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66. The Hindu : Wednesday, Jan 06, 2010 - Seven Araya ( Arayar ) Samajam activists acquitted

Staff Reporter

Kozhikode: The Special Additional District Sessions Court (Marad cases) here on Tuesday acquitted seven Araya Samajam activists in connection with a case of setting ablaze a house during the communal clashes at the coastal village of Marad eight years ago.

Writing the judgment, special court judge K.P. Prasannakumari exonerated Choichendakathu Babu, Aryachendakathu Rajan, Prasad alias Sivaprasad, Sanadanan, Thekkethodi Anandan, Madhu and Unni alias Ranjith of all charges including promoting enmity between groups on grounds of religion.

The case relates to attacking and torching the house of Seemamudakathu Khader at 7.45 p.m. on January 3, 2002. P.S. Sreedharan Pillai and P.P.Surendran appeared for the accused.

The Beypore police had charged the accused with Section 153-A (promoting enmity between groups on grounds of religion, race, place of birth, residence and language and doing acts prejudicial to maintenance of harmony); Section 436 (mischief by fire or explosives with intent to destroy house); Section 450 (house trespass in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment for life); Section 143 (unlawful assembly); and Sections 147 (rioting) and 148 (rioting, armed with deadly weapons) of the Indian Penal Code.

This is the 16th of the 67 cases registered in connection with the communal riots on January 3 and 4.

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65. The Hindu : Saturday, Jan 13, 2007 : Sports Correspondent : Muthurajan rewrites discus record.

Tirunelveli: M. Muthurajan of Aditanar College (Tiruchendur) set a new meet record in discus in the men's section of the 16th Manonmaniam Sundaranar University athletic meet at the Sadakathullah Appa College (Palayamkottai) on Friday. He hurled the discus to a distance of 39.79m to better the old mark of 39.06.

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64. The earliest all-stone temples are those in the Pudukköttaá region in the present Tiruchiräppalli district, many of which were until recently considered to be of Cola. origin but are now categorized as of Pändya, or Muttaraiya origin. These include the shrines at Kaliyappatti, Tiruppür, Viéalür, Enädi, etc. All the temples are small in size and have only one storey (ëlcatala). Side by side with these all-stone temples we also come across almost contemporaneous constructions in brick and stone. The Saptarsîévara, temple at is one of the best extant examples of this kind. In this stone is employed only in the ground tala and the superstructure over the entablature, whether it is square or circular in shape, is of brick. All these are datable in the second half of the ninth century which formed the most important period in the history of South Indian temple architecture as it witnessed Very fruitful experiments in architectural models in the new and challenging medium of stone, and which laid the foundation for the architectural development of the succeeding centuries.

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63. Koppu village is a nice place in Trichy. Mutharayars are the guards of this village. Mutharayars take participation in Perumal Kovil festival in Kodiyalam.

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62. Plea on Muthirayars
Tiruchirapalli | Monday, Jul 5 2010 IST :The Tamil Nadu Muhiraiyar Sangam President R Viswanathan has urged the Tamil Nadu Government to include the Muthiraiyar Community in the Most Backward List and provide exclusive reservation for them in job and education. Addressing the members of the Perarasar Youth Welfare Movement of the Association at woriyur last night, Mr Viswanathan also urged Tamil nadu Chief Minister M Karunanidhi to give adequate representation for them in the Tamil Nadu Public Service Commission and in the proposed Legislative Council.

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61. Eassanakorai (Muthuraja's) : Essanaikorai is a beautiful Village in Tiruchirapalli district, Tamilnadu, India. It is also ruled by Muthuraja caste People. The main occupation here is Agriculture. Mr.Maruthaiah is a main Landlord in this village.

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60. Tsunami Relief to Muthirayars: "We are completely neglected because we are considered higher than S.C. community people though we are economically more backward than dalits," says Mukkamma, a fisherwoman of Muthirayar Nagar in Tuticorin. "There is not a single N.G.O. to help us when there are many volunteer organizations to help s.c. Communities."

ActionAid has distributed a few boats to some fishermen but the boats cannot be used for fishing because they have not been designed properly. "These boats are meant to please the donors than to help the poor beneficiaries," says John Rayan. The fishermen of Muthirayar Nagar make low-cost boats using waste thermocol [a packing product]. Each boat costs only about $25. A fisherman says that his low-cost thermocol boat is much better than the expensive boat donated by ActionAid.

There was a move to shift families from Muthirayar Nagar to a far away place. People refused to go. "What about our livelihood," asks Mukkamma. "Even the collector's office is on the coast. The sea is our property and our livelihood. We can't be forced to go from here as the sea is our source of income."

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59. Velauthapuram is a Muthirayar village : Velayudhapuram (Velauthapuram ) is fishing village belongs to Kalimankundu panchayat, Ramnathapuram district of Tamilnadu. This hamlet is situated at East Coast Beach and Gulf of Mannar valaikuda seashore. The Muthirayar community live in this village. The village is situated at the border of the sea shore .

Until 1972 a considerable number of twenty families of Mr.Velu, his relatives and others were residing in Challi thoppu village, a dominant Muslim community having acres of coconut farms, in which they lived in thatched houses which is 1.5 kms away and west in direction from present Velayuthapuram village. During 1972 the central government passed a bill owing the land if some lives in the same place for more than ten years. As the result the land holding people asked to vacate them immediately. Kuthukalvalasai.

Mr..Velu Came to Kalimankundu and purchased 50 cents of land south of kalimankundu in 1972 and distributed the land to his relatives of twenty families hence this place was known as Velayuthapuram.Then people from Naripaiyur and mookaiyur also joined with them. Muthiriyar, a Telugu caste, hunters and fishermen now employed on the estates in Ceyon.

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58. Madurai: Ten persons were reportedly injured in a conflict between caste Hindus and Dalits during a temple car festival held at Vilampatti village in Dindigul district of Tamil Nadu on 9 April 2009. The festival was called off due to the unpleasant incidents.

The festival of Muthalamman temple in the village is celebrated every year in the Tamil month of Panguni. As per the traditions in the village, Pillaimar community maintains the accounts of the temple and Thevar community is in charge of security. Mutharayar community tows the temple cart and it is the Dalits’ duty to sweep and clean the temple compound. The traditions also observe that the temple car is not taken along the Dalit colony and the Dalits are supposed to worship the deity from an open area in the village when the car procession takes place. This year, the festival celebrations began on 7 April 2009.

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57. Rat eating Muthurajas of Thanjavur : For the villagers of Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu, rats have been part of their diet for ages. Whats more, this fascination with rat meat does not stem from either poverty or starvation as was reported by a television channel some months ago.

According to the locals rat-eating is an age-old practice in the region. In the past it was confined to a community called Mutharayars. But today people from other communities have also developed a taste for the rodent, they say. For Mutharayars, who are mostly poor farm labourers, this has meant additional income.

However, according to Savithri, a Mutharayar woman, it is only the men who are fond of rats. Not many women eat rat meat. As for me I cook it for my husband, but I dont touch it, she says.

The issue of rat eating by farmers in the State came up before the Supreme Court earlier this week during the hearing of a Public Interest Petition filed by Congress leader and senior advocate Ashwini Kumar, who claimed that poor farmers in Tamil Nadu ate rats to avoid death. In its affidavit, the Tamil Nadu government had said that a section of farmers in the state were in the habit of eating rats and it was not because of poverty.

The practice of rat eating is seen prevelent among erukalas and yanadis in Andhra Pradesh. This rat eating among Muthurajas indicate their hidden inseparable connection with sections of Erukalas ( Kaikadis ) and yanadis who were also warriors of ancient time and rulers of certain kingdom. For more details, please see web page " The Great Warrior Tribes of Mudiraja" in this wsebsite.

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56.The Hindu Newspaper - Thursday, Sep 11, 2008: The Communist Party of India (CPI) on Wednesday took out a rally here demanding the State Government to announce a special package for Mutharayar community. T. Pandian, State secretary, presided over the rally. Speaking at the rally, Mr. Pandian said the living conditions of Mutharayars were pathetic in several districts of Tamilnadu. Their situation was worse in Sivaganga district. More than 70 per cent of them was living in huts. They did not have basic infrastructure for leading a good life.

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55. Eassanakorai is a beautiful Village of Muthurajas in Tamilnadu. It is ruled by Muthuraja caste People. The main occupation here is Agriculture. Mr.Maruthaiah is a main Landlord in that village

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54. Secunderabad assembly constituency renews a battle between two major candidates T.Padma Rao (TRS) and Talasani Srinivas Yadav (TDP) who have been battling with each other for 22 years now. They first faced each other in 1986 when Padma Rao, then contesting on a Congress Ticket, defeated Yadav (Janata Party ticket) in the Hissamgunj Monda (division no. 87) Municipal Corporation elections. He repeated his feat in the 2004 assembly elections when he defeated Yadav in a closely contested election by a margin of 3070 votes.

Other important areas in the constituency are Mylargadda, Boudhnagar, Warasiguda and Chilakalguda. Having a lot of Telangana locals in these areas is good news for TRS and in turn Padma Rao. One important community of this constituency is the Mudiraj community, which has a population of about 33000. One worry on the 2004 elections was the presence of Neelam.

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53. The Hindu News Paper : Thursday, Aug 21, 2008 :Hyderabad: The 115th birth anniversary of K. Krishna Swamy Mudiraj, former Mayor of Hyderabad, will be held on August 23 at Mudiraj Bhavan, New Boiguda. Freedom fighter, journalist and historian, Mudiraj is known for the book Pictorial Hyderabad authored by him in 1929. Born in a middle class family, Mudiraj became a great educationist of his time. He also emerged as a prominent politician and a freedom fighter. Popularly referred to as "Mudiraj Petamaha", he was the founder president of Mudiraj Mahasabha. He went round the country, established the all India Mudiraj Mahasabha and wrote the history of Mudiraj community. His two volume Pictorial Hyderabad gives a rare insight into the history of the Hyderabad State, its rulers and administration. It received wide acclaim from both Indian and international press when it was published in 1929. His idea of writing the book was to give an "unvarnished and faithful record" of all that took place during the rule of Asafjahis. Not just the historical and biographical aspects of the erstwhile rulers, nawabs and jagirdars, the book also mentions the interesting accounts of Hindu and Muslim saints.

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52. The life history of Rajiv-Sonia is to be produced as a movie. This story would centre around Sonia. Sonia�s birth in Italy, studies in foreign countries, wedlock with Rajiv, political influence are all going to be cinematographed. Italian actress Monica Beluki is selected for the role of Sonia, British actor Jabin Parla is to portray the character of Rajiv. This movie is to be directed by Jagmohan Muthrasi in English.

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51. Demanding the State Government to ban Coke and Pepsi products, over 200 students, including 30 girls of MDT Hindu College, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, and SFI, staged a demonstration in front of the university premises here on Wednesday. The demonstration was led by SFI district president Prabhu and secretary Mutharasi. During the protest, a few Pepsi and Coke bottles were also broken. The demonstrators also demanded the State Government to fill the vacancies existing in various colleges.

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50. The 29th music fest of �Muththamizh Peravai� was inaugurated at the Bharatha Vidya Bhavan, Mylapore, recently by DMK president M Karunanidhi who made an impassioned plea for holding Tamil music and culture festivals in all the districts of the State.

Karunanidhi presented the Rajarathna award to Dakshinamoorthy Pillai, the Iyal Selvam award to Kumari Ananthan, the Isai Selvam award to Thiruppampuram Shanmugasundharam, the Natya Selvam Award to Mutharasi Ravi, the mrudanga selvan award to A Chandrasekaran and the Tamilselvan award to T R Govindarajan.,BR.,BR. go TOP
49. Producer and director Vikram Bhaba of Kalaignarin Kannamma film was at AVM studios to make arrangements for the shooting of a court scene of the film. The film has scenes of stage plays about Sangam age period Tamil in which a twenty-year-old acts as seventy-five-year Avvaiar. The part is played by one Mutharasi who is interested in acting as well in the Tamil language literature, said Bhaba to Lens Eye.

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48. CHENNAI, October 27, 2000- The Hindu News : The `State Sangeet Natak Akademi' (Tamil Nadu Iyal Isai Nataka Mandram) has decided to give from its Family Welfare Fund, Rs.5000 to each of the families of two Tamil folk artistes and a playwright who died recently.

The Akademi, at its meeting here, lauded the good show put up by the folk-arts team led by Mrs. Mutharasi, at the recent `Dussera festival' in Kulu in Himachal Pradesh.

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47. Rani Muniyekannu, a woman sarpanch belonging to the most backward Mutharaiyar caste, has been waging a battle against illegal mining in the Vanduvancherry village of the Nagapattinam district in coastal Tamil Nadu.

Silicon mining by various companies has resulted in a lowering of groundwater levels, adversely affecting the availability of drinking water in the village. Rani�s sustained campaign against illegal mining has forced the district administration to initiate action.

According to Rani, problems arose when the mining companies began to conduct their activities on land belonging to the gram sabha.

To protest against this, Rani organised a `road roko� near the village. Villagers with vested interests in the mining activities approached the Nagapattinam district collector complaining against Rani and the other villagers. She was arrested and subsequently released after the district officials discovered the true facts. The case is now pending in the Madras High Court.

Elected sarpanch twice, Rani has initiated a number of other developmental activities in her village. She has helped improve 158 acres of common land by digging wells and providing irrigation facilities. She was also instrumental in building an additional block for the village primary school and anganwadi. Her mission now is to improve the productivity of village land by introducing multi-purpose crops, strengthen the local self-help group and clear common village land.

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46. Telugu film "Evarinanina Edurista" will be directed by B.J.Parkoti and produced by Manda Narendra Mudiraju. The film was launched at Annapurna Studio's on 6th December.

Cast: Akash, Sindhu, Reshma, M.S. Narayana, Kondavalsa, Vijayrangaraja, Hariprasad, Basha, Aruna, Talakrishna.

Crew: Camera: Jagadeesh; Dailogues: Nakka Ramakrishna; Presented by: Manda Swarnalatha; Music: Sashipreetam; Producer: Manda Narender Mudiraj; Story, Screenplay & Direction: B.J. Parakoti.

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45. The Hindu - Online edition of India's National Newspaper - Friday, January 05, 2001 - Mr. M. Karunanidhi, Tamil Nadu Chief Minister and litterateur, has translated in easy simple language the verses of `Sangattamizh' in the ancient style and presented them as nine stories. These have been set to music by T. R. Papa and sung by Seerkazhi Dr. Sivachidambaram, T. L. Maharajan, P. Susheela and Vani Jayaram. `Sangattamizh' was presented as musical dance-drama by the artistes of Kalaikkoyil led by Muttharasi. A recorded introduction by Mr. Karunanidhi himself, was played before the dance-drama.

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44. Maj Gen Sriyanto Muntrasan, the head of Indonesia's special forces has been cleared of gross human rights violations over the 1984 killings of a crowd of Muslim activists. Maj Gen Sriyanto Muntrasan was accused of telling soldiers to shoot into a crowd of demonstrators near Jakarta's Tanjung Priok port. But a court in Jakarta ruled the incident was a "spontaneous clash", and therefore not a human rights violation. He is the latest in a series of senior officers to be acquitted in such cases.

On September 15, the ad hoc human rights tribunal for the 1984 Tanjung Priok incident held its first court session in Jakarta. Four 5-judge panels consisting of career and ad-hoc judges began to hear four cases: One against 11 soldiers, and the other 3 against 3 high-ranking active or former military officers, retired Major General Pranowo, Army Major General (retired) Rudolf Adolf Butar-Butar, and Army Major General Sriyanto Mutrasan, the commander of Kopassus. All of the defendants faced charges of crimes against humanity in connection with the 1984 mass shooting that occurred near the Jakarta port of Tanjung Priok and left at least dozens, and possibly hundreds, dead. The killings occurred when 11 soldiers opened fire on a large group of Muslim demonstrators who were marching toward the District Military Command and demanding the release of several detained colleagues. At the opening of Sriyanto's trial, soldiers stood shoulder to shoulder at the doors to the courtroom.

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43. Nellore people of Andhra Pradesh participated in Indian Independence movement and also in fight for formation of separate state for telugu people. Notable freedom fighers are Muttharaju Gopalarao and Potti Sriramulu. A street in Nellore is named as "Muttaraju Street / Muttharaja Street" after him.

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42. Mariappan, a fisherman, lost his finger while trying to recover his net during the tsunami. Doctors have advised him not to go to the sea until he has fully recovered. He belongs to the Valayar caste group (subcaste of Muthuraja), which is not considered a dalit community. People of his community are economically worse off than most scheduled caste (dalit) communities. We are completely neglected because we are considered higher than s.c. community people though we are economically more backward than dalits,says Mukkamma, a fisherwoman of Muthirayar (Muthuraja) Nagar in Tuticorin.

The fishermen of Muthirayar Nagar make low-cost boats using waste thermocol [a packing product]. Each boat costs only about $25. A fisherman says that his low-cost thermocol boat is much better than the expensive boat donated by ActionAid. There was a move to shift families from Muthirayar Nagar to a far away place. People refused to go. “What about our livelihood,” asks Mukkamma.

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41. Dr. Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister of India is a Kukhran of the Kohli clan. Kohlis are one of the eleven clans of Kukhran warriors originally belonging to Sindhu-Saraswati river basin areas. Kohlis and kolis are one and the same people and belong to solar race.

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40. Mr. R. Mutharasu, a biochemistry student had to pull a rickshaw for a living some years ago. Today, he is assistant general manager at a Chennai branch of the State Bank of India.

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39. Former Rangareddy ZP Chairman Kasani Gyaneshwar Mudiraj said that there are about 13 lakh Mudirajs in the twin cities of Hyderabad & Secunderabad. His understanding is that if all the Mudirajs in the twin cities are united, it will be a cake walk for him to win Mayor's post. (The Hindu Online edition of India's National Newspaper - Tuesday, Nov 14, 2006)

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38. Tamizhar Bhoomi, a Mutharaiyar caste-based outfit :

CHENNAI, MARCH 19, 2001. The Tamizhar Bhoomi, a Mutharaiyar caste-based outfit in the DMK-led front, is unhappy with the offer of a lone seat by the DMK. The party is now holding discussions to prepare an alternative strategy in the event of the DMK ignoring its demand for three seats.

The Tamizhar Bhoomi founder and former AIADMK Minister, Mr. Ku. Pa. Krishnan, did not relish the idea of having to share his status as a representative of the community with a rival organisation.

Tamizhar Bhoomi circles point out that Mr. Chelliah does not head a political party, but leads only a caste organisation. By providing a seat for Mr. Chelliah, the DMK is trying to deny the Tamizhar Bhoomi its claims to be the real representative of the Mutharaiyars, they say.

Now, the party leaders are deliberating on the prospects of leaving the DMK-led front and offering ``unconditional support'' to the AIADMK-led front.

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37. Moopanars are a subcaste of Muthuraja in Tamilnadu. Shri G.K. Moopanar, a renowned politician and follower of Kamaraj passed away on the 30th August, 2001, at Chennai at the age of 71 years.

Born at village Kabisthalam, Tamil Nadu, in August 1931, Shri Moopanar had his education at Papanasam, Tamil Nadu. An agriculturist by vocation, Shri Moopanar was associated with various social and welfare activities. He devoted his life for the uplift of poor and downtrodden and propagated national integration. The distinguished legislative career of Shri Moopanar began with the Membership of the House representing the State of Tamil Nadu, from July, 1977 to July, 1983 and again from July, 1983 to February, 1989. Thereafter, he was elected to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly in 1989 and remained there till 1991. Shri Moopanar again became the Member of this House from July, 1995 to September, 1997 and again from June, 1998 till he breathed his last.

He was a Congressman and staunch Gandhi family loyalist. Mr. G.K. Moopanar was the founder of died Tamil Maanila Congress (TMC) in 1996 to fight the AIADMK.

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36. Report By CRNB Date : Sunday, October 15, 2006 - G.K.Mudduraj the director of 32 Kannada films from 'Jayabheri' in 1989 is now ready with his new film 'Sneha Parva' all about friendship, love, sentiments and a message to the society. In 35 days Mudduraj has completed this film.

Sunday, March 5, 2006 | MP - Gopi directed by G K Muddhuraj is the remake of the Telungu film, Murari. The Kannada version has Murali and Gowri playing the lead pair.

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35. Jagan Mohan Prasad Mudiraj, president of the Association said that �Though our community was Socially and Educationally Backward, it was not properly examined and in detail by the then commission�. Due to this it was placed under Group �D� instead of placing in Group�A�. He said that Mudiraj community has been deprived of all the privileges and oppurtunites of getting appoinments in the services. He also said that 50 percent of fishermen Co- Operative Socities in the state belongs to Mudiraj caste.

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34. POOJA of Nari Entertainments production no. 1 was held in Somajiguda on 2nd July. Manda Narendra Mudiraj and Rajanarasimham are the producers and Ravinder is the director of the film. Nani is the choreographer while Pydala Srinivas handles the camera. After pooja, a press meet was held.

Producer Narendra Mudiraj said that he had produced a film earlier on the banner of Soujanya Art Creations. The film titled Margadarsi had also won a Nandi award. After a long gap he could get another good subject and hence this film. The film is a youthful love story. There are two heroes in the film. Ajay had been selected as the second hero. The rest of the cast will be finalised in two or three days. The film will be shot in a single schedule starting from the last week of July or the first week of August.

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33. Thurston writes: "Round about Devakotta in the Sivaganga zamindari there are fourteen nadus, representatives of which meet once a year at Kandadevi, to arrange for the annual festival at the temple dedicated to Swarnamurthi Swami." Each "nadu" is headed by an Ambalakaran (president of an assembly) and the Ambalakarans (Muthurajas) took upon themselves the power to adjudicate disputes that arose among the inhabitants in the "nadu", belonging to different castes. They used to hear complaints, hold inquiries and punish the offenders. They wielded considerable powers to intervene in any kind of transaction or transfer of property among the people. No land could be alienated from one man to another without the permission of the Ambalakkarans. They were known for awarding crude punishments and collecting oppressive taxes from the people.

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32. About MADRAS : It is tought in school, about the city's founders, Muthurasa Naicker and Chennakesava Naicker, both of whom most probably spoke Telugu and belonged to Muthurasa caste. How the name of an Indian, Muthirasa Naicker, was any less "Indian" than that of Chennekesava Naicker ?

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31. Supreme court ordered to introduce creamy layer limit around a decade ago. Past Telugu Desam government ignored that rule because BC leaders of that party mainly belong to communities like mudhiraj, munnurkapu, goud, yadav, padmasali etc which are enjoying more reservations.

Now, Andhra Pradesh government introduced creamy layer limit on BC reservations. BC families with income above 4 lakhs have been disqualified from reservations. There are 93 BC communities in Andhra Pradesh. Only few of those castes are enjoying reservations. People of many other BC communities did not get even single job in reservation quota. BC communities like mudhiraj, munnurkapu, goud, yadav, padmasali etc are having politicians in their castes. They are having more number of people above creamy layer and they are grabbing most of the government jobs.

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His official name was S.P. Muthuraju, which was named after Lord Muthathi-Rai (Lord Hanuman). His name was changed to "Rajakumar" (meaning Prince) when he entered films, by H.L.N. Simha who directed Rajkumar's first movie Bedara Kannappa. The title of Doctor in his name came after he was awarded a doctorate by Mysore University for his contribution to films in 1976.

Dr. Rajkumar was named after Hanuman of Muthathi village where Hanuman is also known as Muthathi Rai. Muthathi is a small village in Mandya district and nearest place from Bangalore on the banks of the river kaveri. Muthathi, the scenic locale on the banks of river Cauvery, is a popular destination among the regular trekkers It is just 90 minute drive from Bangalore.

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29. Kannappa kula is a subcaste of Muthuraja in Tamilnadu. The people of Kannappa Kula are the descendants of Bhakta Kannappa (Tinnad)who was a Tribal Boya chief in Srikalahasti region of Andhra Pradesh. These Tribal Boya chiefs are known as Bedars (Boya poligars) in Kannada speaking lands. Bhakta Kannappa is also known as Bedara Kannappa in Karnataka. The Bedars are also known as Beydurs / Romoshi-Beydurs in Maharastra.

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28. Kattabomman was said to be a palayakar / poligar and the people of palayakars are a subsect of Muthuraja in Tamilnadu today. Both KATTA and BOMMANA are the surnames of Telugu Mutharacha community. This proves that Veera Pandya Katta Bommana was a warrior king of Telugu Mutharacha orgin. It is said that the court language of Kattabommu was TELUGU. Veerapandya was known to revolt against Imperial British by refusing taxes much before the 1st sepoy mutiny in India.

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27. Arayas / Arayars of Tamilnadu and Kerala come under subcaste of Muthuraja. Amritanandamayi (Sudhamani), who is known as a living saint, mahatma and great spiritual personalty belongs to Arayar community and hails from the small village of Parayakadavu, near Kollam, Kerala.

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26. Chempil Anantha Padmanabhan Valiya Arayan Kankumaran, commonly known as Chempil Arayan, was the chief of the Velu Thampi Dalawa. He is credited with having started one of the first uprisings against the Imperial British Raj. He is well known for his naval exploits using the traditional Kerala boat known as the "Odi Vallam". Chempil Arayan belongs to the Arayan caste of keral.

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25. In North Side of India, Muthurajas are called in the name kolly (koli). In andhra pradesh they are called as Muthiraj (Mudiraj). In Tamil Nadu itself they re with diffrent names ambalam, valayar, naikar etc.

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24. "Koli Mahadeo" is a Scheduled Tribe recognised in Maharashtra. In the list of Backward Classes issued by the State of Maharashtra,we find that Kolis are recognised as belonging to "other backward classes". "Son Kolis" are shown as belonging to other backward classes in the list of other backward classes issued by the State of Maharashtra.

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23 Perumbidugu Mutherayar birthday celebration : The birth anniversary of Perumbidigu Mutherayar is celebrated in Tiruchi on 23rd MAY every year. The people of Muthuraja community in Tamilnadu gather on this occassion every year in Tiruchi (Thiruchurapalli) in lakhs to take part in birthday celebrations of of Perumbidugu Matharaiyar at Mutherayar Statue, Bharathidasan Road. A host of other organisations, representing the Mutherayar community, a dominant sect in the district, also garlanded the statue.

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22. Tiruchirapalli Constituency - Survey 23 : Mutharayars and Mukkulathors are the dominating castes in the constituency, each accounting for 30 per cent of the voters. Pillars constitute 20 per cent and the others constitute the remaining 20 per cent.

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21. Mr. P. Veeresham Mudiraj, General Secretary,Rastra Mudiraj Sangham said that 1.3 crore Mudiraj were in the state by constituting 16 percent in population of the state. They constitute 20 to 30 percent in population of every Assembly constituency in Telangana region -date: 5/25/2005.

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20. Johnson Grammar School was started in 1979 under the patronage of Johnson Education Society headed by the founder and chairman late Mr. S.R.N. Mudiraj. This institution has grown at a rapid pace in just 27 years in terms of quality and the number of students. It started off with just 9 students then, with just one branch at Warisguda, Hyderabad. Today Johnson is proud to have over 7000 students and several branches. In terms of quality, it has secured cent percent results in I.C.S.E every year. And with the ISO 9001 certification it has become a school that truly meets international standards.

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19. "Koli Mahadeo" is a Scheduled Tribe recognised in Maharashtra. In the list of Backward Classes issued by the State of Maharashtra,we find that Kolis are recognised as belonging to "other backward classes". "Son Kolis" are shown as belonging to other backward classes in the list of other backward classes issued by the State of Maharashtra.

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18. Mr. P. Veeresham Mudiraj, General Secretary,Rastra Mudiraj Sangham said that 1.3 crore Mudiraj were in the state by constituting 16 percent in population of the state. They constitute 20 to 30 percent in population of every Assembly constituency in Telangana region -date: 5/25/2005.

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17. Johnson Grammar School was started in 1979 under the patronage of Johnson Education Society headed by the founder and chairman late Mr. S.R.N. Mudiraj. This institution has grown at a rapid pace in just 27 years in terms of quality and the number of students. It started off with just 9 students then, with just one branch at Warisguda, Hyderabad. Today Johnson is proud to have over 7000 students and several branches. In terms of quality, it has secured cent percent results in I.C.S.E every year. And with the ISO 9001 certification it has become a school that truly meets international standards.

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16. Muthuraja is an Indian National from Tamilnadu. Muthuraja is a second Trusted LTTE lieutenant to V. Pirbhakaran LTTE supremo Jaffna (Sri Lanka). He Prepared base in Madras for communications and finances to assasinate Rajiv Gandhi, the ten prime minister of India.

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15. Muthurajawela is a vast land area closer to Colombo,Srilanka consisting of about 8000 acres. It was a well-known paddy field, a few centuries back. Attempt to change the irrigation schemes during the Dutch period resulted in causing soil salinity and thus destroying most of the paddy cultivation. It then became a huge marshy land. Poorer people living around the areas moved into some parts of this land and cultivated this land. Some cultivated paddy in some areas while others cultivated vegetables, coconuts, cashew-nut plants etc.

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14. Rayars are Bunts:

The Mudiraj people are also known as Bants / Bunts in some western parts of Andhra Pradesh.

Chains of Udipi restaurants are mostly operated by the Bunt community of South Kanara. Today, this wealthy community owns thousands of idli-dosa joints in downtown Mumbai as well as the far suburbs, and the millions of people from Andhra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala who live in the city, find Mumbai a home away from home because of them.

Ash is indeed a Bunt. She was born in Mangalore and speaks Tulu at home. Bunts are one of the most enterprising people of India. Most of the Mumbai Udupi hotels are owned by them. Even the Udupi Palace in US is started by a Bunt.

Idli-Sambar, Masala Dosai, Wada - these can be had in Udipi restaurants all over the country and even at small stalls on railway stations run by smiling Mangaloreans.

One is inspired by the enterprising Rayars (Bunts) who have spread everywhere and established the hotel business in the South - especially in Tamil Nadu and very particularly in the city of Chennai.

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13. The South Indian Maharashtrians or Thanjavur Rayars, known for their scholarship and integrity, with a distinct identity of their own, have become a near-extinct or endangered species with a bleak future. The fast-changing economic and political environment, a lack of leadership and enterprise account for the decline and fall of Smartha Deshashtas and Madhwas in the South.

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12. COIMBATORE, AUG. 26. Coins belonging to the 17th Century ``Veerarayar'' era have been unearthed from a spot near the Old Fort in Kangeyam taluk of Erode district.

Used by the people of the Kongu region, these were called ``Veerarayar coins''. Minting of these coins began as early as in the 2nd century, during the era of the Reddy rulers of Dharapuram. There were issued under the authority of Vijayanagar Rayars.

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11. Royapettah, meaning the abode of 'Rayars', is a thickly populated and one of the oldest residential areas in central Chennai. It is located between Triplicane and Mylapore and is 2.5 km east of Kodambakkam.

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10. Murali Apparaju(

On Kammas, etc

your article on Kammas is a little sychophantic - you sure are dazed by their achievements - In this essay you sound more like a PR hired by the community rather than a "Sceptical & scieintific mind" as u hv claimed in one of ur replies. No wonder some people seem to doubt that u r a Kamma (I know u r not as I know more such brahmins who show the same tendency of overwhelming awe for kammas & Reddys - hey isn't communism full of Kammas - now i know where you got ur fascination....... Your write up on Kshatriyas is very basic - i think they are one of the best specimens of communities in Andhra - One of the respondents claimed to be a descendent of krishnadevaraya, i dunno, but my research reveals that the erstwhile family of tuluvar rayas belong to the current day BUNT ( equivalent of telugu BANTU - soldier) community of Karnataka (The Shetty, Rai, Ballal etc) And going by mere physical resembelnce, the West Godavari Rajus seem to be very very similar to BUNTS - A clear lead for other people to do some research from this angle)

Please continue to put in more information & please donot hesitate to retract or modify your earlier writeups if you get a genuine feed back - i am sure u will Regards

The articles are DRAFT articles, version 0.6 alpha or something like that. In a sense I am a journalist-researcher sharing my notes and various leads on ongoing stories with everyone who is interested. Lot of people seem to like this. This method is possible only on the web. Many of the leads people mention may not stand up to scrutiny. But why censor them unless they are patently incorrect?

read Krishna Reddy's wise and insightful comment on this topic

... When I said communist-minded I was referring to the scientific and objective outlook , which is popularly called in India "communist minded". ....>

Abt Bant/bantulu, the MUDIRAJ in AP are also called bantulu. My researches indicate they are connected to Velama states, as commando / specialist infantrymen. KD Raya was a tuluva, certainly. But I'm not sure he was a bunt. Most of the Raya crowd were of kuruba -golla background, as were several deccan dynasties like the chalukyas, the seuna yadavas, even many of the mahrattas.

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9. The emergence of Cola (Chola)power had its basis in the elimination of Mutta-raiyar power in the Kaveri basin and then its penetration into Tondaiman' dalam.

Kongudesa, Pandya country, Gangavadi, Vengi, to mention only a few regions, lay inside the orbit of the Cola political interests, irrespective of the duration and fluctuations in actual control, whereas on the fringes of the Cola region proper local lineages could continue, although Subbarayalu thinks that, the families of the 'Chiefs were enlisted for 'Chola army and administrative staff {Political Geography., 80). For an attempt to determine the core of the Cola dominion through a study of the distribution pattern of Cola records see G.W. Spencer and K.R. Hall, 'Toward an analysis of dynastic hinterlands: The Imperial Cholas of llth Century South India,' Asian Profile, 2.1 (1974), 51-62.

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8. Castes & Caste Observances amongst Tamils in Ceylon
Rev. James Cartman, OBE, M.A., B.D., M.Th.
from Hinduism in Ceylon, 1957

List 1 - Ceylon Tamils (Hindus)
List 2 - South Indian Tamils (Hindus)

4.Ambalakarar ---- Cultivators
Muthiriyar --------A Telugu caste, hunters and fishermen now employed on the estate.

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7. THE HINDU 19/03/2004

The `caste factor' always plays a significant role in elections in this backward district, which witnessed clashes in the past.

Spread over three districts, the Ramanathapuram parliamentary constituency comprises six Assembly segments - Ramanathapuram, Paramakudi (SC), Kadaladi, Mudukulathur, Aruppukottai (in Virudhunagar district) and Manamadurai (in Sivaganga).

In the constituency, Mukkulathors (Thevar, Kallar and Agamudayar) account for 23 per cent of the population, Muslims 20 per cent, Yadavas 15 per cent, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes 14 per cent, Nadars eight per cent, Pillais four per cent, Mutharayars (Valayars) three per cent and others 6 per cent.

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6. Below is the list of sub class name for Muthuraja that Mr. Kiruban, Malaysia found out in one of the Tamilnadu government website and sent the details to this website:

  • Muthuracha, Muthiriyar,
  • Mutharaiyar (Including
  • Muthuraja, Muttiriyar,
  • Ambalakaran, Servai,
  • Servaikkaran, Valaiyar,
  • Kannappa Kula Valaiyar,
  • Bharatava Valaiyar
  • (Paratava Valayar),
  • Palayakkaran, Kavalgar,
  • Talaiyari, Vazhuvadiyar,
  • Poosari, Muthuraj,
  • Muthiriya Moopar (Shanan),
  • Muthiriya
  • Moopanar (Parkava Kulam),
  • Muthiriya Naidu (Gavara),
  • Muthiriya Naicker,
  • Palayakara
  • Naidu, Palayakara Naicker,
  • Muthuraja Naidu,
  • Vanniyarkula Muthuraj,
  • Muthiriya Urali Gounder,
  • Muthiriya Rao, Vettuva
  • Valaiyar, Arayar,
  • Ambalam, Pillai)

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5. List of Denotified Communities
( G.O. Ms. No. 28, BC & MBCW Dept. Dated 19.7.94 )
(G.O. Ms. No. 100 BC and MBCW Dept dated 24-11-97)

  • 4. Ambalakarar ( Thanjavur, Nagapattinam, Tiruvarur, Tiruchirapalli, karur, Perambalur and Pudukottai Districts .
  • 5. Ambalakkarar ( Suriyanur, Tiruchirapalli District)
  • 6. Boyas ( Tiruchirapalli, Karur, Perambalur, Pudukottai, The Nilgiris, Salem Namakkal and Dharmapuri Districts )
  • 11. Chettinad Valayars ( Sivaganga, Virudhunagar and Ramanathapuram Districts.
  • 49. Servai ( Tiruchirapalli, Karur, Perambalur and Pudukottai Districts )
  • 61. Urali Gounders (Tiruchirapalli, Karur, Perambalur and Pudukottai Districts)
  • 64. Valayars (Madurai, Theni, Dindigul, Tiruchirapalli, Karur, Perambalur, Pudukottai,Erode and Coimbatore Districts)
  • 68. Vettuva Gounder (Tiruchirapalli, Karur, Perambalur and Pudukottai Districts)

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4. List of Most Backward Classes
( G.O. Ms. No.28 BC & MBCW Dept. Dated. 19.7.94 )
(G.O. Ms. No. 100 BC and MBCW Dept dated 24-11-97)

  • Ambalakarar
  • Vanniakula Kshatriya ( including Vanniyar, Vanniya, Vannia Gounder, Gounder or Kander, Padayachi, Palli and Agnikula Kshatriya )
  • Punnan Vettuva Gounder
  • Valaiyar ( including Chettinad Valayars )
  • Vettuva Gounder

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3. Palayakaras are a subsect of Muthurajas:

Selam District of Tamilnadu - History:

  • 15th Century A .D. The Chalukya rule. Raise of Palyakarars.
  • 16th Century A.D. Rule of Madurai Nayakars. Rule of Emperor Krishnadheva Raya in part of Salem including Attur.
  • 17th Century A.D. Rise of local chieftains Gatti and Nayakas.Palayakara rule.

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2. The Tamil country was divided into a number of feudal domains, called Palayams, which literally means �military camps� (2), the chief of which was the Palayakarar � the commander of the camp.

Most of the Tamil Palayakarar were Maravar. Each maintained a body of Kallar, Maravar and Ahampadiyar warriors who �served on the battle field and in times of peace engaged in hunting and training in the military arts, nourishing a rugged and practical character�, and serving as village guards (kaval) for a contribution.

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(3). In Jaffna �the Maravar had to learn the art of war from the age of sixteen till they were twenty four years of age; then they had to become village kaval-karar, live on land given by the King and return to military service whenever the king required them to do so.

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1. This is 25 Kms from Hosur situated near the Karnataka state. The area is covered by a number of hills. The climate is chill round the year. It is called Little England. The taluk headquarters is Denkanikottai. The fort at Denkanikottai is built by Palayakarar in 1530 AD. The fort is destroyed during war with Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan. There is a temple for Venugopala Swami. Car festival is held during the month of May every year. Thousands of devotees visit during this festival.

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