MUDIRAJUS ARE THE DESCENDANTS OF KALCHURIS


KALCHURIS:

The Kalchuris were the North Indian Jain kings.
The Kalchuris were originally Jain kings from North India. For example, the Kundalpur region in Madhya Pradesh was once in the domain of the Kalachuri kings and Jainism was quite popular during the long Kalachuri rule, many Jain idols from the Kalachuri period have been found. Kundalpur is approximately twenty miles northeast of Damoh, Madhya Pradesh. With about sixty temples built m the eight and ninth century, Kundalpur is one of the most ancient and extensive Jain pilgrimage site in central India. Historically speaking, the development of Jainism in Kundalpur took place under the reign of the Kalchuri kings from the seventh to the thirteenth centuries.

Kalchuris established a Kalchuri kingdom in the region of Karnataka in South India. These Kalchuris made a great contribution in propagating Jainism and creating Jain architectural manuments in South India. A lot of Kalchuris were originally Jains and many of them seems to associated with Mouryan dynasty. Even Ashoka was a Jain religious follower before he came a staunch follower and propagator of Buddhism. Many Kalabhra kings later became Buddhist supporters.

Kalabhras who invaded South India were the descendants of Kalchuris.
Prof., Ramaswami Ayangar asserts that South Indian Kalabhras were the descendants of North Indian Kalchuris. Many Pallava and Pandya writings describe that the Kalabhras attacked the Tamil country and defeated the Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas and established their kingdom. Prof., Ramaswami Ayangar asserts that these valiant Kalabhra kings were the devoted followers of Jainism. Basically, Kalchuri kings were supporters of Jainism. He proved it on the basis of copper plate of Veluikudi and Painyapuranam of Tamil language. Jainism flourished after their reaching in Tamil country. Shri Ayangar presumes that these Kalabhras were a branch of Kalchuri clan. The Kalchuri kings of M.P. wore supporters of Jainism. The evidence on this is that they were closely related to Rashtrakuta. The Rashtrakuta kings had their faith in Jainism. The influence of Jainism during reign of Kalchuri kings of Kalyani was perceptible. The prominent king Vijjala of this clan and his several statesmen had adopted Jainism. Rechmayya, the minister of Kalchuri State set up the image of Tirthankar Shantinath at Shravanabelagola.

Under the Kalabhras, Buddhism and Jainism were becoming increasingly popular in their territories. With occupation of Tamil country Kalabhras considered to be the patrons of the Buddhism and Jainism TheBuddhist Monks florished around the 5 th century A.D Some monks were Buddhadatta, Buddhagosa, Bodi Dharma, Dignaga(480-540 A.D), Dharmapala(A.D 528-560) Dharmakirti (600-650 A.D), Buddhanandhi and Karibuddha, Vajrabhoti(661-730 A.D), Nada Gutta. Rulers of Vengadam were Kalabhras who were Buddhist. Kalabhras fought against Brahmin supremacy and were abused by Brahmin epigraphists after their rule ended. The first royal patron of Buddhism in the Tamil land was no doubt Asoka the Great.

The erection of the great Jain statue of Gomateswara Bahubali at Sravanabelagola had taken place during the period of Rachamalla, a king in the lineage of Sripurusha Muttarasa.

Later Kalabhras followe Buddhism
The Buddhist Kalchuris became anti-brahmin crusaders in South India as Brahmin Pushyamitra killed Brihadrath, the last emperor of Buddhist Mouryan dynasty. The Kalabhras moved gradually into South Indian Hindu kingdoms ruled by Hindu Chola - Chera - Pandya Adhirajas and occupied them by creating a great havoc. These anti-brahmin ( Anti- Hindu) Kalabhras snatched away the lands possessed by brahmins as Brahmadeyas. The Kalabhras ruled over the entire South India for about 300 years and spread Buddhism. They sponsored Buddhist literature of highest moral and ethical values. It is believed that Thirupathi Balaji was a Buddha statue worshipped by Buddhists during the Kalabhra rule. Many Kalchuris and Kalabhras were part of ruling class chiefs of Mouryan Dynasty. The ruler of Pundra / Punadra in the present Maharastra - Karnataka region was a Kalabhra king whose descendants later established their buddhist rule in Srilanka.

Mutharaiyars of Kondubalur are believed to be the descendantsof Kalabhras
Mudirajus (Muthurajas) were the descendants of Kalabhras: The Mutharaiyars of Kondubalur (8th to 11th Century AD) are believed to be the descendants of the mighty warrior race of Kalabhras. Some historians regard that Kalabhras were a predatory people belonging to the uplands of Karnataka (Hampi Region => Pampa Region) on the strength of a reference in Tamil literature to the rule of a Karnata king over Madura.

During the rule of Kalabhra kings (3rd Century AD), Jainism attained supermacy in Tamil Nadu. As followers of Jainism they prohibited animal sacrifices in rituals. The Kalabhra rule in the Tamil country had witnessed the growth of education and literature. The Jain Palli had remained important educational centers during the Kalabhra rule.

Dr. Aiyangar observes: Kalabhras fought against Brahmin supremacy and were abused by Brahmin epigraphists after their rule ended.

This seems to be logically in agreement with the fact that Kalabhras were having Aryan Kshatria blood who established Jainism to counter the influence of Aryan Brahminism lead by Parasurama.

Both Buddhism and Jainism became dominant religions during the Kalabhra period. Particularly, the Jain monks had preached Jainism in the Tamil country. They were patronized by the Kalabhra rulers.

It is said that the Kalabhra kings of Karnataka who were staunch supports of Jainism moved quickly into Tamil speaking Hindu kingdoms, when the jain followers were herassed and perscuted by Hindu kings as a measure of protection Jainism. The Kalabhra havoc could be a religious was between Hibdu- Brahminism and Kalchuri-Kalabhra Jainism.

The jainism was born in North and it was established by Aryan Kshatriyas when they were killed mercilessly by Aryan Brahmins lead by Parasurama after the death of Jamadagni at the hands of Sahasrarjuna. The Brahmin Parasurama attacked all Kshatriyas for 21 times to eradicate the king race from the face of the earth till Srirama faced him boldly.

The Kalchuris of South India seems to have switched over to Buddhism when Ashoka ruled part of South India. Ashoka was also a Jain religious follower initially till he fought the bloody Kalinga war.


Of the Kalabhras we have yet no definite knowledge; from some Buddhist books we hear of a certain Acchutavikkanta of the Kalabharakula during whose reign Buddhist monasteries and authors enjoyed most patronage in the Chola country. Late literary tradition in Tamil avers that he kept in confinement the three Tamil kings - the Chera, Chola and Pandya. Some songs about him are quoted by Amitasagara, a Jain grammarian of Tamil of the tenth century A.D. Possibly Acchuta was himself a Buddhist, a political revolution which the Kalabhras effected was provoked by religious antagonism.

At any rate the Kalabhras are roundly denounced as evil king (kali-arasar) who uprooted many adhirajas and abrogated brahmdeya rights; there was no love lost between these interlopers and the people of the lands they overran. The Cholas disappeared from the Tamil land almost completely in this debacle, though a branch of them can be tranced towards the close of the period in Rayalaseema, the Telugu Cholas, whose kingdom is mentioned by Yuan Chwang in the seventh century A.D.".

"This dark period marked by the ascendancy of Buddhism, and probably also Jainism, was characterized also by great literary activity in Tamil. Most of the works grouped under the head, 'The Eighteen Minor works' were written during this period as also the Silappadhikaran, Manimekhalai and other works. Many of the authors were the votaries of the `heretical' (meaning Buddhists and Jains) sects."

Kalabhras were most probably the black warriors of Indo-Aryan / Indo-Sythian descent resulted due to Dravidian & Chedi warrrior people.

Kala = Black
Veera = Beera = Warrior
Kala + veera => Kalaveera => kalabeera => Kalabra => Kalabhra
Kala + Veera => Kalaveera => Kalaveer => Kalavir => Kalavar
Kalabhras = Kalavars

Why Kalabhras became anti-brahmin crusaders in South India?
The origins Kalabhras can be traced to the religious wars between Hindu Brahmins and Buddhist Mouryan local chiefs after the collapse of Mouryan empire.

King Brihadrath (187-185 B.C ), who was a grandson of Samrat Ashoka was killed when he was very young. His Senapati Pushyamitra shrung ( 185-151 BC), who was a Aryan Brahmin, ruled the kingdom in the name of young Brihadrath. He beheaded king Brihadrath in the Durbar and declared himself as King. Pushyamitra shrung did not only declare himself as king, but also declared Brahmanism as a state religion and thus re-established it. violently suppressed Buddhism and tried to restore Hinduism.

Pushyamitra was Commander-in Chief in Mauryan Army. He assassinated Brihadrath in 185 BC, and established Shung Dynasty. Pushyamitra died after ruling for 36 years (187-151 BCE). He was succeeded by son Agnimitra. Agnimitra was viceroy of Vidisha when the story takes place. He did Ashwamedh Yagya, but he could not complete it. His grandson Vasujyeshth completed it. He was against Bauddhs.

Bifurcation and end of Mouryan empire
The Second Parmar Empire was the Malwa Empire from 185 B.C. to 135 A.D. Samprati Maurya established this empire in 185 B.C. He forced his elder brother Samrat Brihadrath to bifurcate the Magadh empire into two halves in 185 B.C. The eastern half remained with Brihadrath and the western half with Samprati. Ujjain was the capital of Samprati Maurya which was also knows as Avantika. Soon after the partition of the Magadh Empire Pushyamitra Shungdev, a Brahmin Commander–in-chief of Brihadrath deposed and killed the Emperor and occupied the throne of Magadh. That was the end of the Maurya dynasty of Magadh.

Aryan Chedi Connection of Kalchuri - Mudiraj ancestors
The Chedy kings were the Aryan Kshatriyas. The Indo_Aryan Race of Kalchuris most probably came into existence after the great divide of Aryan Kshatriyas from Aryan Brahmins who basically belonged to one race and one blood at the time of their entry into India. It was the bloody war that took place between Aryan Brahmins lead by Parasurama on one side and the Aryan Kshatriyas lead by Sahasrarjuna on the other side which divided Aryans into two eternal rivals. Parasurama launched a series of wars for 21 times to carry out mass killing of Aryan Kshatriyas to avenge the death of his father Jamadagni at the hands of Sahsrarjunas son's. It is also said that Parasurama's mother RENUKA was an Aryan kshatriya and his father Jamadagni was an Aryan Brahmin. This proves that the kshtriya and brahmin division was purely based on profession and racially they were one and the same people.

The rivalry between two Aryan groups developed when Sahasrarjuna claimed Kamadhenu from Parasurama. Kamadhenu was a divine cow that fullfils the desires of its owner. The rivalry broke out when Sahasrarjuna tried to forcefully take away the Kamadhenu to the capital of his kingdom. Killing of Parasurama at the hands of Sahasrarjuna's sons lead to the killing of Sahasrarjuna at the hands of Parasurama. The bloody war did not end there but continued for 21 times by Parasurama with the aim to free the king race (particularly Aryan Kshatriyas) from the face of the earth.

The Aryan Kshatriyas who were not able to withstand the onslaught of Parasurama, fled into jungles to seek the support and protection of local Dravidian Tribal Kings and in the process of which matrimonial alliances took place between Aryan Kshatriyas and Dravidian Tribal Kings resulting in the creation of a valiant warrior race of Kalachuris (black chedi kings). The gotra names of Vasista, Bharadwaj, etc. among Mudiraj people is a pointer to the fact that these Mudiraj people belong to Indo_Aryan race through their descent from Kalabhras and Kalchuris. It is also a forgotten truth that the Aryan Kshatriyas who suffered a mass annihilation at the hands of Aryan Brahmins established a separate religion for themselves based on the principles of Shiva (Jina)worship to unitedly fight Aryan Brahmin domination. Shiva is the God of Dravidian race and Jina worship of jains indicate the historical truth of great divide between Aryan Kshatriyas and Aryan Brahmins and the association of Aryan Kshatriyas with Dravidian warrior kings.

Ashoka was an Indo-Aryan king. He was a Jain first and then became a Buddhist under the influence of Buddha. The secret doctrine of Jainism was that the chief theerdhankar who lead the religion was always an Aryan Kshatriya. The birth of Jainism thus had its roots in the bloody war between Aryan Kshatriyas and Aryan Brahmins. This Religion of Aryan Kshatriyas later came into prominence in the name Jainism due to Mahaveer. This was the real fact why Kalchuris were predominantly followers of Jainism or Shaivism in Central India. These were the Kalchuri kings who came to be known as Kalabhras in South India and spread Jainism.

ORIGINS OF CHEDI OR HAIHAHA OR HAWAHA.
Hawaha ( Race of the horse, this clan claims lunar descent, also known as Haihaivansi or KalaChuri ). The original Haihaya race was destroyed by Parasurama as a revenge. King Kartavirya, the head of the original Haihaya tribe stole the calf of the sacred cow Kamdhenu from Jamadagni hermitage and cut down the trees surrounding it. When Parasurama returned, his father told him what happened and he follwed Kartavirya and killed him. But in revenge the kings sons , when Parasurama was away returned to the hermitage and killed Jamadagni, which led to Parasurama's destruction of the whole Kshatrya race. Haihaya is said to be great grandson of Yadu. This is the old Haihaya race, now extinct.

According to legend during Vanwas Rama stayed in Chattisgharh. Kush [one of the sons of Lord Ram], had two sons Kachwaha and Hawaha, from which the new Hawaha's sprang. Originally there used to be 5 Haihaya tribes : Tala-janghra, Avati, Tundikera, Viti, Sujata. Now there is only the Kalacuri. Kachwahas are Kolris relating to Kolis. Mudirajas are believed to be the Kolis of South India.

Another explanation of the name is that it is a coruption of Ahihaya, which means snake horse, the legend being that the first ancestor of the race was the issue of a snake and a mare. Colonel Tod states that the first capital of the Indu or lunar race was at Mahesvati on the Nerbudda, still existing as Maheshvar, and was founded by Sahasra Arjuna of the Haihaya tribe. This Arjuna of the 1000 arms was one on the Pandava brothers, and it may be noted that the Ratanpur Haihaivansis still have a story of their first ancestor stealing a horse from Arjuna, and a consequent visit of Arjuna and Krishna to Ratanpur for its recovery. Since the Haihayas also claim descent from a snake and are from the moon it seems not unlikely that they are from Saka origin.

The Haihaivansis or Kalachuris became dominant in the Nerbudda valley about the 6th century, their earliest inscription being dated AD 580. Their capital was moved to Tripura or Tewar near Jubbulpore about AD 900, and from here they appear to have governed an extensive territory for about 300 years, and were frequently engaged in war with adjoining kingdoms, the Chandels of Mahoba, the Panwars of malwa, and the Chalukyas of the south. One king, Gangeyadeva, appears to have aspired to become the paramount power in Northern India, and his sovereignity was recognised in distant Tirhut. Gangeyadeva was fond of residing at the foot of the holy fig- tree of Prayaga and eventually found salvation there with his hundred wives.

From about AD 1100 the power of the Kalachuris began to decile and their last inscription is dated AD 1196. It is probable that they were subverted by the Gond kings of Garha-Mandla, the first of whom, Jadurai, appears to have been in the service of the Kalachuri king, and subsequaently with the aid of a dismissed minister to have supplanted his former master. The kingdom of the Kalachuri / Haihaya was known as Chedi, and, according to Mr. V.A. Smith, corresponded more or less roughly to the present area of the Central Provinces.

In about the 10th century a member of the reigning family of Tripura was appointed viceroy of some territories in Chattisgarh, and 2 or 3 generations afterwards his family became practically independent of the parent house, and established their own capital at Ratanpur in Bilaspur District (AD 1050). This state was known as Dakshin or Southern Kosala. During the 12th century its importance rapidly increased, until the influence of the Ratanpur princes, Ratnadeva II and Prithvideva II, may be said to have extended from the confines of Berar in the west to the boundaries of Orissa in the east. The Rattanpur kingdom of Chedi or Daxin Kosala was the only one of the Rajput states in the Central Provinces which escaped subversion by the Gonds, and it enjoyed a comparative tranquil existenctill 1740 when it fell to the Marathas almost without striking a blow. Colonel Tod states that a " A small branch of these ancient Haihayas yet exist in the country of the Nerbudda, nera the very top of the valley, at Sohagpur in Baghelkhand, aware of their ancient lineage, and, though few in number, are still celebrated for their valour".

Kalchuri Kuli
The Kalchuris in Maharashtra are: Kalchuri, Kachare, Gobare, Waskar. The Kalchuris are descendents of Kalchuri kings. This clan gaveKharvel, the great emperor. He ruled in 2nd century B.C. He killed Pushymitra Shung and dismissed the Shung dynasty in Tamil nadu. Pushyamitra had founded Shung dynasty by killing Brihadrath, the last emperor of Mouryan dynasty. The biography of Kharvel is inscripted at Hathigunfa in Orissa. Another famous Kalchuri king was Bijjal. He ruled from Annigeri , Mangalvedhe and Kalyan (Karnatak) in 12the century. Kalchuri kings of Karnataka attacked Tamilnadu and established their kingdom. 3. Rathor with 13 branches, which in Maharashtra are: Rathod, Khandagale, Bhore, Magamale, Sakpal, Shirsat.

THE KALACHURYA KINGDOMS
The name Kalachuri is used by two kingdoms who had a sucession of dynasties from the 10th-12th century AD, one ruling over areas in Central India (west Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan) and were called Chedi or Haihaya (Heyheya) (northern branch) and the other southern Kalachuri who ruled over parts of Karnataka.

The earliest known Kalachuri family ruled from 550–620AD in central and western India; its power ended with the rise of Badami Chalukyas. Northern Kalachuri family ruled in central India with its base at the ancient city of Tripuri (Tewar); it originated in the 8th century AD, expanded significantly in the 11th century, and declined in the 12th–13th centuries.

Southern Kalachuri Kingdom (Kannada: 1130 - 1184AD) at their peak ruled parts of the deccan extending over regions of present day northern Karnataka and parts of Maharashtra. Their rule was a short and turbulent and yet very important from a the socio - religious movement point of view. A new sect called the Lingayat or Virashaiva sect was founded during these times.

Kalchuris were Natives of Central India : According to a record of 1174 A. D., the founder of the family was one Soma, who was a disciple of Ashwathama. On the instructions of his preceptor, he grew beard and moustache, to save himself from the wrath of Parashurama, and thereafter the family came to be known as "Kalachuris", Kalli meaning a long moustache and churi meaning a sharp knife. However, the later records of the dynasty claim that they descended from Brahma, the Creator, who was followed by Atri and Soma (moon), and that in this illustrious lineage came such celebrities like Yadu, Haihaya and Kartavirya Arjuna. Sometimes they called themselves as belonging to the Haihaya (Chedi) family.

Dr. P. B. Desai is emphatic in his opinion that the Kalachuris did not originally belong to Karnataka and that they were immigrants from northern region, possibly from central India. They were known as Katachuris, and they had carved out an extensive empire that covered the regions of Malwa, Gujarat, Konkan and Maharashtra. However, its powerful ruler, Buddharaja, sustained a crippling defeat at hands of the Chalukya King Magalesa, which threw the Katachuri power into the limbo of obscurity.

They were also referred to as Katachuris (shape of a sharp knife), Kalanjarapuravaradhisvara (Lord of Kalanjara) and Haihaya (Heheya). Mount Kalanjara is in north central India, east of the Indus Valley floodplain. This name Haihaya is supposed to be derived from haya (a horse). Other theories are, a prince of the Lunar race, and great-grandson of Yadu. A race or tribe of people to whom a Scythian origin has been ascribed. The Vishnu Purana represents them as descendants of Haihaya of the Yadu race, but they are generally associated with borderers and outlying tribes.

In the Vayu and other Puranas, five great divisions of the tribe are named as Talajanghas, Vitihotras, Avantis, Tundikeras, Jatas, or rather Sujatas.

The origin of Kalchuri kings was Madhya Pradesh. Later on, they spread to Chattisgarh, Orissa, Maharastra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Basically, the Kalchuri kings of M.P were the supporters of Jainism. Jainism flourished after their reaching in Tamil country. The influence of Jainism during reign of Kalchuri kings of Kalyani was perceptible. The prominent king VIJJALA of this clan and his several statesmen had adopted Jainism. Rechmayya, the minister of Kalchuri State set up the image of Tirthankar Shantinath at Shravanabelagola. Kalchuri dynasties existed from 6th century A.D to almost 14th century A.D. They mainly ruled over Malwa, Gujarat,Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh.



Jabalpur is one of the major cities of Madhya Pradesh and it is a historic city at one time ruled by the Kalchuri dynasty, the Gond kings, the Mauryas, and the Guptas. For a long time it was ruled over by the Kalchuri dynasty. Numerous inscriptions belonging to the Kalchuri kings establish the genealogy of these kings from Kokalla-I (875 AD) to Kokalla-15 (1180 AD), the last Kalchuri king.

The original settlement in this area was ancient Tripuri, which is now known as Jabalpur. The rulers of this city, the Hayahayas, are mentioned in the Mahabharata. It passed successively into Mauryan and then Gupta control until, in 875 AD, it was taken by the Kalchuri rulers. In the 13th century it was overrun by the Gonds and by the early 16th century it had became the powerful state of Gondwana. Though besieged by Mughal armies from time to time, Gondwana survived until 1789 when it was conquered by the Marathas. Jabalpur was a Pleasure resort and capital of the Gond Kings during the 12th century. The Marathas held sway over Jabalpur until 1817, when the British wrested it from them and left their impression on the spacious cantonment with its colonial residences and barracks.

Satna district of M.P was once historically a part of Baghelkhand. The early Budhist books, the Mahabharat etc, connect the Baghelkhand tract with rulers of the Haihaya, Kalchuri or Chedi clan, who are believed to have gained sufficient importance sometime during the 3 century A.D. Their original habitat is placed on the Narbada (Narmada) with Mahishmati (identified by some with Maheshwar in west Nimar district) as the capital; from where they seem to have been driven eastwards. They had acquired the fort of Kalinjara (a few miles beyond the border of Satna district, in U.P.), and with this as base, they extended their dominious over Baghelkhand. The chief stronghold of the Chedi clan was Kalinjar, and their proudest title was Kalanjaradhishwara (Lord of Kalanjar). The Kalchuris received their first blow at the hands of Chandel chief Yashovarmma (925-55), who seized the fort of Kalinjar and the tract surrounding it. The Kalchuris were still a powerful tribe and continued to hold most of their possessions until the 12th century.

Kalanjaradhishwara => Lord of Kalanjar
Kala = Black
Narbada => Narmada

From 8th century to 12th century some parts of the Damoh district were parts of Chedi Empire ruled by Kalchuri dynasty from capital Tripuri. The magnificent temple at Nohta is a Living example of the glory of Kalchuries in 10th century. It's a temple situated on the periphery of Damoh city . It houses the icons of Lord Shiva , the destroyer In Hindu mythology . It's a place of pilgrimage as well as scenic beauty for visitors . Peace seekers as well as girls urging for good matrimonial matches throng here to please Lord Shiva , so as to grand there wishes . This structure has got invaluable Archeological importance. This Shiv Temple is about 1 K.M. away from Nohta village. Shiv is also known as 'Mahadev' and 'Nohleshwar'. It was built around 950-1000 A.D. According to some people the credit of building this temple goes to the queen of Kalchury King Avni Varma of Chalukya Vamsha. The Shiv temple of Nohta is the most important representation or the design of the architecture of Kalchury style of temple buildings of the 10th Century. It is built on a high platform. It's parts are - 'Panch rath', 'Garbhgrih', 'Amtral', 'Mandap' and 'Mukh Mandap'. Situated on the High way from Damoh to Jabalpur 5 kms. from Jabera and 7 km. from Sigrampur toward Damoh on a green hill in the jungle a beautiful double storeyed rest house cum watch tower was built by the Forest Dept. It is a beautiful piece of Architecture. From the main road a narrow path along of the bank of a tank reaches this rest house.

(** Note : Kalchuris continued to be Hindus and followed and promoted the Shaivism by building beautiful teples of invaluable Archeological importance. In fact Shiva is considered as first Jina and Shaivism as the source of jainism. The kakatiya and Vijayanagar kings too were great patrons of Shaivism and built thousand pillar temples during their rule. In the South Kalabras too built beautiful Shiva temples to express their strong devotion to Lord Shiva)

Rewa, a second name for river Narmada, which can be traced back in the old Indian religious book like the Narad Puran. This place came into importance in the kalchuri era. The Kalchuri era saw a rise of a rich culture named Gurgi, a place near Rewa, which was their kingdom and a captivating architecture to its credit. The famous Kalchuri gates today form the captivating entry to the main gates of Rewa fort. Plus their rare sculptures are displayed in the Baghela and Government museum.

About the history of the region the famous historian CW Wills writes, 'in the 10th century AD a powerful Rajput family ruled at Tripuri near Jabalpur, Issuing from this kingdom of Chedi (also known as Kalchuri dynasty) a scion of the royal house by the name Kaling Raja, settled about the year 1000AD, at Tuman, a site at present marked only by a few ruins in the north east of the erstwhile Laphazamidari of The Bilaspur district. His grandson Ratanraja founded Ratanpur Which continued as the capital of a large part of the country now known as Chhattisgarh. This Rajput family called themselves the Haihaya dyanasty. This dynasty continued ruling Chhattisgarh for six centuries. In around the 14th century, it split into parts, the elder branch continued at Ratanpur, while the younger settled in semi-independent state at Raipur. The Marathas attacked Chhattisgarh in 1741 and destroyed the Haihaya power. In 1745 AD after conquering the region, they deposed Raghunath Singhji, the last surviving member of the Ratanpur house. In 1758, the Maraths finally annexed Chhattisgarh, it came directly under Maratha rule and Bimbaji Bhonsle, was appointed the rule. After death of Bimbaji Bhonsle, the Marathas adopted the Suba system.

Tumman (presently Tuman) is a small village, which is located at about 23 KM North-West of Katghora Tehsil Head Quarters. Though this place is not so important, but it was the first capital when the Haihai or Kalchuri Kings came to Chhattisgarh for the first time. It has been mentioned in one of the stone inscriptions named Kharod of Ratanpur that in the year 1181-1182 A.D that one prince of Haihai dynasty had 18 sons. One of them was named Kaling. Kaling's son Kamal was the ruler of Tumman . In the stone inscriptions of King Jajalwa Dev of Ratanpur, during the year 1114 A.D, it is mentioned that Kokkula of Chedi dynasty had 8 sons. The first son was the ruler of Tripuri and the others became the administrators of small kingdoms. Kalingraj were ancestors of these younger sons. Kalingraj occupied South Kaushal (present Chhattisgarh) and stayed there. He made Tumman as his capital. Kalingraj's son was Kamalraj.Kamalraj's son Ratnaraj ( Ratnesh) built temples, gardens etc. to make Tumman a beautiful place. Ratnaraj also founded Ratanpur. His son Prithvidev also constructed a temple at Tumman and a lake at Ratanpur. In one of the ancient writings of Prithvidev-I named Amodhapatt, 1079 A.D, there is reference to the dedication of Chatushk (building standing on four pillars) in Tumman. Ratnadev-I made Ratanpur which is now in Bilaspur District, as his capital in place of Tumman.

In Tumman village there are fifteen ruins of beautifully sculptured and intricate stones. These ruins are mainly of temples. On removing the main ruins , a wonderful entrance door was found. On top of the entrance door, there are images of Bramha, Vishnu and Shiva. From the idol of Shiva in the center, we knew that this was a Shiv temple. In the middle of these three idols, images of nine planets have been made. On the door side, names of Vishnu's ten Avatars have been sculptured. Below this there is Ganga with her vehicle the Crocodile and Yamuna with her vehicle the Tortoise. These intricate carvings resembles in style with the temples of Pali and Janjgir. Nearby flows the River Jatashankari. On the banks of this river there is a heap of damaged ruins. Probably this place was the residential place of Haihai Kings. This is called Satkhanda Mahal. It is quite probably that seeing the geographical location of Tumman, a small invading group of Haihai's came here and occupied this place. In Tumman is situated in a valley which is surrounded by ranges of hills on all sides. There are only two places from which we can go outside from Uprera in the east and Mathin in the west. Probably the importance of Tumman gradually reduced after Ratanpur was made the capital.

Raipur was founded by the Kalchuri King Ram Chandra of Raipur in last quarter of the 14th century AD. Raipur city can be called city of lakes. There are many lakes . Prior to the formation of Nalghar, the water required for the people of city was made available through these lakes only. Around 1402 Kalchuri emperor King Bramhadev built a biggest , spectacular lake at Raipur which is known as Budhapara . Kho-kho lake too is an example of formation art. Mahamaya Temple is situated On the northern side of Maharajbandh temple & western side of Budhatalab in Raipur's old fort area. This temple is stretched in a big premises. Basically this belongs to the Kalchuri era but renovations has made it modern . Right in front of Mahamaya temple is Samleswari temple of Goddess Samlai. There is Mahadev Ghat Just 5 kms from Raipur on the banks of Kharun river. In 1402 , Emperor of Kalchuri Bramhadev in his monumental script carries a mention of Hajirao Naik who built Hatkeswar Mahadev temple. It is believed that this script was originally at Mahadev Ghat which later was fixed on the walls of the old fort . This is still present at the Mahant Ghasidas memorial museum. This is in Sanskrit but with impurities.

Some important information about kalchuris :


Leanage of Kalchuri kings :
Kaling Raja -> Kamal Raja -> Ratna Raja -> Prithvi Dev.....-> Raghunath Singhji

{ Note : It is to be noted here that the kings who ruled kalchuri or chedi or haihaya kingdom from Tripuri (Jabalpur) were known by title KOKALLA. Numerous inscriptions belonging to the Kalchuri kings establish the genealogy of these kings from Kokalla-I (875 AD) to Kokalla-15 (1180 AD), the last Kalchuri king. Some where it was mentioned that there was a kalchuri king by name KOKKULA. These names KOKALLA and KOKKULA seems to be one and the same and most probably refer to family title of some kalchuri clans.

There are some people in Mudiraja caste having surnames KOKOLU. As it was already accepted by some historians that Mudirajas were the descendants of KALABHRAS and the kalabhras were the descendants or a branch of kalchuris, the surname KOKOLU of some mudiraja's today may be a thin pointer to the fact that the kings of kalchuris, kalabhras and the mudirajas were one and the same. }

kokkula => kokalla => kokkola => kokola => kokolu.

THE KALCHURI KINGDOM OF CENTRAL INDIA
The earliest known Kalachuri family (550–620 A.D) ruled over northern Maharashtra, Malwa and western Deccan. Their capital was Mahismati situated in the Narmada river valley. There were three prominent members; Krishnaraja, Shankaragana and Buddharaja. They distributed coins and epigraphs around this area.

Jabalpur was the Capital city of Kalchuris
The origin of Jabalpur goes back to ancient times. It was then known as Tripuri and was governed by Hayahaya rulers. The ancient Indian epic of Mahabharata has references to his city. It became a part of the great Mauryan and the Gupta Empires. In AD 875, Jabalpur was conquered by the Kalchuris who made it the capital of their new kingdom.

Ruins of some other beautiful Jain temples and idols of Kalchuri art and sculpture are found at Panagar (15 km away). Gosalpur lies midway between Panagar and Sihora, in Jabalpur District of Madhya Pradesh. It is located on National Highway 7, about 30 km Jabalpur, the administrative headquarters The Kalchuris constructed the Machendranath and the Patleshwar temple at Amarkantak The Archaelogical Survey of India has declared this group of temples (Karna matha temples) a protected site.

Baghelkhand of Madhya Pradesh
The early Budhist books, the Mahabharat etc, connect the Baghelkhand tract with rulers of the Haihaya, Kalchuri or Chedi clan, who are believed to have gained sufficient importance sometime during the third century A.D. Their original habitat is placed on the Narbada with Mahishmati (identified by some with Maheshwar in west Nimar district) as the capital; from where they seem to have been driven eastwards.

They had acquired the fort of Kalinjara (a few miles beyond the border of Satna district, in U.P.), and with this as base, they extended their dominious over Baghelkhand. During the fourth and fifth centuries, the Gupta dynasty of Magadha was paramount over this region as is shown by the records of the feudatory chiefs of Uchchakalpa (Unchehra in Nagod tehsil) and the Parivrajak Rajas of Kot (in Nagod tehsil). The chief stronghold of the Chedi clan was Kalinjar, and their proudest title was Kalanjaradhishwara (Lord of Kalanjar).

The Kalchuris received their first blow at the hand of Chandel chief Yashovarmma (925-55), who seized the fort of Kalinjar and the tract surrounding it. The Kalchuris were still a powerful tribe and continued to hold most of their possessions until the 12th century.

Rewa of Central India
In the recent history, this area of Rewa was offered in dowry to the Kalachuri King by the Chedi King of 10th to 11th century AD. The Kalchuri Maharaja Karnadeva (1042-1072 AD) had founded temples at Surajkund.


In prehistoric times the region seems to have been inhabited by primitive people, the ADIVASIS. The earliest known Aryan people associated with this region were the CEEDIS mentioned in rigveda. The earliest known traditional ruler of this region was YAYATI whose eldest son YADU had inherited this region, which was later, named CHEDI-DESHA by his offsprings. The sacred hill Kalinjar is mentioned in the Vedas as one of the tapasya-sthanas or spots adapted to practices of austere devotions. The great sage BAMDEO from whom this district derives its name BAMDA (later BANDA) lived in this region. Lord RAMA has spent 12 of the 14 years of his exile at Chitrakut, which was part of Banda upto a few years ago.

The famous Kalinjar-hill (Kalanjaradri) is said to have derived its name from Lord Shiva himself who is the main deity of Kalinjar called NILKANTHA even today. Mahabharata has numerous mention of this region, so much so that bathing in devine lakes of Kalinjar was equated to the merit (punya) of the gift of 1000 cows. The puranas do mention this region and this is much talked about in Ramayana too.

Damoh Region of Central India
The Damoh region of the central india holds an important place in the history of early medieval india. The rise and growth of kalchuri-chandela and the Pratihar feudal principalities on the ruins of Harshvardhan's empire speaks volumes for the reconstruction of the history of the region. Damoh was undoubtedly including in the chedi kingdom as indicated both by direct and indirect evidence discovered at several places, in the shape of an inscription of eighth century A.D. of the Kalchuri king shankargana and a number of other kalchuri remains.

The magnificent temple at Nohta is a Living example of the glory of Kalchuries in 10th century. A Kalchuri temple ,known as Nohalesvara at Nohtta , Damoh (Resembles Khajuraho temples in design and theme well protected by ASI ,Bhopal) is an irrefutable evidence of the Kalchuri rule in the district. The temple seems to have been build by Yuvarajdeval (10th century A.D.) a devout saiva, under the influence of his favourite queen Nohala, another recent excavation of 40 km long wall under the supervision of ASI, Bhopal and hon'ble minister of Higher Education Ratnesh Saloman, possesses potentiality to bring in to picture a vast source of material knowledge relating to the long history of this region.

The ancient temples of Kalachuri
Kalachuri is this the name used by two kingdoms who had a succession of dynasties from the 10th-12th centuries, one ruling over areas in Central India and were called Chedi Kingdom or Haihaya and the other southern Kalachuri who ruled over parts of Karnataka. The ancient temples of period are situated in the south of Narmadakund just behind it. These were built by Kalachuri Maharaja Karnadeva (1042-1072 AD). The Machhendranath and Pataleshwar Pataleshwartemples are excellent examples of architecture.

THE KALCHURI KINGDOM OF CHETTISGARH
Kalchuris ruled in Chhattisgarh from 980 to 1791 AD. Kalchuris were the first rulers who ruled clearly over this region till 19th century. An explanation popular with experts and historians, is that Chhattisgarh is the corrupted form of "Chedisgarh", which means "Stronghold of the Chedis", Chedis being another name for the Kalchuri dynasty.

Kalchuris = Kalachuris .
Kalachuris = ( Kala + Churis ) => ( Kala + Cheris ) => ( Kala + Chedis )
Kala = Black
Churis <= Cheris <= Chedis <= people of Chedi descent.
Kalchuris = Black Chedis of Indo-Aryan descent

Chedisgarh => Chetisgarh => Chettisgarh
Chettisgarh = The Garh / Home / County of Chedis

About the history of the region the famous historian C.W.Wills writes, 'in the 10th century AD a powerful Rajput family ruled at Tripuri near Jabalpur, Issuing from this kingdom of Chedi (also known as Kalchuri dynasty) a scion of the royal house by the name Kalingraja, settled about the year 1000AD, at Tuman, a site at present marked only by a few ruins in the north east of the erstwhile Laphazamidari of The Bilaspur district. His grandson Ratanraja founded Ratanpur Which continued as the capital of a large part of the country now known as Chhattisgarh. This Rajput family called themselves the Haihaya dyanasty. This dynasty continued ruling Chhattisgarh for six centuries about the 14th century it split into parts, the elder branch continued at Ratanpur, while the younger settled in semi-independent state at Raipur.

The Kalchuris ruled this region and their capital was Ratanpur. King Ramchandra, a descendant of this dynasty founded the city of Raipur which was later made his capital. The city was given this name after his son Brahmdeo Rai. Budhapara Lake is a magnificent lake and is also one of the prime tourist attractions in Raipur. The lake was built by the Kalchuri emperor King Brahmadeo around 1402 AD. When the region disintegrated into small principalities, it passed from one kingdom to other until British finally conquered it in 1854. They then made Chattisgarh a separate Commissary (administrative unit) and Raipur was its district headquarters.

The Didneswari Temple at Mallhar (Saravpur) near Bilaspur belonging to the Kalchuri regime, is also worth visiting.

KALCHURIS OF MAHARASTRA :

The place of Vakataka was taken by the Kalacuris of Mahismati, modern Mahesvar in Central India, when the Vakataka disappeared from the stage of history in the year around about AD 550. They also had a large empire extending from Konkan in the west to Vidarbha in the east and from Malava in the north to the Krishna in the south. The founder of the dynasty was Karsnaraja, whose coins have been found in the Amravati and Betul districts. He was a devout worshipper of Mahesvara (Siva). That Vidarbha was included in Svamiraja dated in the Kalacuri year 322 (AD 573). These plates were issued from Nandivardhana which seems to have maintained its importance even after the downfall of the Vakatakas. Svamiraja probably belonged to the Rastrakuta family.

About AD 620 the Kalacuri king Buddharaja the grandson of Krishnaraja was defeated by Pulakesin II of the Early Chalukya dynasty, who thereafter became the lord of three Maharashtras comprising 99,000 villages. One of these Maharashtras was undoubtedly Vidarbha. The Rastrakutas, who were previously feudatories of the Kalacuris, transferred their allegiance to the Chalukyas and, like the latter, began to date their records in the Saka era. Two grants of this feudatory Rastrakuta family have been discovered in Vidarbha-one dated Saka 615 was found at Akola and the other dated Saka 631 was discovered at Multai. They give the following genealogy:-

Durgaraja => Govindaraja => Svamikaraja =>Nannaraja alias Ayuddhsura (known dates A.D. 693 and 713)

Baddigam surname belongs to Telugu Mudiraj people
The Rastrakutas of Manyakheta and the Kalacuris of Tripuri were matrimonially connected and their relations were generally friendly. But in the reign of Govinda IV, they became strained. The Kakacuri king Yuvarajadeva I espoused the cause of his son-in-low Baddiga-Amoghavarsa III, the uncle of Govinda IV and fought on the bank of the Payosni (Puna) 16.093 km. (10 miles) from Achalpura, between the Kalacuri and Rastrakuta forces, in which the former became victorious.

This event is commemorated in the Sanskrt play Viddhasalabhanjika of Rajasekhara.The Rastrakuta who rose in rebellion against Govinda IV deposed him and placed his uncle Baddiga—Amogha varsa III on the throne. He was a man of quiet nature and spiritual temperament, who left the administration entirely to his ambitious and able son Krsna III.

Baddiga => Baddigam

Baddiga seems to be the family surname of kalchuri clans. In Mudiraja community, there are people with surname Baddigam. Baddigam seems to bea modified telugu version of name for Baddiga

Amoghavarsha III (934 - 939) C.E. also known as Baddiga was in exile in Tripuri and was a younger brother of Indra III and uncle to Govinda IV. With the help of King Arikesari of Vemulavada in Andhra and other feudatories who revolted against Govinda IV he came to power. The emperor attained supremacy with the assistance of King Arikesari of Vemulavada in Andhra and other feudatories who rebelled against him.

Not much is known about his uneventful reign. His advanced age and religious temperament did not allow him to show any interest in the governance of the kingdom, which was left to his son Krishna III. He was married to Kundakadevi, a princess from the Kalachuri dynasty of Tripuri. His daughter was married to Western Ganga Dynasty King Bhutuga II to whom a large territory was given as dowry.

The Telugu Mudiraj people having surnames Kokolu and Baddigam are seen to maintain their matrimonial relations even today. Both these surnames are from Kalchuri lineage having connection to Tripuri in Central India.

ART AND ARCHITECTURE OF ELEPHANTA :

The elephanta caves are widely believed to have been carved during the reign of an early Kalacuri king (third quarter of 6th century), who ruled the Konkan area. The stele bearing the dedicatory inscription was removed from the site by the Portuguese centuries back. Mr. Rajesh Singh, a research associate in Kala Darshana division gave a talk on 'Art and Architecture of Elephanta'. He sought to highlight those points that set apart these caves from other temples. The Early Kalacuris were the followers of the Lakulisa-Pasupata sect of Saivism. The great Yogisvara image on the left of the north entrance (to the caves) that occupies an important place in the sculptural program of Elephanta is indicative of the yogic practices which must have once gone hand in hand with the complex ritualistic exercises undertaken inside the cave by the Lauklisa-Pasupata devotee. Lakuslia was the founder teacher of this sect who eventually attained to the Sivahood (salvation).

The Trimurti image at the end of the north-south axis is one of the images that has received considerable attention and various explanations have been given for it. The image, over five meters in height, has generated a great deal of discussion among scholars. Early scholars believed it to be the Hindu trinity representing Brahma, Visnu and Mahesa. This identification has now been set aside. Now it is argued that the faces visible are only those, which could be carved, to be seen from the front while a fourth is implied at the rear, and even a fifth, facing upwards, in accordance with the five faces of Siva described in Visnudharmottara. The three faces may represent respectively Aghora-Bhirava (an angry form of Siva), Siva and Uma. These faces also denote the forms of power of the universal Brahman: sattva is depicted by the central face, tamas by the angry countenance, and rajas by the tranquil face at the right. Other sculptural panels have their own stories to tell. The complex nature of their iconographic, aesthetic and ritualistic aspects considered in junction with the development of cave architecture in general are bound to arouse far greater curiosity in future.

KALACHURIS OF SOUTH INDIA :

Many Pallava and Pandya writings describe that the Kalabhras attacked the Tamil country and defeated the Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas and established their kingdom. Prof., Ramaswami Ayangar asserts that these valiant Kalabhra kings were the devoted followers of Jainism. Basically, Kalchuri kings of M.P were supporters of Jainism. Jainism flourished after their reaching in Tamil country.He proved it on the basis of copper plate of Veluikudi and Painyapuranam of Tamil language. Shri Ayangar presumes that these Kalabhras were a branch of Kalchuri clan. The evidence on this is that they were closely related to Rashtrakuta. The Rashtrakuta kings had their faith in Jainism. The influence of Jainism during reign of Kalchuri kings of Kalyani was perceptible. The prominent king Vijjala of this clan and his several statesmen had adopted Jainism. Rechmayya, the minister of Kalchuri State set up the image of Tirthankar Shantinath at Shravanabelagola.

Southern Kalachuri Kingdom
The Southern Kalachuri kingdom (1130 - 1184) at their peak ruled parts of the Deccan extending over regions of present day North Karnataka and parts of Maharashtra. This dynasty rose to power in the Deccan between 1156 and 1181 A.D. They traced their origins to Krishna who was the conqueror of Kalinjar and Dahala in Madhya Pradesh. It is said that Bijjala a viceroy of this dynasty established the authority over Karnataka. He wrested power from the Chalukya king Taila III. Bijjala was succeeded by his sons Someshwara and Sangama but after 1181 A.D, the Chalukyas gradually retrieved the territory. Their rule was a short and turbulent and yet very important from a the socio - religious movement point of view; a new sect called the Lingayat or Virashaiva sect was founded during these times.

Nadavaras (Bunts) of Karnataka were Kalchuris of Rajastan
Nadavaras were famous chieftains during the rule of the Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas and Vijayanagara Empires. There are two hypotheses supporting the origin of Nadavaras prior to the Rashtrakutas of Karnataka. They both conclude that Nadvaras migrated to Karnataka from Rajasthan. Rashtrakuta, Kalachuri and Nadavara are descendents of a common lineage. They were all related by matrimonial alliances. One school of thinking is that in the eighth century, during Kalachuri Dynasty, Nadavaras came to Karnataka from Rajasthan for the propaganda of Jainism. Kalachuri Dynesty was originally from Rajasthan, ruled various parts of India including Karnataka, from the 6th century to 13th century. Even today there are Nadavaras with Kalachuri family names in Ankola Seeme(county) who worship ancient Kalachuri shrines and selectively observe the rituals of Jainism. Supposedly they are the descendents of Kalchuris of Rajasthan. The Kalachuri King Bijjala (1130-1167 A.D) was a close relative of Kalanayakas of Ankola. One of the surnames of Mudirajas can be seen related to Ankola.

KALCHURIS OF KALYANA KINGDOM :

The Kalachuris, who overthrew and took the place of the Chalukyas of Kalyana in the early part of the 12th century, had a relatively short but stormy rule. The period threw up two striking personalities: An energetic, if somewhat wicked, adventurer who flouted the authority of his Chalukya master and achieved the Kalachuri independence - Bijjala. Another figure of eminence was Basaveshvara who marshaled a virile, revolutionary movement of religious and social reform, which goes by the name of Virasaiva Movement.

Historians also have been able to identify several Kalachuri ruling families at Tripuri, Gorakhpur, Ratnapur, Rajpur and so on. The Kalachuris were also related to the early Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas by matrimonial alliances. It is also argued that they migrated to the south India and made Magaliveda or Mangalavedhe (Mangalavada) their headquarters. They called themselves Kalanjarapuravaradhisvara, which indicates their central Indian origin. Their emblem was Suvarna Vrishabha or the golden bull. They must have started as modest feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyana.

The first notable chief of the Kalachuri family of Karnataka was Uchita, who is said to have been followed by Asaga, Kannam and Kiriyasaga. However under Bijjala I and his son Kannama, the Kalachuri family must have earned considerable political fame. But Kannama's son Jogama became an influential feudatory of the Chalukya Vikramaditya VI, who was matrimonially connected with the Kalachuri Chief. This trend continued during the reign of Jogama's son and successor, Permadi. Though he was only a Mahamandalesvara or a feudatory Chief, his influence in the disintegrating set-up of the Chalukya rule must have been immense.

BIJJALA (VIJJALA) :

Bijjala II succeeded his father, Permadi, as the Mahamandalesvara and ruled over Karhada 4,000 and Tardavadi 1,000 during the reign of Chalukya ruler, Vikramaditya VI. Bijjala was confident of his strength and had realised that under Vikramaditya's successors the Chalukya Empire was showing all the signs of weakness, which spoke of its mortality. That indeed provided him enough justification to seek independence. The Balligave inscription speaks of his attitude when it says, "Sovereignty deserves to be enjoyed by one who is a true warrior". The Chikkalagi inscription refers to Bijjala as "Mahabhujabalachakravarti".

Thus by the time Taila III ascended the Chalukya throne, the powerful Kalachuri Chief had begun to pose as a sovereign ruler. Bijjala seemed to have in fact usurped the Chalukya throne by driving Taila III out of his capital. He proudly assumed the typical Chalukyan titles like Sriprithvivallabha and Parameshvara. His Harihara record says, "Just as Agastya, sprung from a jar of water, sucked the vast ocean, King Bijjala, born in the family of feudatory chiefs, subjugated the whole earth by dint of his prowess".

The hapless Taila was put to death, along with other members of the Chalukya family. So, with his hands reeking with the blood of his overlord, Bijjala like another Macbeth seized the Chalukyan crown. He then shifted his capital from Mangaliveda (Mangalavada) to the royal city of Kalyana.

Bijjala's independent rule was short; it lasted from about 1162 A. D. to 1167 A. D. During these years he fought successfully against the Hoysala King Narasimha I and the Pandya Chief of Uchchangi. He also defeated the Seunas and the Cholas, and subdued the turbulent Chiefs of Andhra and Kalinga. In administration, Bijjala is said to have introduced certain innovations. Bijjala reposed great trust in Kasapayya Nayaka, who rose to position of influence in the Kalachuri Kingdom. The great Virasaiva saint Basaveshvara was Bijjala's Chief treasurer.

Scholars like B. L. Rice had believed that Bijjala was a Jaina. This erroneous view was based on the evidence of later literary works like Chennabasavapurana of Virupaksha Pandita, Bijjalarayacharite of Dharani Pandita and the Bijjalarayapurana of Chandrasagara.

Among the Kalachuri kings that ruled (1156-83 A. D.) over Karnataka, mention must be made of Bijjala. He ruled at Kalyana which is today named as Basava-Kalyana.He was a king of great religious tolerance and had Basaveshwar of the Veerssaiva faith as his minister. The forefounder of the Linage emperor Bijjala of 12th Century was minor kalachuri clan chief. The kalachuri clan was also called as Haihayas and very ancient people. These people were ruling in Eastern Malwa and the neighboring region around 8th century AD. Several branches of this family had settled in different parts of Northern India. The most famous king of this clan was Kokalla - I, who was an imperial power below modern day Madhya Pradesh. He had defeated all major kings in that era around 10th century AD.

Bijjala was a federatory chief of the Kalachuri clan. The reign of Vikramaditya VI., or Vikramanka, which lasted from 1076 to 1126, formed another period of Chalukya greatness. Vikramankas exploits against the Hoysala kings and others, celebrated by the poet Bilhana, were held to justify him in establishing a new era dating from his accession. With his death in the middle of the 12th century, however, the Chalukya power began to decline. In 1156 the commander-in-chief and a feudatory - Bijjala (or Vijjana, 1156 - 67 AD) Kalachurya revolted, and usurped the throne at Kalyani. He and his sons held the kingdom till 1183. In this year, the last of the Calukya rulers, Somesvara IV (1181-c. 1189), regained the throne for a short period, as a part of his patrimony, only to succumb, about 1190, to the Yadavas of Devagiri and the Hoysalas of Dorasamudra. Henceforth the Chalukya rajas ranked only as petty chiefs.

Bijjala defeated Jayasimha in 1156 AD and other federatory chiefs who had revolted. He fought successfully with the Cholas, Gangas of Kalinga, the clan Inkyas and the other branch of Kalachuris of Tripuri. It is also said for a very short period he conquered Anga, Vanga, Magadha, Nepala, Turushka and Simhala. By 1157 AD Bijjala assumed imperial titles and a era may be said to have started as Kalachuri revolution now ran its course and Bijjala setup his rule in Chalukya capital Kalyani.

Bijjala was patronising Jainism, Kolanpaka –80 KM from Hyderabad, (AP) INDIA, was said to be the alternate capital of the Bijjula. This was a very rich city covering an area of fifty Square Kilometers and a nerve center of Jainism, which had imperial patronage of the Emperor.

Bijjala changed his seat of power to Kalyana. At age 48 he moved with King Bijjala to Kalyana, where, joined by Allama Prabhu, his fame continued to grow for the next fourteen years. Basaveshwara became the minister to King Bijjala in 1162 AD. Bijjala married the beautiful daughter of Basavaraja and over a period of time, Basavaraja became very powerful and used most of the State's finances to promote and propagate Veera Sivaism, when patronage of Jainism was at it's peak.

Basaveshwara's life long aim was to eradicate the deep rooted varnashrama or the caste system. Though he was the minister, he used to invite the untouchables to his residence and have meals with them. This act incited the hatredness among the orthodox people who were jealous about the Basaveshwara's great achievement. Through the years, opposition to his egalitarian community grew strong among more conventional citizens. They carried many false stories to King Bijjala to malign Basaveshwara. These accusations created suspicion in the mind of Bijjala and he was fearing about the uprising of traditional and orthodox society, if the accusations were proved to be true.

During the reign of Bijjala, his Prime Minister Basavaraja tried to spread and strengthen the base of siviate sect among the masses with state exchequer, which also had the Emperor's blessing because of it's Reformist Movement and was instrumental in popularising Siva worship and built temples from Orissa (cuttack) to Alampur in Andhra Pradesh. The famous Alampur temples were built during this reign and were the man who installed one crore-shiva lingams (Coti Lingalu) in Alampur (AP). This led to a prolonged and fierce battle between followers of Jainism and Siviates, which soon spread to all the regions of Andhra, Karnataka and Maharashtra. The Prime Minster's followers i.e. the Siviates were victorious after massacring the followers of Jainism and destroying great number of Jain temples, Libraries and Jain Manuscripts. Bijjala was a ruler in Kalyan in the period 1156-1167, and it is said that he was a follower of Jainism. Bijjala was very religious person, jain himself and highly tolerant towards all other religions.

Bijjala's sons i.e., Someswara and his brothers , who ruled the Deccan Plateau from 1168 AD to 1183 AD lost the kingdom to the Chalukyas in 1183 AD. His descendents were ruling small principalities between River Krishna and Tungabadra for over 300 years (1185 AD to 1500 AD) . That was the time when various Muslim rulers were gaining territories all over the South India (Deccan).

KALCHURIS OF ALAMPUR OF ANDHRA PRADESH :

DADHI REDDI :

There are people in Mudiraj community having Dhadhi as their gotram. Bijjala, and most of the Kalachuri clans were Shaivites. Dadhi Reddy and their descendants also followed shaivism and patronised the same. This also gives us a clue that there are some sections of Reddies having descendancy from Kalchuris.

Bijjala's sons i.e., Someswara and his brothers , who ruled the Deccan Plateau from 1168 AD to 1183 AD lost the kingdom to the Chalukyas in 1183 AD. His descendents were ruling small principalities between River Krishna and Tungabadra for over 300 years (1185 AD to 1500 Ad) . That was the time when various Muslim rulers were gaining territories all over the South India (Deccan).

Their Descendent (great......grand son) Dadhi who was the Commander in chief of Bijapur army defeated Vijayanagar Emperor's army and captured Raichur fort and its surrounding areas as Krishna Deva Raya's armies were busy with Orissa campaign, which won the whole of Gajapathi's territory. The Nawab of Bijapur was pleased with his expedition and told him that he would give him all the area that he covers from sunrise to sunset in any given day and was also awarded a title called "REDDI". Dadhi Reddi set off at Raichur fort in the morning just before the sunrise and covered area of Raichur, Amangal and Alampur and reached the village of Panyagrahi (Now Pallepad) before sunset on the same day. As promised Bijapur Nawab had given three taluks with Raichur as head quarters. Thus, Dadhi Reddi had become an absolute owner of men, material and land of the three taluks. He was always at the service of the Bijapur rulers whenever they needed his services.

Krishna Deva Raya lead an army of about one million men and five hundred elephants and pitched his camp to the east of Raichur and began the seize of the Raichur fortress. Bijapur Nawab came with relief of strong contingents of cavalry and Krishna Deva Raya won a decisive battle and the fort was captured after a very long seize with the help of a Portuguese commander. He died fighting in war at Raichur fort around 1520 AD, which is inscribed in the fort ramphants.

Dadhi Reddi's heroics of trying to saving the fort from capture and subsequently laying down his life were remembered in the form of dance and drama for over 400 years in the surrounding villages of the Raichur fort. Dadhi Reddi's son Krishna Reddy ruled Alampur and Amangal area with Alampur (Mahaboobnagar, AP, India) as his capital. They were basically sivaites and ruled Alampur for Five generations. They had spent all their time renovating & building the great temples of Alampur, which was the most sacred place for Sivaites after Kasi. His one of the famous descendent Konda Reddy (1597-1643), the last ruler of Alampur-- famously identified by the well known monument called Konda Reddy Buruju in Kurnool City(AP), had defeated Kurnool Nawab, a subordinate of the Golkonda Kings several times and was ultimately captured and was imprisoned in the fortress, which subsequently became famous as Konda Reddy Buruju, because of his valour and untiringly resolve to fight the Muslim rulers. He escaped from the fortress digging a tunnel across the River Krishna to Alampur and ultimately lost his kingdom to Golkonda Kings. The family then moved to Practoor Fort around 1665 AD, which is about 20km from Alampur.

They were the independent ruler of the small principality of around 100 villages with Practoor Fort as their head quarters, after the East India Company took over the Kurnool and its surrounding areas from Nizam. The next nine successors lived at Practoor fort and the favorite pass time was writing poetry. Most prominent among these kings were Timma Bhopalludu, who wrote a series of poems and put them in a book called "Anargaragamu". They were very religious and always had progeny problem. They gifted a large amount of land of Tirupathi Devasthanam for giving first arathi of the day and in the process they became Vishnuvites hoping that the kings of this line will always have male descendents. The kings of this line lost Practoor around 1790 AD due to death of their king Narasimha Bhoopaludu (Pedda Narsimha Reddy) who was poisoned by his cousins. His wife Rani Chinnamma Devi took refugee with Raja of Kollapur, who had considerable influence with the British. Subsequently there was an understanding with Nizam of Hyderabad under the influence of the British to let Rani Chinnamma Devi have a small Jagir of five Villages with Pallepad as Headquarters with absolute power. Rani Chinnamma Devi had her own currency, which was recognised by British and Nizam of Hyderabad as they were in silver and gold coins. Rani Chinnamma Devi had revenue system, which was later incorporated in toto , when India became a Republic in 1951.

The English had supported her all through the turbulent years of succession and Kollapur Raja had treated her as his daughter till she got the jagir around 1795 AD. Raja of Kollapur also gave her 1000 acres of land as gift, beore she left to take control of her jagir in Pallepad. It is said that she never took control of this gift in kollapur, which she later returned to the Kollapur Samsthan. She had problems with her three sisters who collectively claimed half of the jagir, which resulted them, getting one village with no titles. The five villages Rani Chinnamma Devi got as Jagir of Pallepad were Pallepad, Boravalli, Jalapuram, Kathur and Practoor.The others got the village of Maramungal.Rani Chinnamma Devi had also got good amount of land in Maramungal too. Rani Chinnamma's son Bijjula Venkat Dharma Reddy was a very religious person and it is believed that he was a authority on Vedas and Upanishads, and that was one reason that he had all types of visitors like Sadhus from Himalayas to very learned men from Kerla.

His son Bijjula Venkata Narshima Reddy succeeded his grand mother Rani Chinnamma and administered the Jagir.He build three big irrigation tanks networked with canals in Pallepad Village to irrigate about 150 acres, which costed Rs. 1.00 Lakhs around 1875 AD and also was exporting Blue (Colour- were no Synthetic colours then) to Europe and London by ship from Bombay. He had setup the manufacturing plant at Pallepad, which was the Jagir's Administration Headquarters. He planted exotic mango gardens to an extent of over hundred acres, which had a collection of nearly hundred varieties collected from places from as far as Lahore and Delhi. He was also a very religious person. It is said that he had Darshan of GOD himself in the form of Narshima Avatar at Wanaparthy Fort, when he was on a visit. His descendents still own lands and continue to live in the villages with Pallepad as their headquarters having some interest in surrounding villages too. The last Jagirdars of this line until the abolition of Jagirs by the Indian Government were Bijjula Chandra Shekar Reddy, Bijjula Venkat Dharma Reddy and Bijjula Rameshwar Reddy.

All this information is from family records of Bijjula and linage that is being maintained by the family over last 300 years. Bijjula Rameshwar Reddy had narrated the long history of the family over a period of time to Anirudh Bizzul his last son, who was interested in maintaining the family record for future generations to know their ancestry. During the jagirdari period Bijjula Venkata Dharma Reddy published many books on religious matter and lately around 1960's Bijjula Rameshwar Reddy had published a book regarding the finding of copper plates of Chaluks/Cholas periods which threw some light on the ancient period of this lands.

The present village of Pallepad, on the banks River Krishna was totally constructed by Rani Chinnamma Devi between 1796 to 1800 AD. All the descendents right from Dadhi Reddy had always lived on the banks of river Krishna and built/renovated forts like Raichur,Alampur, Practoor and Village of Pallepad lastly.

These rulers of Alampur , i.e., the descendents of Bijjula were the chief of Sivaite sect , who were even considered as, re-incarnation of Lord Shiva.They had powers to appoint the religious head of this sect and this practice continued till early 1950. The Religious head of this sect was considered the most sacred person and had an authority as Shankaracharya of the present times.

( Note : This makes it clear that there are kalchuri descendants among the Telugu people. They got "REDDY" as a royal title from Nawab of Bijapur and " BIJJULA ", the name their clan as their surname. Similarly there are several people with surnames such as kokkula, kokalla, kokkola, kokola and kokolu, which were also possibly derived from the names of kalachuri clans. There are people with surname " kokolu " in Telugu mudirajas. The Mudirajas are believed to the descendants of kalchuris, a brach of kalchuris as per Prof., Ramaswami Ayangar.)

The History of Bijjula Deva and his ancestors is well accounted in the history books of our country "INDIA". The descendents of king Bijjula Deva were not only great warriors but poets, publishers of books and very good administrators.

Kokalla - I Belonged to 845 AD (During king Bhuja - I 's Period). Defeated Bhuja - I and his cousin Sankaragana was an imperial power below Madhya Pradesh. Survived with 18 sons who were given 18 different governences in his kingdom.




KALCHURIS RULERS OF PALNADU IN ANDHRA PRADESH :

The Kalachuris, who were the natives of Cental India, came down to South India via Maharastra, Telangana, Karnataka and finally to Tamilnadu. While they came to be known as Mudiraj in Telugu speaking lands, the became famous as Muthuraja in Tamilnadu. These were the same people who called themselves as Aryans / Arayans / Arayars / Arasars / Arasu when the reached South India. They were the same people who created havoc by invading Chola, Chera and Pandyan kingdoms in South India and came to be known as Kala Arasars / Kalabhras. They were brave warriors, powerful administrators, and laborious temple & city builders.

Here, we have the story of Ankamma ( see Ankamma page in this website for more details ) which contain certain names to know the origins of those sections of Mudiraj community who are worshipping Goddess Ankamma / Ankalamma.

In one of the versions of Ankamma story, Kommaraju was the hero. There was a Kalchuri prince by name Kommaraja who belonged to Kalyani Kalchuris and had matrimonial alliance with Palnati Kalchuris of Telugu speaking lands. Since Kommaraju belonged to Kalyani Kalachuris and Kalchuris were Lunar race (soma vamsi / chandravamsi) kings, these descendants of Kommaraju could be from lunar race kings. The popular family diety of these sections of Mudiraj is Ankamma. They name their children with names such as Ankamma, Ankammarao, Ankarao, Pothuraju, Kommaraju, etc.

In the second version of Ankamma story, the hero was Rava Deva Raju and they belonged to Devagiri. Devagiri was the capital of Yadava Kingdom and it was also a part of Chalukya dynasty that spread in Maratha - Kannada speaking lands. The father's name of Ravadeva Raju was Dharma Choda Chari. These people could also be Kalachuris having relation to Chola-Chalukyas.

In both the versions of Ankamma story narrated by ballads during Ankamma Kolupu, it is quite clear that these Mudiraj ancestors were related to Brahmanaidu of Palnadu through their community and royal blood. While in one of the versions of the story, Rava Ddeva Raju and his father Dharma Choda Chari joined the royal court of Brahma Naidu, in the second version of the story, Kommaraja attacked Palnati Kalchuris in association with Brahmanaidu to take revenge for the death of his son Alaraja, who was poisned by Nagamma.

(1) KOMMA RAJU : Komma and Kommaraju are two surnames among Telugu people belonging to different castes and communities in Andhrapradesh today. Komma surname is prevelent among people of Mudiraj, Kshatriya Rajulu, Reddy and may be some other caste groups.

Mudiraj people are descendants of Kalchuris : There is a reference to one Kalachuri whose name was Kommaraja ( Komma Raja ) of Kalyani in the battele of Palnadu. The hero in the story narrated by ballads during Ankamma Kolupu is also Kommaraju / Kommaraja and one of the ancestors of some sections of Mudiraj people. This once again proves the connection between Mudiraj and Kalchuris through the story narrated by ballads during Ankamma Kolupu..

Palanati Kalchuri rulers (1176-1182) : The battle of Palnadu (Pallavanadu) is narrated in the Palnati Vira Charita of Srinatha. It was a battle between two factions of the Kalachuris (Haihaya).

Nalagama Raju was the son of Alugu Bhupathi Raju of the Palanati Kalachuris. His step brother was Malideva Raju, who was married to a princess of the Kalyani branch of Kalachuris. Dodda Naidu and Brahma Naidu were vassals of the Velanti Chodas (Vassals of the Chola-Chalukyas and responsible for the administration of their Andhra territories) and tried to usher in a new era in which caste distinctions would be abolished. Nalagama Raju was against this and tried to check their progress. Nalagama was supported by Nagamma, a female statesperson who became his chief adviser. The differences in ideology led to Brahma Naidu leaving with his supporters, including Nalagama's half brother Malideva and set up an independent court in Macherla.

Mutual suspicion and rivalry reached a high pitch between the two courts and Nagamma, under the pretext of Malideva's defeat in a cock-fight, exiled them for 7 years from Palnadu. After 7 years Brahma Naidu sent Alaraja, the son of Kalachuri Kommaraja of Kalyani, and the brother-in-law of Malideva to claim Malideva's share. The demand was turned down and Alaraja was poisoned to death under the orders of Nagamma. The enraged Kalyani Kalachuris and Brahma Naidu declared war on Gurujala. The fierce battle was fought in Karempudi on the banks of the river Naguleru. The Kakatiyas, Kota Vamsa, Parichedas and Hoysalas supported Nalagama and the Vengi Kalachuris. The Velanti Chodas and Malideva were supported by the Kalyani Kalachuris.

Nalagama was victorious. The civil war shook the Velanadu kingdom to its foundation. A whole generation of the greatest warriors of Andhra perished. The tragedy hastened the end of the Chalukyan rule in Vengi. It exposed their weaknesses and allowed the Hoysalas, Kalachuris, Eastern Gangas, and the Kakatiyas to eventually overrun them.

After the fall of the Chalukya empire Andhra was divided into an number of small dynasties. Amongst them were the Kalachuris, Perichedas, Kakatiyas, Velanti Cholas, Telugu Pallavas, and the Kota Vamsas.

The Kota Vamsas ruled their part of Andhra Pradesh with Dharanikota as their capital. It is believed that after the death of Kota Dodda Raju in the battle of Palnadu in AD 1182, the Kotas dispersed and named themselves after the villages of their origin such as Datla, Pakalapati, Chintalapati, Jampana, etc.

The Kakatiya Empire eventually became the preeminent power of Andhra and it was the first empire since the Satavahanas to incorporate the entire telugu speaking area. After the eventual fall of Warangal the Kotas became contemporaries of the Musunuri Nayaks and the Reddy kings of Rajamundry and eventually fell to the Vijayanagara Empire.

Telugu Raju Rulers : Historians have deciphered writings on the walls of temples describing the names and gotrams (family groupings) of some ancient Raju rulers and the contributions made by them to the temples and towns. Many of the Kshatriya Rajus are most probably the descendants of Kalchuris.

(2) KALYANA KINGDOM : The Kalyana referred in the story of Ankamma narrated by ballads points the connection of some sections of Mudiraj people to Chalkyan dynasty. Even the kingdom of Devagiri mentioned in the second version of the story was also part of Chalukya dynasty at one time. The Chalukyans are believed to be the kshatriyas of Maratha - Kannada origin. Chalukyans are also closely related to Kalchuris and Rastrakutas. The reference made to seven kings ruling Kalyana might be the chieftains of Chalukyan dynasty and ancestors of some sections of warrior Mudiraj / Mutharacha caste.

According to a Western Chalukya inscription of Vikramaditya VI, the Chalukyas originally hailed from Ayodhya where fifty-nine kings, and later sixteen more, of this family ruled from Dakshinapatha (South India) where they had migrated. Ayodhya Rama was one of the Suryavansi kings down the lane after Suryavansi koli Mandhata. The seven chieftains who were staunch shaivites and opposed to worship shakti could be suryavansi kolis. It is a well known fact that the Mudiraj in North India are known as kolis.

Kingdom of Kalyana & Chalukyas : Kalyana was the capital of the Chalukya kingdom.Taila (973-997 AD), a descendent of Early Chalukyas was the founder of the second Chalukya dynasty commonly referred as Western Chalukyas. His capital was located at the Manyakhet or Malkhed in modern Maharashtra state. His grandson Jayasimha II Jagadekamalla repelled invasion by Rajendra Chola in 1018 AD from South India and also defended his kingdom from northern invasion.

He later transferred his capital from Malkhed to Kalyana or Basavakalyana in modern Karnataka state. Jayasimha was an able ruler and was follwed by his equally brave son, Someshwara I (1043-68) who took a title of Trailokyamalla. Rajadhiraja Chola mounted an expedition against Chalukyas in 1045 AD and later captured their capital Kalyana. Someshwara retaliated and expelled Rajadhiraja. Eventually, by the end of 12th century AD, the sovereignty of entire south India was shared between Vikramaditya VI of Chalukya dynasty and Rajendra Chola (III) Kulottunga I.

Eleven kings ruled after Tailapa. They were Satyashraya Iriva Bedanga (997-1008 CE) VikramadityaV (1008-1015 CE), Jayasimha II (1015-1044 CE), Someshwara I (1044-1068) and Someshwara II(1068-1076 CE), Vikramaditya VI (1076-127 CE), Someshwara III (1127-1139 CE), Jagadekamalla (1139-49 CE), Tailapa III (1149-1162 CE) and finally Someshwara IV (1158-98 CE). Kalachuris, Hoysalas and Sevunas who were all biding their time were just waiting for a weakling to become a successor to Chalukyan throne. Kalachuris won, but then, Chalukyan Empire had disintegrated enough for all aspirants to have independent kingdoms.

Someshwara's son Vikramaditya VI (1076-1127 AD) was a famous king of Chalukyan dynasty. He started a new era replacing old `Shaka' era. His reign is landmark in history of Hindu Law. The great jurist Vijnaneshwara was patronised by him. Celebrated author Bilhana who wrote Vikramadeva-Charita was also in his court. He also known to have patronised numerous poets. His son and successor Someshvara III (1126-1138 AD) was also a writer of repute. After death of Someshwara III the Chalukyan empire started it's decline. After two centuries of rule, in 1190 AD this dynasty disintegrated and their territory was divided among three separate Kingdoms. Hoysalas of Dorasamudra, Kakatiyas of Warangal and Yadavas of Devgiri. Hoysalas occupied all of Karnataka region, Kakatiyas occupied Andhra pradesh while Yadavas occupied Maharashtra.

Symbol of Boar on Coins issued by Chalukyas : Boar is an important animal in the lives of some people belonging to Mudiraj - almikis and Muthuraj - Kannappa kula subcastes. The Chalukyas and Kalchuris matrimonially related and belong to one royal block.

The gold punch-marked coins were first introduced in south India in seventh century AD by Eastern Chalukya rulers. These punch-marked gold coins of ~3.5 to 4 gms were reintroduced by Jayasimha II Jagadekamalla, a ruler of Western Chalukya dynasty.

This is an uniface gold coin with seven punches, four of which are prominent while three are partly struck at the border of the coin. The two prominent punch marks create two Shri alphabates in Telugu-Kanerese which depicts lord Vishnu. The third punch mark corresponding to a triangular motif, represents spearhead. The fourth punch mark represents Telugu-Kanarese inscription which reads Bhairava. Two marks at the lower corners represent lions (stylized) while the seventh punch mark at the lower left corner perhaps represents sun and moon.

Some of the coins of similar type bear legend Sri Venga Vadi Gonda, the conquorer of Vengi. The obverse shows a large caprisoned boar or Varaha (represents one of the incarnaion of Lord Vishnu) which was Lanchhana or royal emblem of this dynasty. Above the boar is a pellet and crescent, representing sun and moon.

The faith of Shaivism : The Mudiraj people were staunch Shiva devotees at one time. This could be true as Kalchuris strongly supported Shaivism and jainism in their countries. Even Mutharayars too built Shiva temples in Tamilnadu.

The northern part of Karnataka is one of the richest areas of India in monuments of great artistic value. It was subjected to the rule of several royal families, Calukyas of Kalyana, Kalacuris and Seunas in the 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th centuries A.D. which has been a period of great cultural refinement. It was the time of the greatest expansion of the Kalamukha-Lakulasaiva movements, and of the rise of Virasaivism. The temple of Muktesvara at Caudadanapura (Dharwar District) is a beautiful representative of the style and the high culture of that time. Its history is known to us thanks to a set of seven long inscriptions, composed in literary medieval Kannada, engraved with great care on large steles. They provide informations on the local rulers, kings of Guttala who claimed a Gupta ascendancy, on some constructions in the temple complex, on diverse donations to the deity, and very interesting details on a few prominent religious leaders. It introduces to us Muktajiyar, a Lakulasaiva saint, and Sivadeva, a Virasaiva saint, who entered the place on the 19th of August 1225 and led there a long life of renunciation, asceticism and spiritual elevation. The legacy of this age of intense Saivite faith is a jewel of architecture and sculpture. It is a single cella temple in what is popularly known as Jakkanacari style, sometimes called Kalyana-Calukyan style, which is not appropriate, as many temples of the same style have also been built under the patronage of Kalacuri or Seuna dynasties.

Kalachuris : This dynasty which overthrew the Chalukyas of Kalyani in the early part of the 12th century, had a relatively short but stormy rule. According to a record pertaining to the year 1174 , the founder of the family was a person by the name of Soma, who was a disciple of Ashwathama (the heroic character of the Mahabharata). According to legends, he grew a beard and a moustache to conceal his visage, in a bid to escape the wrath of the fiery Parashurama (another famous character of the Mahabharata).

Relics of Chalukyas of Kalyani : Thereafter his family and kinsmen came to be known as Kalachuris (Kalli meaning a long moustache and churi meaning a sharp knife). However, the later records of the dynasty claim that they descended from Brahma, the Creator of the universe.

The Kalachuris were also related to the early Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas by matrimonial alliances. Some scholars believe that they migrated to the south and made Mangalavedhe (Mangalavada) their headquarters. They called themselves Kalanjarapuravaradhisvara, which indicates their central Indian origin. Their emblem was a golden bull. It is likely that they had started out as feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani.

The first prominent ruler of the Kalachuris was Uchita, who was followed by Asaga, Kannam and Kiriyasaga. However under Bijjala I and his son Kannama, the Kalachuris began to wield considerable political power.

However Kannama's son Jogama became an influential feudatory of the Chalukya Vikramaditya VI, who was matrimonially connected to the Kalachuri chief. This trend continued right upto the reign of Jogama's son and successor, Permadi. Even though he was a Mahamandalesvara (feudal lord) he enjoyed considerable clout in the royal circles.

Brahma,the creator of the universe : Permadi's son Bijjala II (1130-1167 A.D) succeeded his father as the Mahamandalesvara. He realised that under Vikramaditya's successors the Chalukya empire was growing weaker. This encouraged him to declare his independence. The Chikkalagi inscription refers to Bijjala II as "Mahabhujabalachakravarti (literally: the sovereign with tremendous power in his arms).

Some historians identify several Kalachuri ruling families in Tripuri, Gorakhpur, Ratnapur, Rajpur (eastern Gujarat) regions of central India. Dr. P. B. Desai, the renowned historian opines that the Kalachuris did not originally belong to Karnataka. On the contrary they had migrated from central India. There they were known as Katachuris, and they ruled over an empire spanning Malwa, Gujarat, Konkan and Maharashtra. However, one of its rulers, Buddharaja, experienced a crushing defeat at hands of the Chalukya king Mangalesa, which pushed this dynasty into oblivion.

The most outstanding figure that emerged during the reign of the Kalachuris was Shree Basava (also known as Basaveshwara or Basavanna) who was the founder of the Lingayat ( linga = the phallic symbol of Shiva) religious sect in India. He ushered in a massive social transformation by inspiring and encouraging the people belonging to the lower castes to bring about changes in their ideas and thougts by concentrating on and sincerely worshipping Lord Shiva.

Basaveshwara is believed to have been a mystic, an idealist and a statesman. He was also an erudite and scholarly person, overflowing with kindness and compassion for the oppressed and the downtrodden masses. He preached his ideas about a new approach towards God and life by means of Vachanas or the sacred hymns composed by him.

Vasava spearheaded the Virasaiva movement, which sought to simplify religion and create a harmonious social order. Throughout his life Basava led a relentless crusade against the caste hierarchy, social inequality, and the heinous practice of untouchability. In the teeth of opposition from orthodox, high-caste Hindus, he endeavoured to stamp out all manner of social evils from of his state.

For more details about Kalyana Kingdom, please refer to web page "KINGDOMS" in this website.

SOME EVENTS OF KALCHURIS OF SOUTH INDIA :

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Date :01/01/2007



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