name is not known. We already know that one of Yayati's sons was Puru. In Puru's line were born Bharata and Kuru. One of Kuru's descendants was the king Shantanu. Shantanu married Ganga and Bhishma was born from this marriage.

    But Shantanu also married Satyavati and had two more sons, Chitrangada and Vichitravirya. Bhishma never married. Chitrangada died young. When Vichitravirya grew up, Bhishma defeated the king of Kashi and brought two of the king's daughters, Ambika and Ambalika, as brides for Vichitravirya. Vichitravirya as also quite young when he died of tuberculosis.

    Pandavula is one of the gotras of Mudiraj people which indicates their descendancy from from Yayathi through pandavas.

    Chola genealogy includes Uparichara Vasu
    The genealogy of the Chola family conveyed by the Thiruvalangadu copperplate grant consists of names that are mostly mythological. The list starts with Manu and ends with Vasu (Uparichara), Visvajit, Perunatkilli, Karikala, Kochchengannan. Cholas and Muthurajas are closely related dynasty kings of the same fishermen / koli race. Chola royal connection to Virata seems to be acceptable from their basic professional background.

    There were many festivals celebrated in ancient India and references of them can be found in the ancient works like Vishnudhetrmottara Purana, and the Bhagavata Purana. This practice was prevalent in Tamil Nadu also. One such festival is known as `Indra Vizha`. The Chola kings whose port-city was Kaveripum-pattinam used to take the responsibility of this festival.

    Readers may go through more details given about "Indra Vizha" celebrated by Cholas at the end of this chapter - Virata kingdom, to know the unknown origin of Cholas to Uparichara Vasu and North Indian Matsya dynasties. Cholas seems to be related to Virata Matsyas in some manner or other.

    VirataRaja was the brother of Satyavati as per Indonisian version
    This indonisian version of virata parva seems to contain certain realities than that of Indian version. In this version it is said that both Virataraju and Satyavati were two children of Chedi King Uparichara Vasu borrn to a beautiful koli woman.

    In the wayang kulit / leather-puppet performance Prabu Matsyapati or Durgandana, is the King of Wiroto(Virata). He is the son of Basukiswara, a just and powerful king of Cedhiwiyasa. Virataraja Matsya is Satyabati's brother. Satyabati or Durgandini makes love to Bambang Palasara (Rishi Parashara) in a boat and produces five children.









    Among them one daughter Rekatawati later on marries her own uncle Prabu Matsyapati. The other four brothers live and serve in the palace of Wirata. Palasara and Satyawati come to stay in the palace, learn the art of love (kamashashtra) and Satyawati gives birth to Kresna Dwipayana. Their new palace and country / island is named Astina. Palasara changes his name to Prabu / King Dipakeswara. They live together happily for several years. Thus in the Indonesian version Satyavati and Parashara is a happily married couple, whereas in the Indian version it is just a 'one-day' affair. Here Satyabati is a member of the royal palace, whereas in the Indian version she is brought up by a fisherman. The Indian Jain version of the Mahabharata also supports that Vyasa is a legitimate child.

    Durgandana or King Matswapati accepts his brother-in-law Palasara as his Guru. When Palasara's father, the hermit of Satasrengga or Sapta Arga, Begawan Sakri(Vashishtha's son Shakti) passes away, he has to return to Satasrengga respecting the last wish of his father. He has also been told by Narada that Satyawati should marry Sentanu. Despite intense inner conflict, he finally leaves the life of palace. Kresna Dwipayana follows him to Setasrengga and becomes his student. This has a parallel in the Keralian Cherusseri Bharatham or Bharatagatha. After Vyasa's birth, Parasara instructs Satyavati that she will become the King's wife and not to accept anything from the King till he gives her the land.

    Vyasa is thus related to this land of Matsya through his mother, and Shantanu-Satyabati love-affair and marriage becomes a 'celestial script' written by Narada! This Indonesian version perhaps provides an explaination to the Indian story why the Pandavas chose Virata on Dhaumya's advice for their incognito one-year exile. In the Indian Mahabharata Dhaumya is a Vyaghrapadi Brahmin, which is one sect of Vashishtha i.e. Vyasa's Gotra. Again Yudhishthira identifies himself as a Vyaghrapadi before king Virata.

    The Birth story of Virataraja and Satyavati
    In the wayang kulit/leather-puppet performance the name of Prabu Matsyapati or Durgandana, the King of Wiroto is famous. He appears oftenly in the story. He was the son of Basukiswara, a just and powerful king of Cedhiwiyasa. As a result of his strong self-denial and serious and sincery Samadhi (meditation) god Indra bestowed on him five magical things: ( 1 ) a golden chariot like the one belonged to a god, which could take him anywhere he wanted to go, fastly and comfortably, ( 2 ) A heirloom which made him a winner in every battle, ( 3 ) A string of flowers of lotus, which could not fade away. It made his body could not be wounded by anykind of weapon, ( 4 ) A piece of bamboo. He could make spiritual contact with Dewa/god in his Samadhi, (5) He could speak with animals.

    Batara Indra told him that Basukiswara had to use his ability to preserve the world and mankind with good conduct and Wisdom. He had five good sons who became kings in different kingdoms.

    One day he wanted to make a Sradda offering for his ancestors. Among other things he needed the flesh of wild deer. Using his golden chariot he went hunting in the jungle. Several weeks had passed, all of a sudden he remembered his new wife, Dewi Girika. He felt a strong desire to make love with his pretty and young wife. Uncontrollably he ejaculated. He wrapped his Kama (sperm) in a leaf of Jati / teak tree.

    He called a hawk to bring the package to his wife, Girika, soonest. It flied as quick as possible. Unfortunately another hawk wanted to snatch the package, guessing that it was food. The package was torn apart, and fell in the river. A big fish swallowed the package at once.

    Ten months later, a fisherman by the name of Dasabala went fishing. His net caught a very big fish. It was very hard to be drawn. He asked help from his fellow-fishermen. Astonishingly the big fish gave birth to a twin babies, a boy and a girl, and the fish died after delivering the twin. Dasabala confused, reported the case to the King. The King kept the boy and Dasabala permitted to raise the girl. The boy's name was Durgandana while the girl's name was Durgandini, means bad odor.

    Their fish mother was in fact a goddess in punishment by the name of Dewi Adrika. She was released from punishment after delivering the twin and she went back to heaven. Durgandana became healthy and charming, latter on he became the king of Wirata Kingdom, by the name of Prabu/King Matsyapati. (Matsya means fish; Pati = King, the King of of fishes).

    Durgandini had also a bad smell, she was named Rara Amis, a girl with the odor of fish. Upon the advice of a Begawan (wise man), Dasabala exiled Rara Amis to river Silugangga with hope she could be cured by miracle. As a living, she helped people to cross the river by her small bamboo boat.

    Meanwhile a young man, Bambang Palasara, had just accomplished his asceticism in the vicinity after being visited by god Guru and Narada. Guru instructed him to cure a sick girl living in the nearby river. Palasara wanted to cross the river, he saw a girl on the boat. She asked her weather she could do a favor to him, he wanted to go to the other side of the river.

    She agreed to help him to cross the river but he had to promise to cure her. Soon they were on boat crossing the wide river. Palasara smelt immediately, her strong purtrid odor of fish. In reality Palasara saw that she was a lovely girl. It was pity that she had umbearable smell. The rest of the story and their love making in boat is known to every one.

    Durgandana, the crown-Prince of Wirata
    He married with his own niece, Rekatawati, the daughter of Durgandini and Bambang Palasara. Seta, the elder brother of Rekatawati was against the marriage. Durgandana was defeated by Seta, he asked a help from Kresna Dwipayana. Seta was stubborn although his own father has agreed with his sister's marriage to Durgandana. Seta was killed in battle against Durgandana helped by Kresna Dwipayana. The soul of Seta reincarnated to the first son of Rekatawati with Durgandana by the name of Raden Seta. Their other children were Raden Utara, Raden Wratsangka and Dyah Utari.

    The character Resi Seto : He is the elder brother of Rekatawati (who married Durgandana - crown prince of Wirata). Later Seto reincarnated (after he was killed in battle against Durgandana) as the first son of Rekatawati.

    Durgandana or King Matswapati learned a lot of knowledge from his Guru and brother-in-law Palasara. One day, Palasara's father, the hermit of Satasrengga or Sapta Arga, Begawan Sakri passed away. He had to return to the abode respecting the last wish of his father. He had been told also by god Narada, that Satyawati should marry with Sentanu. Of course, he reacted strongly, he did not want to be separated with his beautiful wife. But he could not do anything against the wish of God. He was told to continue his ascetic life, purified his soul, for the proper and happy life of his descendants in the future. Kresna Dwipayana followed his father to Setasrengga and became his student. Embracing his mother, he said: "My dear mother, in the future when you have whatsoever problem, you can't solve, just call me in your heart and I'll come to help you".

    Palasara used his strong mantras so his wife Satyawati became a virgin again. He told her to take a good care of Hastina Kingdom. She went home to live with her adopted father Dasabala-the fisherman. Until she met and married with a widower King Sentanu, the father of Dewabrata / Bisma. All ancestors of Palasara were Resis who were very wise and Sakti (having supernatural power). The lineage was: god Brama-Resi Bremani-Resi Parikenan-Resi Manumayasa-Resi Palasara.

    Para-s'ara is a Rigveda Maha-rs'i and author of many ancient Indian texts. Para-s'ara was the grandson of Vasishtha, the son of Shakti-muni, and the father of Vyasa.

    Resi = Rishi
    Wirata = Virata
    Kencaka = Keechaka

    Prabu Matswapati, the great King of Wirata
    Under the king of Matswapati or Durgandana, Wirata was a strong and prosperous country. Raden Kencaka, his brother-in-law was the chief warrior. He did his job perfectly. Some said that Matswapati was the King but Kencaka was the real Ruler. Kencaka had one weakness, his uncontrollable desire towards women. Kichaka was killed by Bhima during their Ajnaatavasa ( Incognito) as Kichika was after Draupadi for making love.

    The five Pendawa and Drupadi, after 12 years living in the jungle, honoring the agreement with Kurawa, had to live in disguise ( Ajnatavasa = Incognito) for another year. They have chosen to live in undercover in Wirata, a non-friendlly country to Korawa.

    Marriage of Uttara and Abhimanyu
    Uttara, she was once taught by Arjuna. She was disciple, student. Arjuna was teaching her dancing. Virataraja, King Virata's daughter, Uttara. So they were in disguise. Ajnata-vasa. So the Virata-raja did not know that Arjuna was living in his house. So this daughter of Virata, Uttara, when Arjuna was known that he is Arjuna, he requested that ``You marry my daughter.'' So Arjuna said, ``No, how can I marry? She is my disciple. She is my student. She is just like my daughter. How can I marry?'' Then he promised that ``I shall get her married with my son Abhimanyu."

    Kalachuris of Chedi
    The Matsyas, Chedis, Perichedis,Haihayas and Kalachuris seem to share a common Vedic ancestry. They all seem to share a common origin myth but it would be difficult to make a conclusive link between the myth and currently available historical information. In the Puranas the Matsya (Sanskrit for fish) was the name of a tribe and state found in the Vedic civilization of India. It was founded by a fisherman who later attained kingship. Mahabharata (V.74.16) refers to a King Sahaja as the son of a Chedi king named Uparichara Vasu who ruled over both the Chedis and the Matsyas which implicates that Matsya once formed a part of the Chedi Kingdom. Other than this Matsya kingdom the epic refers as many as six other Matsya kingdoms. The Pandya Kingdom in the extreme south also bears the icon of a fish on its official banner showing some connection with the Matsya kings and a branch of Matsya is also found in later days in Visakhapatnam region.

    The various Matsya kingdoms
    The most famous Matsya kingdom was the one under the rule of king Virata, the ally of the Pandavas. Most of the other Matsyas joined with the Kauravas in Kurukshetra War. Sahadeva on his military campaign to the south, to collect tribute for Yudhisthira's Rajasuya sacrifice, encountered this Matysas. He also encountered the Matsya kingdom that lay to the south of Matsya-proper (Virata Kingdom).

    Western Matsyas : A Matsya territory existed in the western regions along with the western countries like the Bahlikas, and the Kaikayas, the Vasatas, the Madras, and Saindhavas. Their location could be on the banks of river Sindhu. They were mentioned as battling for the sake of Duryodhana in Kurukshetra War. Kaikeyas were those from whom Kaikeyi, the wife of Dasharadha descended. These people are now mostly known as Punjabi Khatris. Khatri means Kshatriya.

    Northern Matsyas : After escaping from the murder-attempt by Duryodhana, the Pandavas wandered in the forests. They met the Rakshasa Hidimba in the forests of lower Himalayas (in Uttarakhand), and continued their journey through forests and kingdoms.

    Pandavas, then went from forest to forest killing deer and many animals for their food. In the course of their wanderings they saw the countries of the Matsyas, the Trigartas (eastern part of Indian Punjab), the Panchalas (southern Uttar Pradesh) and then of the Kichakas

    . The Matsyas mentioned here could be the Matsyas who established their kingdom upstream the river Yamuna, (Yamunanagar district of Hariyana). This kingdom lied to the east of Trigarta. Satyavati the wife of Santanu the forefather of the Pandavas and Kauravas could be from this kingdom.

    Southern Matsyas : A Matsya kingdom lied to the south of Virata Kingdom. Sahadeva vanquished this Matsyas also. This territory lied possibly in the Tonk district, south of Jaipur in Rajasthan. It was ruled by the kinsmen of king Virata i.e. Meenas. Meenas are related meenavars, Araiyars and Valaiyars of Muthuraja community in Tamilnadu.

    Kichaka Kingdom : Kichaka Kingdom is identified to be one of the Matsya kingdom ruled by Matsya rulers. Kichaka Kingdom was allied to King Virata. The Kichaka king (or chief), known by the name Kichaka was the commander-in-chief of the Matsya-army under king Virata.

    Matsyas near Magadha : A Matsya kingdom existed on the banks of Ganga, between Kasi and Magadha. Due to fear of Magadha King Jarasandha they fled southwards and dwelled on the banks of river Swarna (modern-day Son River). This kingdom was visited by Bhima during his military campaign to the east, to collect tribute for Yudhisthira's Rajasuya sacrifice. The Matsyas and the Sannyastapadas, overcome with fear due to Magadha king Jarasandha, leaving their dominions in the north, have fled into the southern country.

    Paundra Matsyaka (Eastern Matsyas) : The king of this country is attributed to be an Asura. This kingdom lied close to the Pundra (northern parts of West Bengal), on the banks of river Ganga. They were the eastern Matsyas.

    Nelakondapalli of Andhra Pradesh was part of Virata kingdom
    Away from the fertile banks of Godavari river there was a small village called Nelakondapalli. This village was blessed with lush green paddy fields and coconut groves and surprisingly also with good people.People led a peaceful life there.

    Nelakondapalli is known for its historic glory. At a distance of one mile from Nelakondapalli, the Mandal Headquarters, there are certain archaeological glimpses known as Virataraju dibba and Keechaka Gundam claiming importance in the days of Mahabharatha.

    Virata Raju was the king of Virata Nagaram and it was under him that the Pandavas worked incognito after their twelve years of exile in the forests. Keechaka, the brother-in-law of Virata who tried to misbehave with Draupadi, the wife of Pandavas, was killed by BHEEMASENA, working in disguise as a cook (VALALUDU).

    The old Relics unearthed at these places strengthen the belief that this place was noted as far back the days of Mahabharata.

    Indra vazha festival links Cholas to Uparichara Vasu
    The detailed information on the celebration of `Indra Vizha` festival can be seen in the Tamil epics, the `Silappadikaram` and the `Manimekhalai`. As per the Manimekhalai, the famous sage Agastya helped the people of Kaveripumpattinam during a period of drought. He advised the Chola king Todittol Sembian to celebrate a festival for Indra to please him and then only Indra would bring rain to this city. According to the advice, the king arranged a big festival for the Lord Indra. In return, they got rain in the city and experienced the benefits of this, his successors also continued to celebrate this festival every year. This `Indra Vizha` festival generally continues for a period of twenty-eight days. The Indravizha festival in honour of Indra, the Lord of the Marudam region was instituted by Karikala Chola in South India. There were temples for Indra,, Vajrayudha, Airavatham, and Kalpaka Tree. Lot of references could be got from the Sangam literature to the temple of Indra and the festival. Ainkurunur also refers to Indravizha. Though there is a reference in the Mahabharatha that king Uparicara introduced this festival in the north but there is less chance of its influence over Tamilnadu. Such a festival in the honour of Indra was initially celebrated by Uparichara Vasu, the king of chedis and mastyas in North India. Cholas were profesiionally fishermen ( mastyas) and related to Virata and other Matsyas.

    Uparichara Vasu was a king of Chedi belonging to the Puru Dynasty. He was known as the friend of Indra. During his reign, Chedi kingdom contained much mineral wealth. It was abundant in animals and corn. There were many towns and cities in the kingdom. He possessed a very special chariot. He introduced a festival in his kingdom in the honor of Indra. The festival involved planting of a bamboo pole every year, in honor of Indra. The king will then pray for the expansion of his cities and kingdom. After erecting the pole, people decked it with golden cloth and scents and garlands and various ornaments. From Chedi, he ruled a large territory, placing his sons as governors of various provinces. His son Vrihadratha (Maharatha) was installed in Magadha. His other sons, viz Pratyagraha, Kusamva (Manivahana), Mavella and Yadu also became governors at various places. Thus the Chedi king attained the status of an emperor and his kingdom became a vast empire. He diverted the waters of river Suktimati from the locks of the Mountain Kolahala, for irrigating his capital-city which he named Suktimati.

    There is a separate section on Indravizha vureduttakadai in Silappatikaram (V) detailing the festival. It was grandly celebrated for twenty-eight days in Pukar or Kaviripumpattinam, the capital of the Cholas. The whole city gave a festive look with decorations. Apart from the regular shops and market place, there were new additions too. The commencement of the Indravizha was announced by the hoisting of the flag depicting the White Elephant (Airavata, the vahana of Indra) and Kalpaka tree.

    Manimekalai refers to Indravizha in detail starting from its origin calling it the festival of the thousand eyed One. On the advice of Sage Agasthya, the Chola king prayed to Indra himself to grace the festival dedicated to him on all the twenty-eight days of the festival. Indra was pleased with the king and accepted not only to be present on all the days but also make other gods and the Ganas be present for the whole festival. Manimekalai gives a good description of the festival. But it also gives some additional information about the festival.

    The Indravizha festival in honour of Indra, the Lord of the Marudam region was instituted by Karikala Chola in South India. There were temples for Indra,, Vajrayudha, Airavatham, and Kalpaka Tree. Lot of references could be got from the Sangam literature to the temple of Indra and the festival. Ainkurunur also refers to Indravizha. Though there is a reference in the Mahabharatha that king Uparicara introduced this festival in the north but there is less chance of its influence over Tamilnadu.

    Mastyas and Cholas in Mahabharata war
    Matsya king Virata was the principal ally of the Pandavas. The Pandavas camped at Upaplavya a Matsya city north to the capital Virata-puri. All the allies of Pandavas brought their armies to this city, before the Kurukshetra War. Virata, with his brothers like Satanika and sons like Sankha, Sweta, Uttara and Vabhru battled in the Kurukshetra War on the side of the Pandavas. Virata was slain by Drona. Satyadhriti of the Matsyas, Madiraswa (Madirakhsa) and Suryadatta have all been slain by Drona. The remnant Matsya army (along with the remnant Panchala army) left after the Kurukshetra War was destroyed by Ashwathama in a midnight ambush.

    Some Matsya tribes (possibly all except the Virata Kingdom and the Southern Matsyas) allied with the Kauravas. They were described as one among the 12 tribes (The Abhishahas, the Surasenas, the Sivis, and the Vasatis, the Salweyas, the Matsyas, the Amvashtas, the Trigartas, and the Kekayas, the Sauviras, the Kitavas and another tribe) that protected the Kaurava commander-in-chief Bhishma.

    The Pandavas, headed by Bhima, advanced against the Kauravas. They consisted of Dhrishtadyumna and Shikhandi and the five sons of Draupadi and the Prabhadrakas, and Satyaki and Chekitana with the Dravida forces, and the Pandyas, the Cholas, and the Keralas, surrounded by a mighty array, all possessed of broad chests, long arms, tall statures, and large eyes. Some chola grants and literature in tamil and sanskrit of medieval cholas confirm that the chola king called vasu participated in mahabharata war to help king dharma and destroyed a complete formation of kauravas in one day. The Chola king vasu mentioned here could be a descendant of Uparichara Vasu. But Cholas were believed to have some link with the Sivi or Sibi clan, situated along with the Sindhu Sauviras.

    Viratapuri
    Viratanagari was the capital of king Virata of Matsya Kingdom. It was here that the Pandavas spent their 1 year (out of 13 years) of exile. The modern name of this city is Bairat.

    Virata Nagar was used to be the capital of Virataraja, the father-in-maw of Abhimanyu's (Arjuna's son) during Mahabharata period. It is now known as Bairath. Bairath is a place of historical significance, located at a distance of 86 kms from Jaipur, on Shahpura-Alwar Road. Bairath lies between Jaipur and Alwar.

    Webmaster
    Kokolu Anka Rao
    Date : 2nd March 2009
    Nagpur, Maharastra, India




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    13. MUTHARAIYAR KINGDOM OF KAVERI BASIN :

    The found inscript from Tiruvannamalai district Thandrampattu and Balawadi, Kulathuer inscripts in Dharmapuri districts clearly enlighten us about the establishment of the great kingdom in Kaveri river belt before the kingdom was established by Kuvavan Sathan as quaoted by Sendalai inscripts according to Nandana Kasinathan, the history researcher. The Pon Mandharaiyar and Vanako Mutharaiyar ruled Thondai Mandalam. Not only Thondaimandalam, their heaquarter was Meir Kovalur in the period 630 – 637 AD. His successor was Vanako Mutharaiyar and followed y Perumbana Mutharaiyar 642-664 AD, the sub-rulers of Kadaladi, Meil Ponsei. The Thondai Mutharaiyars also brought Konkan, and Ganga rulers under their supervision. Thondai Mutharaiyras kingdom was extended upto the end of Northern Tamilnadu in South India upto Mysore. So it shows that Mutharaiyars are the base history for Tamilnadu history .Mutharaiyars are unshakable kings anf the kingdom in Kavery ,Cheyiar and Pallar river belt for about 150 years.

    Webmaster
    Kokolu Anka Rao
    Date : 22nd January 2011
    Nagpur, Maharastra, India


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