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01. Sripurusha Muttarasa related Inscriptions. Click here to go to -->
02. Kaduvetti Muttarasa Related Inscriptions. Click here to go to -->
03. Tondemana Muttarasa Related Inscriptions Click here to go to -->
04. Kamban Arriyan Related Inscriptions Click here to go to -->
05. Ilangovathi Mutharayar Related Inscriptions. Click here to go to -->
06. Sattan Maran Related Inscriptions. Click here to go to -->
07. Perumbidugu Muttaraiyar Related Inscriptions. Click here to go to -->
08. Muddarasa (Minister of Virupaksha-II) Related Inscriptions. Click here to go to -->
09. Dandanayaka Muddarasa Related Inscriptions. Click here to go to -->
10. Mangaliveda King Muddaraja Related Inscriptions. Click here to go to -->
11. Muddaraja (Son of Martandadeva) Related Inscriptions. Click here to go to -->
12. Haleri King Muddaraja Related Inscriptions Click here to go to -->
13. Mudduraja (Son of Trimalarajanayaka) Related Inscriptions. Click here to go to -->
14. Marpidugu Tirukkottiyur kalvan Makalan Related Inscriptions. Click here to go to -->
15. Archeo-symbols of Hindu-Buddhism in Mutharaiyar inscription near Karur Dt. Click here to go to -->
16. Pallava - Mutharaiyar related inscription near Karur Dt. Click here to go to -->
99. Miscellaneous Mudiraj Related Inscriptions. Click here to go to -->

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For more details about Sripurusha Muttarasa and the related kings, readers may kindly like to go through the separate page on KINGS in this website.

Sripurusha was a famous king of Western Ganga Dynasty who assumed the title of Muttarasa. Sripurusha was a Western Ganga Dynasty king and ruled from 726 - 788 C.E. From the Javali inscription it is said that Sripurusha ruled for 62 years. He had marital relations with the Chalukyas and used titles Rajakesari, Bhimakopa and Ranabhajana. A warrior and a scholar, he authored the Sanskrit work Gajasastra. Devarahalli inscription calls Sripurusha Maharajadhiraja Paramamahesvara Bhatara. Salem copper plates of Sripurusha and a few other plates of these rulers were very useful in reconstructing the history of medieval Kongu. As per these plates it is known that a contest with the Pandyas of Madurai over control of Kongu region ended in a Ganga defeat, but a matrimony between a Ganga princess and Rajasimha Pandya's son brought peace helping the Gangas retain control over the contested region.

Vikramaditya again invaded the Pallava kingdom after 735, aided by the faithful ally, the Western Ganga King Sripurusha who joined the Chalukyas in this expedition. The earliest mention of this invasion are in the Narwan plates issued on 21st December 741 or 742.

In the several inscriptions and writing we get various reference to the royal patronage extened to Sravana-Belagola by Ganga monarchs. The earliest of the Ganga records refer to the erection of a Basti or Jaina temple by King Sivamara II, the son of Sripurusha ( 726 � 776 A.D.). Many inscriptions also refer to king Marashimha ( 961-974 A.D.,) the doyen of the Ganga family. He was monarch in every sense of the term and he has been described in the inscriptions with many a sonorous title like, 'Dharmavatara' ( i.e. religion incarnated), 'Ganga-Chudamani' (i.e. crest-jewel of the Gangas), 'Gangasimha' ( i.e. lion among the Gangas) , etc. All these indicate the respect the commanded in his own life-time, and the seems to have fully deserved all these appellations. He also performed the anointing ceremony of the Rashtrakuta king, Indara, III, thereby indicating his political power. The inscription mentions that he always maintained the doctrine of Jaina and erected Basti and Manas tembhas at various places, and the inscription ends with the statement that he relinguished the sovereignty and, keeping the yow of 'Sallekhana' for three days in the presence of Ajita-Bhattaraka died at Bankapura in 974 A.D. Thus he exhibited the classic example of singular devotion to his faith and fully evoked the admiration of his contemporaries. The result is seen in the erection in the year 981 A.D. of the colossal image of Gommatesvara by his general Chamunda-Raya at Sravana-Belagola, which is in itself a monument to the zeal of the Jainas during that great age.

Inscription No. 37 merely refers to the illustrious Ganga family and in the inscription No. 378 there is a reference to a fierce battle between the Ganga and the Cholas. Inscription No. 69 states that Gopanandi caused the Jaina religion, which has become weak, to attain the prosperity and fame which his formerly enjoyed during the time of the Ganga kings. The inscription No. 67 mentions in a poetical way the help received by the founder of the Ganga dynasty from the Jaina teachers Acharya Simhanandi in establishing his power. There are also other inscriptions and literary works which refer to Acharya Simhanandi as the founder of the Ganga kingdom.

An 8th century AD copper-plate Grant issued by the Ganga emperor Sripurusha mentions Gudalur and environs as containing lands fit for cultivation of rice and grains, garden lands and forest lands fit for the cultivation of drugs or pepper and as including fourteen villages.

The 771 Salem plates of Sripurusha and the Koramangala grant however indicate the Kongu region remained in Ganga control. Salem copper plates of Sripurusha and a few other plates of these rulers were very useful in reconstructing the history of medieval Kongu.

The Agali grant and Devarahalli inscription calls Sripurusha Maharajadhiraja Paramamahesvara Bhatara

The Hindu -Online edition of India's National Newspaper - Chikmagulur- Friday, Aug 17, 2007 -ePaper - about stone inscription found at Hirenallur in Kadur Taluk :

H.M. Nagaraja Rao, epigraphist, and Hareesh Singategere, advocate, have deciphered an eighth century stone inscription found at Hirenallur in Kadur Taluk, Chikmagalur district, Karnataka that throws new light on the genealogy of the Ganga kings. There is one Shiva temple at Hirenallur.

The unpublished broken hero stone inscription belonging to the period of Ganga king Sripurusha, about 725-788 A.D., was unearthed during the renovation of Mallikarjuna temple in Hirenallur in Kadur taluk.

The inscription mentions the title of Ganga ruler Sripurusha as 'Prithvi Konguni Mahadhiraja Parameshwara Bhattara,' who captured Asandinadu which was ruled by Nirgunda Mutharasa and his son Dunnamma.

According to Mr. Singategere, the inscription mentions that king Sripurusha seized a place and Nirgunda Muttarasa who was ruling Asandinadu and his son Dundamma participated in a fight. Dundamma (Dunnamma) and his son Paramagula were so far considered feudatories of the Ganga king Shivamara. But they seems to be the family members of Sripurusha..

If Sripurusha who was also known as Mutturasa and Nirgunda Muttarasa named in the inscription were the same person, then Dundamma was the son of Sripurusha. The inscription reveals for the first time that Sripurusha had other titles like Arivallabha and Vallavarasa.

Sripurusha Muttarasa = Nirgunda Muttarasa

Nirgunda : Sripurusha Muttarasa is also known as Nirgunda Muttarasa. Nirgunda figures in the following Inscriptions.

South Indian Inscriptions Volume-IX - Part-1 - - Miscellaneous Inscriptions in Kannada - Chalukyas of Kalyani

No. 181 - (A.R. No. 114 of 1913.) - ON A SLAB SET UP IN THE COURT-YARD OF THE BHIMESVARA TEMPLE AT NILAGUNDA, HARPANAHALLI TALUK, SAME DISTRICT - This is dated Chalukya-Vikrama year 35 (current), Vikrita, Bhadrapada, ba. 11, Adivara, Uttarayana-Sankranti (error) corresponding to A.D. 1110 September 11, Sunday, in the reign of the Chalukya king Tribhuvanamalladeva who was ruling from Kalyana. His Dandanayakas, Anantapalayya and Muddarasa ( = Muttarasa = Mutharasa ) who were in charge of the toll-revenue, made a gift of a portion of the tolls for the service of the god Bhimesvaradeva at Nirgunda. The record is damaged.

No. 153 - (A.R. No. 29 of 1904.) - ON ANOTHER SLAB SET UP IN THE KALLESVARA TEMPLE AT AMBALI, KUDILIGI TALUK BELLARY DISTRICT - This is dated Saka 1004, 6th year of the reign of Vikramaditya (VI), Dundubhi, Pushya, amavasye corresponding to A.D. 1083 January 20 Friday. It refers itself to the reign of the Chalukya king Tribhuvanamalladeva ruling over Nolambavadi thirty-two-thousand. It records that the Senapati Sivaraja, son of Bhogadeva who was a descendant of Pasupati-Bhatta, who had been the chief of Ammle at the time of the Ganga king Durvinita and honoured by that king, caused the construction of the temple of Kalideva at Ammele, that at his suggestion the Mahajanas of the place made a grant of some plots of land for the service of the god and that the Danddanayaka Anantapalayya who was in charge of the toll-revenue made a gift of a portion of the toll-revenue and of some plotes of land for the service of the gods Kalideva, Dhavala=Sankaradeva and Kesavadeva in the same village. The record gives the genealogy of the Chalukya kings from Tailapa down to Vikramaditya (VI) and is a little damaged.

The Chalukyan king Vikramaditya VI invited learned brahmins from Tamil Nadu, and turned Nirgunda in Koguli province into an agrahara (agraharikritya) and donated it to the brahmins.

Nirgunda is a town in Gulbarga District of Karnataka and is about 59 km east of Gulbarga. Nearby places include Halcheri to the west, Sulahpet to the north, Kurgunta to the south and Kiadgira of Andhra Pradesh to the east. Nearest airport is Hyderabad Airport. Seram Railway Station on Gulbarga-Tandur line is the nearest railhead.

Inscriptions have revealed several important administrative designations such as prime minister (sarvadhikari), treasurer (shribhandari), foreign minister (sandhivirgrahi) and chief minister (mahapradhana). All of these positions came with an additional title of commander (dandanayaka). Other designations were royal steward (manevergade), master of robes (mahapasayita), commander of elephant corps (gajasahani), commander of cavalry (thuragasahani) etc. In the royal house, Niyogis oversaw palace administration, royal clothing and jewelery etc. and the Padiyara were responsible for court ceremonies including door keeping and protocol.

South Indian Inscriptions -Pallva Inscriptions :

No. 107 - (A. R. No. 227 of 1915) - Brahmadesam, Cheyyar Taluk, North Arcot District - It is stated in this record of Vijaya-Kampavarman, dated in the 20th year, that a member of the alum-ganattar of Kavadippakkam in Paduvur-kottam made a gift of 11 kalanju of gold for supplying, from the interest on this amount, water to the village may be identified with Brahmadesam itself where the present inscription is found. Since we find an inscription of the Ganga king Rajamalla, the grandson of Sripurusha at Vallimalai not very far from Brahmadesam, Rajamalla-chaturvedimangalam, may have been called so after this Ganga king. It may be mentioned that in the region surrounding Brahmadesam there are villages called Sripurushamangalam and Ranavikrama chaturvedimangalam which must have been named after the Ganga kings Sripurusha and Ranavikrama, the grandfather and father respectively of Rajamalla. The name of the god at Brahmadesam viz., Tiruppondai-Perumanadigal is uncommon in the Tamil country and it is probably to be traced to some Ganga or Western Chalukya princess.

An incomplete inscription (No. 12) from Gudigeri, which is not dated but assigned to about the 8th or 9th century A.D. on palaeographical grounds, was published by Fleet. It refers itself to the reign of a certain Marassalba-maharaja and mentions one Dadigarasa as governing the nadu, evidently as a feudatory of the king. Fleet was inclined to identify Marassalba or Marasarva might have been a member of the Western Ganga family, possible the Ganga king Sripurusha-Muttarasa. As suggested by Altekar, Marasarva of the Wani-Dindori and Radhanpur plates seems to have been a petty ruler of Sarbhon in Bharoch and hence cannot be identified with Marasalba of the Gudigeri record. But his view that the latter was a small local feudatory ruling over a district is untenable. For, the record, states in unequivocal terms that Marassalba was 'ruling over the earth' (prithvi-rajyam geye), thereby indicating his sovereign status. It may be pointed out that Amoghavarsha I, the son and successor of a Govinda III, was called Sarva and, therefore, Marassalba or Marasarva may be identified with him. In the alternative, it may be taken to be an epithet of Govinda III himself. Dadigarasa who was governing the nadu, which probably stands for Banavasi-nadu, is not known from any other source.

The common word that we can see in Marassalba or Marasarva is Marasa. The name "Marasa" normally stand for Mudiraj (Marasa = Maaraasa = Maharasa = Maharacha = Mutharacha). The Mudiraj people who worship Goddess Ankamma are known as Marasa warriors (Maaraasa veerulu) and the Goddess Ankamma is called Marasapu Ankamma.

Kokolu Anka Rao

Additional informat about Sripurusha Muttarasa and Shivamara (II) Muttarasa from other sources:

After defeating and dethroning his elder brother Govinda-II, about 780 AD, Dhruva proceeded to punish the kings of Gangavadi (Mysore) and Kanchoi who had espoused the cause of the later. He defeated the ganga king Sripurusha Muttarasa, took his son Shivamara (II) prisoner and annexed the whole Gangavadi, thus extending the Rastrakuta kingdom as far as Kaveri in the South India. Dhruva nominated a younger son Govinda-III as his successor, and appointed the elder son Stambha as viceroy of Gangavadi. As expected Stambha rebelled against his younger brother Govinda-III with the help of Pallava king and the ganga crown prince Shivamara Muttarasa.

Govinda III, the son and successor of Dhruva, proved to be a still greater conqueror. After obtaining an easy victory over the Ganga king Muttarasa (Shivamara) ruling in Gangavadi, he led victorious campaigns in Central and Northern India.

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For more details about Kaduvetti Muttarasa and the related kings, readers may kindly like to go through the separate page on KINGS in this website.

South Indian Inscriptions Volume-IX - Part-1 - Banas Inscriptions - Miscellaneous Inscriptions in Kannada :

No. 5 - (A.R. No. 542 of 1906.) - ON A SLAB SET UP OUTSIDE THE SOMESVARA TEMPLE AT PUNGANURU, PUNGANUR ZAMINDARI, CHITTOOR DISTRICT - This undated inscription records the gift of a wet land of a Kanduga os spwomg capacity, (to the family of ) Kalianiga Kandanarayana who died after slaying nine thieves when the Bana king Vijayaditya Prabhumeru was ruling over Vadugavali twelve-thousand province and east of Manne and Kaduvatti-Muttarasa had come to raid Koyatur.

No. 6 - (A.R. No. 327 of 1912.) - ON A SLAB SET UP IN A FIELD AT KARSHNAPALLE, PUNGANUR ZAMINDARI, CHITTOOR DISTRICT - This is not dated and refers itself to the reign of the Bana king Banarasa, who was also in charge of the Ganga six-thousand province when Ballaha i.e., the Rashtrakuta king led a campaign against Kaduvetti ( Muttarasa ), for not paying tribute. On this occasion a certain servant of Banatattaran, himself a s ervant of Vijayitta, while returning on a horse near Kuntiala, died after slaying Ganamurti. Since the characters of the record are of the 9th century A.D. it may be assigned to the time of Vijayaditya II.

South Indian Inscriptions - Pallava Inscriptions :

No. 41 - (A. R. No. 348 of 1914) - Kunnandarkoyil, Pudukkottai State - At the north end of the rock-cut cave of the Parvatagirisvara temple - This is dated in the 5th year of Vijaya-Dantipottaraiyar and records the construction of a tank called ' Vali-eri ' by Vali-Vadugan alias Kalimurkka-Ilavaraiyan, a servant of Marppiduvinar alias Peradi-Araiyar. Published in the 'Inscriptions (Texts) of the Pudukkotttai State,' No. 17.

No. 44 - (A. R. No. 89 of 1921) - Pillaipalayam, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District - On a slab built into the floor at the entrance into the Tirumerrali temple - This is a fragmentary record of Dantivikramavarman. It mentions a certain [Ka]duvetti-Muttaraiyan at whose request an endowment of 4 patti of land was made to the old temple of Vishnu called Tirumerrali at Iraiyancheri and to a matha, probably attached to it. Reference to a Kaduvetti-Muttarasan who made a raid on Koyattur in the reign of the Bana king Vijayaditya Virachulamani Prabhumeru is noticed in a record from Punganur (No. 542 of 1906). This chief was probably identical with the Kaduvetti-Muttaraiyan mentioned in the present inscription as he lived about this period Nandivarman III.

No. 48 - (A. R. Nos. 88 of 1910 and 529 of 1905) - Tiruvellarai, Lalgudi Taluk, Trichinopoly District. -On a rock in front of the Jambunathasvamin Temple - This inscription was partially copied in 1905 and then completely in 1910 after removing a wall obstructing a portion of the record. The middle portion of the inscription is damaged being chiseled away right through to construct a drain. It appears to be dated in the 6th year of Pallava-Maharaja alias Danti-Nandivarman of the Bhara[dvaja-gotra] and Brahmakshatra family. The king's name, in the form given here, implies that Nandivarman was the son of Dantivarman. The inscription seems to record the praise of a certain Sellikkoman Mallavan who is described as the nephew of Parasiraman and the uncle of Marpidugu Ilangovelan Sattan . The record is stated to have ben composed by a certain Perungavidi Sadaiyanpalli.Pullis are marked in the record in some cases.

No. 63. - (A.R. No. 365 of 1904) - Narttamalai, Pudukkottai State - On the north base of the ruined mandapa in front of the rock-cut Siva temple - This inscription is dated in the 7th year of Nripatungavikramavarman. It states that Sattam Paliyili, son of Videlvidugu-Muttaraiyan, excavated the (rock-cut) temple and that his daughter Paliyili Siriya-Nangai, the wife of Minavan Tamiladiyaraiyan alias Pallan Anantan enlarged it by adding a mukha-mandapa, bali-pitha etc., and also made provision for worship and offerings to the god therein.

Sattan Paliyili was the son of Videlvidugu Muththaraiyan. This inscription was issued in the 7th year of the Pallava king Nirupathunga, that is in (862+7)A.D.869.

No. 66 - (A. R. No. 461 of 1905) - Tiruvalangadu, Tiruttani Taluk, Chittoor District -On the east wall of the first prakara of the Nataraja shrine in the Vataranyesvara temple - This inscription is engraved below No. 64 and therefore, may also be likewise taken to be a later copy. It is dated in the 15th year of Nripatungadeva, and it states that the assembly of Pulvelur in Eyir-kottam agreed to supply one uri of oil daily, by the measure Pirudimanikkam for burning two perpetual lamps in the temple of Tiruvalangadu-Udaiyar for the amount of 30 kalanju of gold received by them from one Ariganda-Perumal. This person may be identified with the donor of the same name mentioned as the son of Kadupatti-Muttaraiyar in a record of the 24th year of Nripatunga from Tirumukkudal. It may be mentioned that Kadupatti-Muttaraiyar figures in a record from Pillaipalaiyam near Conjeeveram in the reign of Dantivarman.

Nripatunga's queen, according to No. 64 above from the same place, was Kadavan-Madeviyar, also known as Prithivimanikkam, and the liquid measure of the temple was called Pirudimanikkam evidently after her name. It was probably after this queen that the Vishnu temple at Ukkal in the North Arcot district was called Bhuvanimanikka-Vishnugriham.

No. 74 - (A.R. No. 38 of 1930-31) - Tirukkodikkaval, Kumbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District - On the South wall of the central shrine in the Tirukkodisvara temple - This record of the 22nd year, like No. 55 above, is prefaced by the remark that 'this is also a copy of an old stone inscription'. It is preceded by a record of the Pandya king Maran Sadaiyan (A. R. No. 37 of 1930-31) and followed by an epigraph of the Muttaraiyar chief Ilango-Muttaraiyar (A.R. No. 39 of 1903-31), all of which are engraved in continuation of one another. It has been pointed out above (No. 55) that the temple at Tirukkodikkaval was renovated by Sembiyan-Madeviyar, the mother of the Chola king Uttama-Chola and that she took care to re-engrave on the new walls of the old inscriptions found in the temple.

The present record does not give the king's name, but from the mention therein of Vira-Mahadeviyar, the queen of Nripatunga-Maharaja, it may be ascribed to Nripatunga himself. It gives the interesting information that this queen performed the hiranyagarbha and tulabhara ceremonies, evidently at Tirukkodikka and presented 50 kalanju of gold from the wealth so weighted, to the temple of Mahadeva in the village for offerings and lamp. The assembly of Tirukkodikkavu alias Kannamangalam received the money and undertook to conduct the endowment. Queen Vira-Mahadeviyar is known to epigraphy for the first time only from this record.

No. 75 - (A. R. No. 179 of 1915) - Tirumukkudal, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District - On a slab supporting a beam set up in the inner enclosure of the Venkatesa-Perumal temple - This record states that, in the 24th year of Vijaya-Nripatungavikramavarman, the assembly of Siyapuram in Urrukkattuk-kottam agreed to maintain a perpetual lamp in the temple of Vishnu-Bhatara at Tirumukkudal for the interest on 30 kalanju of gold received by them from Ariganda-Perumanar, son of Kadupatti-Muttaraiyar. The interest on 30 kalanju came to 4� kalanju, calculating at the rate of 3 manjadi per kalanju. For this 4� kalanju, the assembly of Siyapuram agreed to supply oil at a uniform rate of 40 nali per kalanju for maintaining the lamp. Palaiyasivaram near Tirumukkudal is called Siyapuram in inscriptions.

No. 103 - (A. R. No. 174 of 1912) - Tiruvorriyur, Saidapet Taluk, Chingleput District - On a slab built into the floor of the verandah round the central shrine in the Adhipurisvara temple - This date of this record of Vijaya-Kampavarman is not clear. It might be 11, 13 or 16. The inscription records an agreement made by the assembly (ur) of Vaikkattur ro provide offerings to the god Mahadeva at Tiruvorriyur, on the day of sankranti, for the interest on 27 kalanju of gold received by them from Pudi Arindigai, wife of Videlvidugu[Ilankove]lar of Kodumbalur in Ko-nadu. The chiefs of Kodumbalur (in the Pudukkottai state) figure largely in inscriptions as subordinates of the Cholas, but their connection with the Pallavas is not so well known. A chief of this family is also mentioned in a mutilated record from Kilur, dated in the 11th year of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman, where the donor is stated to be the wife of Sattan maravan and the daughter of Vikrama-Pudi who is probably identical with Videlvidugu Ilanko-Adiaraiyan mentioned in the same record.

Thiruttani and Velanjeri Copper Plates - Videlvidugu Kaduvetti Muttarasa :

Two important Copper Plate grants- one issued by the Pallava ruler Aparajita and another by Parantaka Chola I were discovered at the Village Velanjeri near Thiruttani, on 6-10-1977. One of the copper plates was issued by the Pallava ruler Aparajitavarman in his ninth year and the other one was issued by Parantaka Chola in the 25th year about 930 A.D. Both these plates, particularly the Pallava copper plate throws very valuable light on the political and religious history of Tamilnadu and is the most important discovery in recent years. We get a valuable information about Videlvidugu Kaduvatti Muttarasar whose daughter was married to a Pandyan king.

The Banas were clearly on the side of Narpatunga. Bana Paranjaya, who had the title Kadupatti Muttariyan, requested Nrpatunga to grant the Chirrur plates. Aparajita defeated a Bana ruler who was in all probability this Paranjaya, kadupatti Muttaraiya. The Banas were clearly on the side of Narpatunga.

After giving the mythical genealogy of the Pallavas, the grant begins with Kampavarman. He seized the throne from Pallava Nrpatunga with glory. A certain Vijaya of matchless virtues and born of the Ganga family, was his queen. Aparajita was their son. Aparajita destroyed the elepants of the Bana (Muttarasa) ruler, captured Karanai,the Pandya city, and won a great battle against the Chola at Chirrarrur. Kampa and Aparajita had the able support of the Ganga chieftains. Further, this plate states that Kampavarman captured the Pallava throne forcibly from Nrpatunga.

A Pandya, said to have been a grandson of the Bana through a daughter, was also defeated by Aparajita. Pandya Varaguna received help from Nrpatunga. It is not known who the mother of Varaguna was. If Varaguna was the adversary of Aparajita, in all probability he was, we get here the information that he was the son of this Bana's daughter. This Bana also had the title Kadupatti Muttarasar. So the fact that the Muttarasar were closely related to Pandya Varaguna is also thus attested. That may also attest to the presence of Varaguna at Sendalai.

The third adversary of Aprajita was a Chola defeated at Chirrarrur. In all probability the Chola adversary was Aditya. We know that subsquently Aditya killed Aparajita in the battle. This shows that Varaguna, Aditya, Bana and Muttarasa were on the side of Nrpatunga while Aparajita and Kampa, were aided by the Ganga ruler Prithivipati on the other. It was mentioned earlier that Aparajita's mother was a Ganga princess. That Aparajita was aided in the Sripurambiyam battle by Ganga Prithivipati is well known Prithvipati obtained victory for his over lord Aparajita, but lost his life in that battle.

The role of chieftains during this period requires carefull study. Banas, Gangas, Muttaraiyars, Irukkuvels, Viluppariyars, Tamil Peraraiyar, Pallavaraiyar etc. are found during this period. It is noteworthy that a number of chieftains bore the title Videlvidugu.

Videlvidugu Kadupatti Muttaraiyan
The Vijnapti of the Chirrur plates issued in the sixth year of Nrpatunga was Muttaraiyan, who also had the title Paranjaya. He was a Bana and is called a descendent of Balikula. He is also called Agatrayesa and Saila trayendra.* (* [These are names of the Trikuta mountain, considered to the the highest peak of the Himalayas. Rulers of eminence assumed the title Trikutachalapati to mark their valour. The Cholas a little later assumed the little "Mummudi" which in all probability refers to Trikuta].

The cave temple at Malaiyadipatti, in Pudukkottai district, was excavated by one Kuvavan Sattan alias Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan in the 16th year of Dantivarman. It is not known whether this Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan is identical with Kadupatti Muttaraiyan.

A Kadupatti Muttariya figures in an inscription of Dantivarman (the date is lost) from Pallipalayam village in Kanchipuram taluk. He appears as a Vijnapti. This would suggest that Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan was identical with Kadupatti Muttaraiyan. Kadupatti Muttaraiya raided Koyattur in the reign of Bana Vijayaditta Virachulamani Prabhumeru as mentioned in the Punganur record. This Bana Vijayaditta Prabhumeru, was a contemporary of Nrpatunga and it is evident that this Kadupatti Muttaraiyan is identical with the Kadupatti Muttaraiya mentioned in the Chirrur plates as Vijnapti.

Dr. Ramesan has identified Paranjaya, the Vijnapti of Chirrur plates with Vikramaditya Jayameru Bana Vidyadhara. Since Paranjaya and Vikramaditya were Banas, Ramesan ventured to suggest the identification. The identification is not correct since we have seen, the Paranjaya was Kadupatti Muttaraiya and that he invaded Koyattur under Bana Vidhyadhara. So Bana Paranjaya and Vikramaditya Jayameru Bana Vidhyadhara are two different persons. Vijayaditta, Vikramaditta and others called themselves Mavalivanadhiraya. They probably belonged to a colateral branch of the Bana family. The other Bana family took the title Mutarasa. Kadupatti Muttarasa was active from the 16th year of Dantivarman to that of Nrpatunga, for over sixty years from 810 to 870.

Kaduvetti Muttaraiya's son Arikanta ( Ariganda ) Perumal, is mentioned in the 15th year of Nrpatunga in an inscription of Thiruvalangadu. Arikanta continued to hold power and influence upto the 24th year of Nrpatunga. In this record he is mentioned as the son of Kadupatti Muttaraiya. In all probability Kadupatti Muttaraiya passed away before the 15th year of Nrpatunga.

South Indian Inscriptions - Nolamba Pallavas - Miscellaneous Inscriptions in Kannada - Volume-9-part1 :

No. 20 - (A.R. No. 306 of 1912.) - ON A SLAB IN A FIELD AT KALAKATTUR, PUNGANUR ZAMINDARI, CHITTOOR DISTRICT - This is not dated; it refers itself to the reign of the Nolamba-Pallava king Nolambadiyarasa, who is stated to have been ruling over the Ganga six-thousand province and to have marched on Talekadu. Under the orders of the Ganga king Permanadi, a certain Maharaja is said to have attacked Pulinadu. In the battle that ensued the village of Permavi was burnt by Kaduvatti and Mriduva. On hearing this, Virachulamani (probably the Bana king) fought with their army and overthrew it: when there was hue and cry caused by some Nayakas opposing Virachudamani, a certain Tejamani was slain. The (Nolamba) king honoured the dead warrior by granting to his family kalnadu called "Elemadala". Since the palaeography of the record points to 9th century A.D. as its period the Nolambadivarasa of the inscription may be identical with Mahendra I.

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South Indian Inscriptions - Chalukyas of Badami Inscriptions - Miscellaneous Inscriptions in Kannada - Volume-9-part1 :

No. 52 - ( A.R. No. 734 of 1919.) - ON A SLAB SET UP NEAR THE ISVARA TEMPLE AT NAGARURU, ALUR TALUK, BELLARY DISTRICT - This is not dated and is little damaged. It refers itself to the reign of the Chalukya king . . . ditya and records the grant of some land by Nagamangala. Mention is also made of Tondemana Muttarasa.

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South Indian Inscriptions Volume_12 - Vyaghrapurisvara -Pallava Inscriptions :

No. 40 - (A. R. No. 541 of 1905) - Tiruvellarai, Lalgudi Taluk, Trichinopoly District.On the margin of a well called 'Nalumulaikkeni' - This inscription records the construction of a well called Marppidugu-Perunkinaru at Tennur in Tiruvellarai by Kamban Araiyan, the younger brother of Visayanallulan of Alambakkam, in the 4th year of Dantivarman. The well is designed in the for of a svastika and it is reached by a flight of steps from each of the four directions. Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XI, p. 157.

No. 37 - (C. P. No. 5 of 1922-23) - Pattattalmangalam grant of Nandivarman: 61st year - Like the previous record, this is also engraved in Grantha and Tamil characters. It is dated in the 61st year of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman and registers a grant of 16 veli of land, which, together with the 24 veli granted previously, was constituted into a village under the name Pattattalmangalam and given to a number of Brahmanas at the instance of Mangala-Nadalvan, an officer of the king. The ajnapti of the grant viz., Vijayanallulan of Alappakkam is identical with the person of the same name figuring in an inscription of Nandivarman at Tiruvellarai in the Trichinopoly district. The engraver of the grant was Sri-Dandi, son of Videlvidugu Pallavap-peruntachchan of Aimpanaichcheri in Kachchippedu. Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XVIII, pp. 120 ff.

No. 32 - (A. R. No. 537 of 1905) - Tiruvellarai, Lalgudi Taluk, Trichinopoly District. - On the third pillar in the rock-cut cave in the Pundarikaksha-Perumal Temple - This inscription which is highly damaged, is dated in the 10th year of Nandivarman. It mentions a certain Visayanallula[n], who may be identified with the person of the same name noticed as the elder brother of Kamban Araiyan, the builder of the well at Tiruvellarai in the 4th year of Dantivarman. He also figures as the ajnapti of the Pattattalamangalam grant of Nandivarman II. (No.37 below). Hence Nandivarman of the present record may be identified with Nandivarman II Pallavamalla.

Additional Information about Kamban Arriyan & Visayanallulan

A Mutharaiyar chief Kamban Arriyan brother of Alambakkathu Visaya Nallulan built a swastika shaped during eighth century A.D. It is located at Thiruvallaarai, Tiruchirapalli District, Tamil Nadu, and India. In which all the four directions are not blocked and also the steps in all four directions are projecting out side the well.

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There is an inscription at the base of the dwarapalaka statue at Vijayalaya Choleeswaram which clearly states that the original temple was built by Ilangovathi Mutharayar (alias) Chathambuthi which was damaged by rain and the same was rebuilt with granite stones by Mallan Vithuman Mutharaya king in 886 A.D. This is a clear evidence that the temple was in existence prior to Vijayalaya chola, though at present the temple is called Vijayalaya Choleeswaram.

The temple Vijayalaya Chozhisvaram is a marvellous piece of art built by a Muttaraiyar chief, Ilango Adi Araiyan. This is inferred from an inscription under one of the dvara-palaka-s. The inscription says that the temple was originally built by one Sembudi, also called Ilango Adi Araiyan, and that is suffered damage by heavy rains and was repaired by one Mallan-viduman also called Tennavan Tamil Adi Araiyan.

Ilangovathi Mutharayar = Ilango Adi Araiyan = Chathambuthi = Sembudi
Mallan Vithuman = Mallan-viduman = Tennavan Tamil Adi Araiyan

This name was referred to, for the first time, in a 13th century, Mara-varman Sundara-pandya inscription and it has survived obscuring the fact that the temple was erected by the Muttaraiyar-s. As far as the dating of the builder Ilango Adi Araiyan is concerned there are two opinions. Some are of the opinion that he belonged to the time of the Pallava king Nandi-varman II or even to that his predecessor (8th century AD). Other experts opine that he belonged to the time of Vijayalaya Chozha (second half of 9th century AD).

This is an interesting Muttaraiyar temple constructed in Vesara style and with ashta-parivara-s. The west facing main shrine would have been at the centre of a large courtyard and surrounded by the eight sub-shrines within the courtyard. These sub-shrines are in various stages of ruin. The complex is surrounded by a prakaram.

The Vijayalaya Choleeswaram in Narthamalai, though so called under the name of the founder of the Chola dynasty of Thanjavur, is a fine example of Mutharayar style of construction and indeed a forerunner of the magnificent temple at Gangaikondacholapuram built by Rajendra Chola. The first and second thala (base) of the temple vimanam is square in shape while the third is circular (vasara) and the griva and Sikhira also are circular. The dwarapalakas at the entrance of the temple are beautifully decorated. The temple as well as the six shrines and one upto the foundation level around the temple are all built with granite stones. About 15 years ago, the Archaeological survey of India had restored and re-built the dilapidated parts of the temple complex in a brilliant manner keeping to the original style which exhibits the pioneering efforts of the Mutharayars.

The Muthumariamman temple at Narthamalai is perhaps one of the most important and popular temples drawing tens of thousands of devotees during the annual festivals in the temple. Narthamalai is one of the finest examples of the cultural and sculptural heritage of the ancient days, and one should acknowledge with gratitude the excellence of the Archaeological Survey of India in maintaining these structures after restoration.

Narthamalai came under the sway of the Mutharayars from 7th to 9th century who were the vassals of the Pallava kings of Kanchi and Pandya kings of Madurai and was later conquered by the Cholas of Thanjavur.

The Mutharayars according to the available information had their headquarters at Nemam near Tirukattupalli and held their sway over Tiruchi, Thanjavur and Pudukottai regions until the emergence of the mighty Cholas of Thanjavur.

Narthamalai, a heritage complex, consists of nine small hillocks - Melamalai, Kottaimalai, Aluruttimalai, Kadambarmalai, Perayarmalai, Uvakkanmalai, Manmalai, Bommattimalai and Ponmalai and the shrub forests surrounding the same is a habitat for peacock, deers etc. This is so because a large part of the region comes under the forest reserve area. According to mythology they were parts of the Sanjeevimalai carried by Lord Hanuman during the war between Rama and Ravana.

Keeranur: It is about 30 km from Pudukottai on the way to Thiruchirapalli. It was an important locality in the middle ages. The Uthama Nathaswami temple here has a Mutharaya edifice. The temple has epigraphs of the Cholas and Vijayanagar.

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South Indian Inscriptions - Inscriptions collected during the year 1906

An inscription (No. 402) on a stone set up in the Satyagirinatha temple at Tirumaiyam engraved in characters of about the 9th century A.D. belongs to a Muttraiyar chief. It registers a grant probably of some land and village Andakaudi with the Karanmai-miyatchchi for the renovation of Paudukkuppuram and for the maintenance of the central shrine and as unnaligaippuram, respectively, by perumbiduguperundevi the mother of Videlvidugu Vilupperadiaraisan alias Sattan Maran. He was member of the Mutturaiyear family, who got the title Videlvidugu after Pallava Nandivaraman, probably as a subordinate. Shri K.G. Krishnan has identified Perumbidugu Perundevi as the queen of Cattan, the earliest known member of this Muttaraiyar family and has said that these chiefs had added to their official or dynastic designations the titles like Videlvidugu and Perdumbiduga (studies in South Indian History and Epigraphy, Vol. I, pp-133ff).

An eighth century inscription at Pallikonda Perumal shrine speaks of Perumbidugu Perundevi, mother of local chieftain Chattan Maran, renovating the temple and giving the town of Andangudi for the temple. Other renovations have not been recorded. The carving was similar to those in Mahabalipuram and inscriptions confirm that this part of the temple was built by the Pallavas and later developed by the Pandyas, Nayaks and the Nagarathar Chettiars.

Rock-cut Vishnu temple (Satyamurthi Perumal temple) :This cave temple dedicated to Vishnu is a Muttaraiyar excavation as attested by an inscription recording the renovation of the temple and an endowment by Perumbidugu Perumdevi, mother of Sattan Maran also called Videlvidugu Viluperadiaraiyan, a contemporary and vassal of Pallava king Nandivarman II Pallavamalla (AD 731-796). Nevertheless, the temple is slightly older and dated to closing decades of seventh century. The temple consists of an ardha-mandapa in front of a rectangular sanctum. In the sanctum there is beautiful and vibrant depictions of Anantasayi Vishnu recumbent on the serpent Adisesha with Lakshmi seated on his breast. He is being shown surrounded by other deities like Garuda, Chitragupta, Markandeya, Brahma, the Devas, the Vasus, and the Kinnaras. There are two demons near the feet of the gods and sheltered there is Bhudevi. Tirumangai Alvar, a Vaishnava saint of 8th cenutury AD had sung about this deity. There are number of other structures in the complex of later periods. Some of the bronzes, now preserved in the temple, dates back to 8th-9th century AD.

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Thiruttani and Velanjeri Copper Plates :

Some of the important temples in Tanjore-Pudukkottai region are Thirumeyyam, Kudumiyamalai, Malayadipatti, Kunnandar Koil etc. In Thirumeyyam an early inscription is that of a Pallava feudatory Videlvidugu Vilupperadiarasan also known as Sattan Maran. In Kudimiyamalai, an inscription of Aditya, dated in 20th year (890 A.D.) mentions Perumbidugu Muttarayar's wife Nangai making gifts. The connection of this Perumbidugu Muttarasa with the Pallavas is obvious from the title. In Kunnandar Koil we have an inscription of Pallava Nandi. The Malayadipatti cave temple was excavated by Videlvidugu Muttaraiyan in the reign of Pallava Dantivarman. The Muttaraiyars mentioned in Sendalai Pillar were feudatories of the Pallavas is also known. It is clear that in all these important places in Tanjore-Pudukkottai, the Pallava power and impact were very much effective in the 9th cent. A.D. It has been shown that these Muttaraiya chieftains were active both in the Kanchipuram and Tanjore-Pudukkottai regions. It would show that the Pallava art of the Tondaimandalam region, very much influenced the Muttaraiya foundations. Also the Irrukkuvel-Ilangovel family were the feudatories under the Pallavas, active in Thiruvorriyur region and Pudukkottai regions as seen by the presence of Videlvidugu Ilangovelan.

SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XIII - INSCRIPTIONS OF RAJAKESARIVARMAN - No. 288 - (A.R. No. 314 of 1904.) - Kudumiyamalai, Pudukkottai State, Melaikkoyil Temple - The inscription registers a gift of 7 � kalanju of gold for a perpetual lamp in the temple of Tirumulattanattu-Perumanadigal at Tirunilakkunram by Nangaiyar-Nangai Dayanidiyar, the wife of (the chief) Perumbidugu-Muttaraiyar on behalf (in memory ?) of Nangai Vikkiramakesariyar, thedaughter of Muttaraiyar Nambi Manatongalar. This is also evidently a record of Aditya I like No. 287 above.

South Indian Inscriptions - Volume XIII - Chola Inscriptions :

No. 288 from Kudimiyamalai mentions two local chiefs by name Perumbidugu-Muttaraiyar and Muttaraiyar Nambi Manatongalar , both evidently close relations of each other. Nangaiyar Nangai Dayanidhiyar, the wife of the former, is said to have made a gift of a lamp to the temple on behalf of Nangai Vikramakesariyar , the daughter of the latter. Perhaps of the same family and having jurisdiction over a tract of Ramanathapuram was Marpidugu Tirukkottiyurkalvan Makalan Anai-udaiyan (No. 299) who figures as a donor to the temple at Tiruppalanam in the 22nd year of the king's reign.

The Muttaraiyar chiefs after being dispossessed of their domain by the Cholas seem to have settled down as their vassals and continued as such under the successive kings. We have seen two chiefs Perumbidugu Muttariyar and Muttariyar Nambi Manatongalar mentioned in a record of Aditya I in the previous Volume (Volume XIII, No. 288). Two more chiefs are met with in the inscriptions of the present collection. No. 61 from Udaiyargudi dated in the 3rd year of the king records a gift of god for a lamp in the temple by a lady named Panchavan-Mahadevi who is called the araisi of Arayiyan Mahimalayan alias Parantaka-Muttaraiyan. From the other epigraph, dated in the 13th year of Parakesari (No. 331), we learn that a certain Araiyan Sankaranarayanana alias Sola-Muttaraiyar built a temple to Sri Kailayattu-Alvar at Govindaputtur with due provision made by endowments of Land for daily and special worship to the god.

No. 117 from Palur near Tiruchirappalli is dated in the 5th year of rajakesarivarman. The mention of a lunar eclipse in the month of Kanya enables us to fix the year as A.D. 954 or 955 in both of which there was a lunar eclipse, one on September 15 and the other on September 4, and which may correspond to the 5th year of Gandaraditya. It records an endowment of land to a temple at Tiruppaluvur by Mahimalaya Irukkuvel alias Parantakan Virasolan. The same person is mentioned in No. 23 from Kudimiyamalai near Pudukkottai, dated in the 3rd year of the king, wherein a cavalier of his by name Sandaiyan figures as a donor of some cows to the temple. Irukkuvel or Ilangovel was a title assumed by the chiefs of Kodumbalur who, like the Muttaraiyars of Tanjore, were subordinates of the Cholas since the time of Aditya I and throughout Parantaka I's reign (see e.g., Nos. 258, 316, 318 and 358 of 1903), but it is hard to fix up their genealogy with theavalable material. Mahimalaya should have been a member of this dynasty of chiefs.

The Sendalai records attribute a victory at Kodumbalur to Perumbidugu Suvaran-Maran (first half of 8th century), a Muttaraiyar chief, who is mentioned as having defeated the Pandya-s and the Chera-s. It is not known whether these were two different battles or only two different but contradictory versions of the same war.

After the famous battle of Thirup-purambiyam (880 AD), wherein the Chozha-s inflicted a crushing defeat on the Pallava-s and the Pandya-s, the territories of the Muttaraiyar-s and the Irukkuvel-s came under the Chozha-s. The monuments and inscriptions of this period (6th-9th centuries AD) relate to the Muttaraiyar-s, the Irukkuvel-s, the Pandya-s and the Pallava-s.

The inscriptions in these areas often indicate matrimonial relations among the various kings � the Pandya-s, the Muttaraiyar-s, the Irukkuvel-s, the Pallava-s and the Chozha-s � in addition to political relations.

South Indian Inscriptions - Volume 10 - Vaidumba Dynasty - Telugu Inscriptions from Andhra Pradesh.

No. 638 - (A. R. No. 347 of 1922.) - On a slab in a field to the west of Rangasamudramu, Mandnapalle Taluk, Chittoor District. Undated - Incomplete. Seems to record a grant made on the occasion of a Lunar eclipse. Mentions Vaidumba Mutturaja

No. 640 - (A. R. No. 309 of 1922.) - On one of the three slabs in a field near a tank in Mudivedu Mandnapalle Taluk, Chittoor District Undated - States that Gandara Mutraja who had been crowned by the Vaidumbas fell in the battle of Kumulu (?) Mentions the Lonkulas.

The name of Parantaka's mother was Kalyani and she was a princes from the clan of Vaidumbas. He was the son of Arinjaya. Parantak Chola II (957 c.e. � 973 c.e.) ruled for approximately twelve years. Parantaka II was also known by the name Sundara Chola.

Tribal chieftains perhaps drawn from the upper lineages with their traditional command over close-knit bands should have naturally gained greater political importance in this situation. A transition from tribe to state was gradually on its way; the rise of local chieftaincies controlling territorial pockets, like the Renandu Colas, the Banas, and the Vaidumbas, is in evidence in the inscriptions of the sixth to ninth centuries. These newly rising powers sought to retain their importance and identity in the then existing situation as this was a strategy necessary both for their survival and for promoting their political ambitions. They changed their affiliation often between the two rival powers the Calukyas and the Pallavas and claimed independence from both, when opportunities arose

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Inscriptions of the Ranganathasvamy Temple, Srirangam : Vijayanagara Kingdom:

No. 296 (Page No. 310)- (A. R. No. 86 of 1938-39) - Chandana-mandapa, south wall - Saka 1305 (1383 A.D.) -Registers a gift of 20 cows by Muddarasa, the minister of Virupaksha II, for a perpetual lamp in the temple. Mentions Harihara, the father of the king. The details of the date viz., Saka 1305 (in words ). Rudhirodgari, Karttika, su. 11, Revati, Friday correspond regularly to A.D. 1383, November 6, Friday , 44; f.d.n. 27.

No. 297 (Page No. 311)- (A. R. No. 87 of 1938-39) - Chandana-Mandapa, south wall - Saka 1305 (1383 A.D.) - In Sanskrit verse written in Grantha. Register a gift of land by Muddarasa the minister of Virupaksha, for rearing a flower-garden for supply of garlands to the god. The details of the viz., Saka 1305 (in chronogram manasiaghye), Karttika, paurnami, Tuesday, Krittika correspond regularly to A.D. 1383, November 10, Tuesday, 78; 58.

Muddarasa <=> Muttharasa <=> Muttarasa
Muddarasa <=> Muddaraja <=> Mudduraja
Muddarasa => Mudarasa => Madarasa => Madras

There are several inscriptions of Viruppana Udayar (or Virupaksa II), the second son of Harihara II, in the Srirangam temple ranging between the dates 1383 and 1396. Another inscription dated 1385 registers a gift of cows for the supply of milk to the Ranganatha temple by Devaraja, son of Sangamamatya or Sangamarasa, another pradhani of the prince, who was appointed the governor of the Tamil country. According to another record the same donor provided for a lamp too. Yet another officer of the prince was Mantri Muddarasa of the Kasyapa gotra, who is said to have made a gift of land for a flower garden and in addition a gift of 20 cows for a perpetual lamp.

No. 299 (Page No. 312) - (A. R. No. 154 of 1938-39) - Velli-gopuram, left side recess pillar - - Damaged. In Sanskrit written in Grantha. Refers to the construction of a bridge by Muddapa-mantri of the Kasyapa-gotra, over the river Kaveri (Sahyatmaja).

Muddapa-mantri of the Kasyapa-gotra and Muddarasa of the Kasyapa gotra could be one and the same person. The name of the last brother of Hakkaraya and bukkaraya, the founder brothers of Vijayanagar empire was also Muddappa. This Muddappa managed the coastal area.

Muddarasa was the minister of Virupaksha-II.. Virupaksha II ascended throne of Vijayanagar in the year AD 1465, but then defeated at the Battle of Tellikota by the allied Muslim armies of Ahmadnagar, Bidar, Bijapur and Golconda.

Virupaksha II (1465 � 85) was a weak and unworthy sovereign. He precipitated the disruption of the empire, which was undermined by the insubordination of the nobles and officers of the state on the one side and by the in roads of external enemies on the other. Sultan Muhammad Shah III sent his Prime Minister Mahamud Gawan to conquer the whole of the Konkana coast including Goa, Chaul and Dabul. The rule of Virupaksha became unpopular and roused the whole empire to indignation and rebellion. The King was killed in 1485 by his own son. The total disruption was averted by Saluva Narasimha, an able general who ended the rule of the Sangama dynasty.

Devaraya-II died in 1446 AD, and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son Mallikarjuna, who repelled a combined attack on his capital by the Bahamani Sultan and the Raja of the Hindu kingdom of Orissa and was able to keep his kingdom intact during his rule, which lasted till about 1465 AD. Mallikarjuna's successor Virupaksha-II, proved and to be an incompetent ruler. Confusion and disorder naturally followed , taking advantage of which some of the provinces raised rebellion, Bahamani Sultan advanced into Doab between Krishna and the Tungabhadra, and Raja Purushottama Gajapati of Orissa advanced as far as Tiruvannamalai. All that can be said is that Kingdom went through forty years of rule of Mallikarjuna and Virupaksha but with lot of political agitation, discontent till the usurpation of Narasimha. Many of the representatives of royal family met with violent death; Goa, Tellingana and other districts were lost to Bahamani Kings.

Virupaksha Raya ("Verupacarao") was a weak and unworthy sovereign, in whose days large tracts of land were lost to the Muhammadans, including Goa, Chaul, and Dabhol; and this statement, at least, is historically accurate. Virupaksha was despotic, cruel, and sensuous, "caring for nothing but women and to fuddle himself with drink," so that the whole country was roused to indignation and rebellion. Eventually he was murdered by his eldest son, who in his turn was slain by his brother "Padearao," in whom the nation merely found repeated the crimes and follies of his dead sire. Disgusted with this line of sovereigns, the nobles rose, deposed their king, and placed on the throne one of their own number, Narasimha -- "Narsymgua, WHO WAS IN SOME MANNER AKIN TO HIM."

Virupaksha was murdered by his eldest son, who in turn was slain by his younger brother, "Padea Rao," and this prince lost the kingdom to the usurper Narasimha. Two sons of Deva Raya II., according to the inscriptions, were named Mallikarjuna and Virupaksha I. respectively. There are inscriptions of the former dated in A.D. 1452 -- 53 and 1464 -- 65,[149] and one of the latter in 1470.[150] Mallikarjuna appears to have had two sons, Rajasekhara, of whom we have inscriptions in the years A.D. 1479 -- 80 and 1486 -- 87, and Virupaksha II., mentioned in an inscription dated A.D. 1483 -- 84, three years earlier than the last of Rajasekhara.

Anan Kandekananda 419 - 1469 Vijayanagaran statesman, diplomat and general who held important positions under Maharaja Malikarjuna I (1447 - 1464) and was killed while on a mission for Maharaja Virupaksha II (1465-1485). His untitled autobiography, although never completed became one of the most important documents on the early history of the Maharajate.

The 600-year-old temple at Thiruvavaduthurai Aadheenam was built during the reign of King Virupaksha II of Vijayanagar . The monastery was founded by Sri Namasivayamurthy in the 15th century during the reign of King Virupaksha II of Vijayanagar for the purpose of perpetuating Sivajnana Bodham Saiva Siddhanta, a specific form of Saivite Hinduism, based on the work of Meykandar. The monastery is 175 miles southwest of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, South India. Vaishnava work, Prapannamritam gives a legendary account of the conversion of Virupaksha II (1465-1495) to Vaishnavism.

The presence of a minister Muddarasa in court of Virupaksha-II is a proof that Mudiraj people were part and parcel of the great Hindu Vijayanagar empire in South India. All the capital cities of this empire were located in Telugu speaking areas of those days. The Hampi which was once a part of Telugu land became a part of Karnataka now. All the kings who ruled Vijayanagar kingdom were Telugu speaking, though some of them were from Tuluva background.

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Miscellaneous Inscriptions in Kannada - Volume IX - part-I Chalukyas of Kalyani :

The following inscriptional and other information shows that Mudiraj kings and chiefs in various capacities worked with Western chalukyas kings.

No. 168 - (A.R. No. 96 of 1904.) - ON A SLAB SET UP TO THE SOUTH OF THE KALLESVARA TEMPLE AT BAGALI, HARAPANAHALLI TALUK, SAME DISTRICT - This is dated Chalukya-Vikrama year 28, Subhanu, Pushya, ba. 10. Sukravara, Uttarayana -sankranti, Vyatipata corresponding to A.D. 1103 December 25 Friday. It refers itself to the reign of the Chalukya king Tribhuvanamalladeva whose Dandanayaka, Muddarasa , is said to have made a gift of the toll-revenue on two loads of betle leaves per year for the service of the god Kalideva, after washing the feet of Sivasakti-Pandita, in the presence of the Mahajanas of Balguli. Out of the 12 panas thus granted 2 panas were given to the reader of the Puranas.

No. 181 (A.R. No. 114 of 1913.) - ON A SLAB SET UP IN THE COURT-YARD OF THE BHIMESVARA TEMPLE AT NILAGUNDA, HARPANAHALLI TALUK, SAME DISTRICT - This is dated Chalukya-Vikrama year 35 (current), Vikrita, Bhadrapada, ba. 11, Adivara, Uttarayana-Sankranti (error) corresponding to A.D. 1110 September 11, Sunday, in the reign of the Chalukya king Tribhuvanamalladeva who was ruling from Kalyana. His Dandanayakas, Anantapalayya and Muddarasa who were in charge of the toll-revenue, made a gift of a portion of the tolls for the service of the god Bhimesvaradeva at Nirgunda. The record is damaged.

No. 183 - (A.R. No. 459 of 1914.) - ON A SLAB SET UP IN FRONT OF A HOUSE, SOUTH OF THE KALLESVARA TEMPLE AT SOGI, HADAGALLI TALUK, SAME DISTRICT - This is damaged and dated Chalukya-Vikrama year 35, Vikrita, Pushya, su. 13, Adivara, Uttarayana -sankranti, Vyatipata corresponding to A.D. 1110 December 25 Sunday. It refers itself to the reign of the Chalukya king Tribhuvanamalladeva. It states that the Dandadhipati Muddarasa or Muddaraja made some grant for the tank Nagasamudra near Soge.

Muddarasa = Muddaraja

(1.3) Bombay-Karnataka Inscriptions - Volume XI-Part-II - Tribhuvanamalla Vikramaditya VI:

No. 120 (B.K. No. 214 of 1926-27)- Yeribyateri, Ron Taluk, Dharwar District- On A Stone Set Up In Front Of The Temple Of Ramalinga - This much damaged inscription belongs to the reing of Tribhuvanamalla-Permadideva (Vikramaditya VI). It refers to a subordinate who belonged to [Papakalla-kula] and records a gift to the gof of Balera Jogesvarada Mulasthana and to the god Bolesvara. It entions Chavunda-Gavunda, Joma-Gavunda, Joga-Gavunda and Jakkeyabe.

The record is date Saka 968, Parthiva, paushya, su. [2], Sunday, Uttrayanasankramana. In Parthiva, the sankramana fell not on Sunday but on Tuesday (=December 24, A.D. 1045). But in the previous year, i.e., Tarana, it fell on Sunday, Paushya, su. 1 +Sunday, December 23, 1044 A.D. The latter appears to be the more probable date of the record.

Since the date falls during the first year of the reign of Trailokyamalla Somesvara I, the father of Vikramaditya VI, it is not possible to account for the imperial titles applied to the latter as early as A.D. 1044.

No. 180 (B.K. No. 268 of 1927-28) - Kop, Bagalkot Taluk, Bijapur District On A Slab Lying Behind The Temple Of Durgavva - This mutilated record belongs to the period of Vikramaditya VI and mentions Perggade Muddarasa , who is described as endowed with the office of the Mahamatya (a great minister). It mentions rajadhani Vikramapura. We know from inscriptions that Arasibidi in the Hungund Taluk of the Bijapur District, was knows as Vikramapura and as the secondary capital of the Western Chalukyas. Since a portion of the inscription is chiselled away, it is nt possible to make out the object of the record.

The inscription bears the date Chalukya-Vikrama year 10, Krodhana, Ashadha, su. 1, Wednesday, Dakshinayana-sankranti. Its English equivalent is A.D. 1085, June 25, Wednesday; .82.

Perggade = headman

Officials at the local level were the pergade, nadabova, nalagamiga, prabhu and gavunda.[49] The pergades were superintendents from all social classes such as artisans, gold smiths, black smiths etc. The pergades dealing with the royal household were called manepergade (house superintendent) and those who collected tolls were called Sunka vergades.

In the annals of temple history, many Perggades spokesmen of Dharma Daivas carved out their names by dint of labour of hands, piety of souls, brilliance of minds and benignity of hearts. The Perggades, as ordained became hereditary representatives of the Dharmadevathas, and every Perggade deeming it his most sacred duty contributed his best to making the small shrines rise into gigantic world famous institutions through an infinite variety of ministrations they introduced from time to time.

Tribhuvanamalladeva - Of Vikramaditya VI, also known as Vikramarka and Vikramanka and having the titles Permadi and Tribhuvanamalla, we have a number of inscriptions in this district. Though his reign is taken to begin from 1076, we have an inscription at Hulegondi near Chitradurga,72 dated 1074, giving the full Chalukya royal titles to Tribhuvanamalladeva (Vikramaditya). There have, however, been found in the Chitradurga district two inscriptions, both dated 971 and belonging to Taila's father Vikramaditya.

A T.V Serial is made on Chalukya king Vikramaditya
Chalukya king Vikramaditya who was invited for the opening of the Lakshmi Devi Temple at Doddagadduvalli, the first Hoysala style temple, missed the dance worship of the Hoysala Queen Shantala. He arrived two days behind schedule along with his wife Lakumi Devi. Shantala received the Chalukya Queen and the latter expressed the desire of her husband to witness Shantala's dance performance. The queen of dance (Natya Rani) Shantala refused the suggestion asserting that her performance is not an entertainment, but a sacred art meant for gods. Lakumi Devi went back to her husband concealing her anger, while the Chalukya King became all the more desirous of seeing Shantala's dance performance. His Maha Mantri or Chief Minister Muddarasa began to hatch plans to create an occasion for his King to witness Shantala's performance. Realising that a war with the Chalukya King in inevitable, the Hoysala Queen went to Lakshmi Devi temple to offer her sacred dance, before proceeding to the war. Vikramaditya, who was present in disguise among the audience, witnesses the dance!

The Hoysala queen, who remained a follower of Jainism till last, despite her husband Vishnuvardhana embracing Srivaishnavism, passed through a lot of trauma. An honest and principled queen, she was often misunderstood and made to suffer in herself. Finally, the queen embraced death through the Jainism way of 'Sallekahana' at her native place, Siddagange. Iyer asserted that Shantala did not commit suicide by throwing herself from the Siddagange hill in Tumkur as made out in some writings, but as a true Jain she ended her life in a pious and religious way.

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Bombay - Karnataka Incriptions - The Kalachuryas :

No. 133 (Page No 170) - (B. K. No. 21 of 1937-38 ) - Chadchan, Indi Taluk, Bijapur District - Slab built into the prakara wall of Paramananda temple Kannamarasa ( Krishnarja ) ---A. D. 1067 - This record is dated Saka 988, Sarvadhari, Phalguna, su. 5 Samkranti. The Details regularly correspond to A. D. 1067, February 21, Wednesday. The cyclic year, However, was Parabhava.

The inscription seems to register the gift of the village Chate (Chatetana ) by a Subordinate officer of the king who obtained it from the latter. Mentions prabhu Dasa, son of prabha Rajachatta of the rajadhani Chatetana and a certain Muddaraja, the king is stated to have been ruling from Mangaliveda.

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Miscellaneous Inscriptions in Kannada - Volume IX - Part-I - The Kalachuryas :

No. 297 - (A.R. No. 56 of 1904.) - On a slab set upto the South of the Basavesvara Temple at the Same Village - The inscription is dated Saka 1099, Hemalambi, Ashadha, ba. Krishnangaraka-chaturdasi corresponding to A.D. 1177 June 26, Sunday. It belongs to the reign of the Kalachurya king Sankhavrmadeva ruling from Kalyanapura. With the consent of the Sinda Chief Mahamandalesvara Rachamalla, who was a feudatory of the king, the Mummurudandas of Kurugodu constructed a trikuta temple and having set up in it's the image of Gavaresvara made a grant of land, a voluntary contribution of cesses levied on every article sold or purchased in the city and of tolls, specially levied for this purpose, on every imported article. It states that Mallisetti, whose genealogy is given, set up the image of Mallikarjunadeva and made a grant of land for the service of the god. Muddaraja's genealogy is given as follows. Martandadeva of Kawndinya-gotra, his sons Soyideva, Rechadeva, Kalidasa and Muddaraja. The Mummuridandas are said to have been Banajigas, "the brave of the brave, protectors of the submissive, cruel to the wicked, good to the good and conquerors of powerful enemies".

Muddaraja <=> Muddarasa <=> Muttharasa <=> Muttarasa

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The third of the Haleri Kings, Muddaraja is said to have levelled the steep mountains in North Kodagu, in 1681, to setup the town called "Mudduraja Keri" where he built the fort that housed the place. In due course 'Mudduraja Keri' became 'Madikeri' which is at present district head quarters. Madikeri was ruled by the Haleri Kings between 1600 and 1834. Sprawling in the midst of cloud-wreathed hills all around, this misty town is a heaven for long walkers.

Mudiraju <=> Mudduraju <=> Mudduraja <=> Muddaraja

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A copper plate record dated 1667 and belonging to Mudduraju, son of Trimalarajanayaka of Hadinadu sheds light on the history of the Ranganatha hill temple. Here these hills are mentioned as that of Thiru Venkatanatha of Bilikal (White Rock). In Sanskrit, this hill was called Shwetadri meaning white hill. This is because the hill's weathered granite cliff face appear white in colour. The Venkatanatha temple became known as Ranganatha temple after Tipu Sultan visited this temple while on a hunting expedition and described it as a temple of Lord Ranganatha. Hence, the name Biligiri Rangana Betta.

Biligiri Rangana Betta (literally meaning - Ranganatha's Whiterock Hill in Kannada) is a lofty hillock situated at a distance of 28 km from Yelandur and 90 km from Mysore. The forest around is named Biligiri Rangaswamy Wildlife Sanctuary after this place. One can have a breath taking view of the forest around from the platform behind the temple atop the hill.

There is a mysterious tradition and legend about this temple. Anyone visiting the temple can see a huge pair of sandals. Legend has it that these sandals are used by the presiding deity Lord Ranganatha to roam around these forests. Mysteriously, these sandals wear out and are replaced regularly with new ones by the villagers.

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SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS- VOLUME XIII - INSCRIPTIONS OF RAJAKESARIVARMAN - No. 299 - (A.R. No. 169 of 1928.) - Tiruppalanam, Tanjore Taluk, Tanjore District - On the south wall of the central shrine, Apatsahayesvara temple - This is damaged in places. It records a gift of 397 � palam of (?) to the temple of Mahadeva at Tiruppalanam by Marpidugu Tirukkottiyur-Kalvan Amarkalan (or Makalan ?) Anai-Udaiyan. The donor, to judge by his name, seems to have been a Muttaaiyar chief ruling over a tract of the Ramnad district. A record of Aditya I.

SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS - VOLUME XIII - CHOLA INSCRIPTION - No. 288 from Kudimiyamalai mentions two local chiefs by name Perumbidugu-Muttaraiyar and Muttaraiyar Nambi Manatongalar, both evidently close relations of each other. Nangaiyar Nangai Dayanidhiyar, the wife of the former, is said to have made a gift of a lamp to the temple on behalf of Nangai Vikramakesariyar, the daughter of the latter. Perhaps of the same family and having jurisdiction over a tract of Ramanathapuram was Marpidugu Tirukkottiyurkalvan Makalan Anai-udaiyan (No. 299) who figures as a donor to the temple at Tiruppalanam in the 22nd year of the king's reign.

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An eight Century A.D. Mutharaiyar Inscription with Hindu and Buddhist archeo-symbols found on Iswaran hills in the Kudivandai village, near Kadavur at Karur District in Tamil Nadu.

Archeo- symbolists T.L.Subash Chandira Bose and History prof. V.Ramkumar says that, In front of a stone temple an inscription was incised on a 43 inches long and 23 inches wide rectangular shaped leveled rock surface. The inscription begins with the sacred word Swasthisri, states the Pandimutharaiangyaina alias Aratavathiangyar built this stone temple in the name of Kalakasrum in the memory of his parents Pandiperumdevi and Pandimutharaiangyan alias Soligha araiyar. The last sentence, my head touches the feet of those who takes care of the temple, has to be emphasized. The colloquial word Angyan and Angyar appear in the inscription is still being used by the Mutharaiyar family in Tamil Nadu.

Just below the inscription; the archeo - symbols such as vajrakila, Kangling, Agni, of Buddhism were at the left side. The symbols Damaru and Yoke of Cittramani Periya Nattar and the Sankhu is at the center. The symbols such as Parashu Dhwaja, Gada, two type of Tarikas, and Khetaka of Hinduism are at the right side. Blowing the Sankhu is to announce the glory of the holy name was the tradition practice in Buddhism. With these Archeo-symbols we could understand that the broad minded ancient Hindu Mutharaiyar kings of Tamil Nadu have also encouraged Buddhism.

Economics Prof. Dr. Loganathan, Sthapathi V.Raman, P. Palanisamy, Er. Aravarason,Business man Mutharaiyan of Trichy, School Head master Ramalingam of Karur, school Teacher Nagarajan and others of Musiri, are also actively involved in the field study.

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Some inscriptions which reveal the relation between Arayars and pallavars collected by Madras presidency college.

1. 5560/1911. (Tamil.) On a stone lying near the sluice on the tank. Records in S. 1539 and K.A. 792, Nala, gift of certain privileges in respect of tanks and ponds to the residents of Adaich- chani, by Sinna-Tipparahuttaraiyan, for the merit of Muttu- vlrappa-Nayakkar of Madura (1609 23). Ambasamudram Taluk.

100. 5400/1911. (Tamil.) On the north wall of the second prakara of the same temple. A damaged record, dated fifteenth year. Registers that a piece of land granted for a garden was made tax-free at the request of Kalirigarayan. Mentions Arich- chandiran alias Pallavarayan of Seluvattur in Tirukkanapper- kurram.

See No. 101. [This and the next two inscriptions are examples of " double transactions," i.e., the king grants certain lands tax-free and then the temple authorities have the charter engraved by the villagers and the remitted tax deducted from the

village accounts (L/JT^-Q;//?).] 101. 541 0/1911. (Tamil.) On the same wall. Records in the fourteenth year of the Pandya king Vlra-Pandyadeva the gift registered in No. 100 and mentions Arichchandiran alias Palla- varayan of Seluvattur. [The king was evidently Jatavarman 1504 TINNEVELLY DISTRICT temples of Polinjininrarujiya-Paramasvami and Tirunadudaiya- piran at Tirunagari in Tiruva.Uidi-valanadui

516. 468 of 1909. (Tamil.) On the same wall. A record of the fifteenth year of the Pandya king Maravarman alias Tribhu- vanachakravartin Sundara-Pandyadeva (II?, 1239 51). Records that Araiyan Viradamudichchan alias Pallavarayar of Chakra- paninallQr in Sevvirukkainadu built the mantapa and set up the image of Varaha-Nayanar.

517. 4690/1909. (Tamil.) On the same wall. Dated in the twelfth year of the Pandya king Maravarman alias Tribhuvana- chakravartin Sundara-Pandyadeva (I, 1216 35). Records gift of land at Perurigulam alias Uttama-Pandyanallur, with the sanction of Malavarayan, for a festival founded in the temple at Tirukkurugur by Araiyan Puvan alias Venavudaiyan, in the name of Araiyan TirunSdadaiyan alias Nllagarigaraiyan of in Vadatalai Sembi-nadu. Mentions the palace at MadakkulakkiJ- Madurai and the seat, Malavarayan.

360. 317 0/I9I4- (Tamil.) On the west wall of the Briha- damba shrine in the same temple. Dated in the reign of the Vijayanagara king Achyutadeva-Maharaya. Records in . 1453, Nandana, Dhanus, su. di. II, Friday, Revati, a gift of land for a matha situated in the bazaar called Vallanadu-perunderu in the village Ararigulanadar-tiruppadaivTdu. An irregular date. See Ep. Rep., 1915, p. 80.

361. 3180/1914. (Tamil.) On the north and west walls of the same shrine. A record of the Vijayanagara king Achyutadeva Maharaya in S. 1452, Vikriti. Records that the residents of Valla-nadu in Rajarajavalanadu gave certain lands as kaniyatchi to Sokkanar Pallavarayar, a native of Padaiparru in Kana-nadu which was a subdivision of Kana-nadu alias Virudarajabhayari- kara-valanadu.

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Inscriptions of Mutharayar Chieftain near Thanjavur
A team of archaeologists, led by Kudavayil Balasubramanian, has stumbled upon some inscriptions belonging to the ninth century at Pudukkudi near Thanjavur on Thursday. The rare inscriptions were unearthed during the renovation of a Siva temple. They belonged to various dynasties, starting from the Cholas to the Muthairaiyars and the Vijayanagar emperors. Balasubramanian said some of the inscriptions are in the form of verses. Interestingly, the consonants have dots in them. The name of the village was mentioned as Nangur in the inscriptions of Aditaya Karikalan (960 AD). The Mutharayar inscription mentioned that a chieftain had donated 240 goats to the Siva temple to generate income for lighting lamps there.

KAKATIYA DYNASTY - No. 291 - (A. R. No. 556 of 1925.) - On a pillar in the same mandapa. S. 1162 - States that Adapa Ketana-Boya. A subordinate of Kota Ganapatideva gave 55 inupa-yedlu for a perpetual lamp in the temple of Ramesvara of Velpuru. ADAPA is one of the surnames of Mudiraj people.

KAKATIYA DYNASTY- No. 300 - (A. R. No. 598 of 1925.) - On a mutilated stone lying near a well at Velpuru, Sattenepalli Taluk, Guntur District. S. 1165. (Sobhakrit) - States that Adapa Ketana-Boya gave 55 inupa-yedlu for a perpetual lamp in the temple of Ramesvara-Mahadeva of Velpunuru.

KAKATIYA DYNASTY - No. 295 - (A. R. No. 254 of 1924.) - On a slab lying close to the stream at Adaviravulapadu,Nandigama Taluk, Krishna District. S. 1164. (Subhakrit) - Mentions grants of land made by Dronadula Poti-Nayudu and others to god Ramanatha-Mahadeva at Ravulapadu. DRONADULA is one of the surnames of Mudiraj people.

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Our Caste Names & Subcastes : Mudiraj Muthuraj mudhiraj Mudiraja mudhiraja Muthuraja mudduraja muddhuraja mudduraju muddhuraju Mutharacha Mutharasu Mutharasi Mutrasi Mutharayar Mutharaiyar bunt bant bantulu bantlu Aryar Arayar Araiyar Aryan Arayan Araiyan valavan valayar valaiyar Ambalakkarar gounder koli koliyan kolian raju rajulu Bedar Ramoshi Valmiki Tenugu Tenugolu Tenugollu Tenigolu Tenigollu