Click here to go to --> 01. INTRODUCTION.
Click here to go to --> 2. ANKAMMA & KOMMARAJU (BALLAD VERSION-1)
Click here to go to --> 03. ANKAMMA & RAVADDEVARAJU (BALLAD VERSION-2)
Click here to go to --> 05. GODDESS ANKAMMA & VARIOUS FORMS

go TOP


Mudiraju's popular deity is mother Goddess Ankamma. Chola kings of South India also worshipped Ankamma. Mutharayars and Cholas are one and the same people as per Chola - Mutharayar Research Center, Tanjore and they were from vellala background. While the common people were known as Vellalas, the royal clans were known as Cholas and Mutharayars.

This fact of common ancestry can be proved from the fact that Rajendra cholans daughter's name was Angamma devi (Ammanga Devi ) and she married east chalukyan prince. Angamma name was given to their children by chola and Mutharayar kings. Ankamma was the Royal Goddess of chola and Mutharaiyar kings. Angamma temples were buit by Chola and Vijayanagar kings. Ankamma was basically the Goddess of Telugu Mudiraj and the people who worship Angamma in Tamil and Karnataka were mostly the descendants of Telugu warrior community.

Angamma = Anga + Amma = Amma + Anga = Ammanga
Ankamma = Anka + Amma
Angamma = Ankamma = Ammanga

Goddess Ankalamma, or Angalamma, is also known as Ankamma or Angamma, Ankali, Angali, Ankala Parameswari and Angala Parameswari. She is worshipped with these names in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

Ankalamma is said to be one of the Seven Matrkas (Sapta Matrikas) and she is also considered to be a form of goddess Ankali or Kali. In order to incorporate her worship into Vedic Hinduism, Ankamma is considered to be the mother of the Trimurtis, the Hindu male trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Siva. However, Ankalamma is a non-Vedic deity and, like so many Tamil popular deities, she seems to have originated in a fierce guardian figure. In the rituals dedicated to her she is appeased with blood.

Ankalamma's shrines are usually located outside of the village in groves of trees. They are usually no proper temples, but very simple stone structures.

Ankamma Kolupu : The main characteristic of the ritual called Ankamma Kolupu is that a midnight worship (puja} is performed by making a colorful Rangoli with wheat flour, turmeric powder, kumkum, black charcoal powder, etc. During the worship singers recite ballads based on local stories about warrior ancestors (Ravaddevaraju in Telugu, Veeran in Tamil). The climax comes at the end of the ritual, when the devotees sacrifice a goat and its blood is spilled in order to appease the goddess. Other rituals like the Devara Kolupu or Veerla Kolupu are normally performed on some special occasions by individuals or by the community as a whole.

While Goddess Ankamma is worshipped in the form of statue with four hands in sitting posture in Telangana region, the same Goddess is worshipped in the form of painting made on wall cleaned with cowdung in Coastal Andhra. A square painting is made on the wall with turmaric paste and red dots of kumkum (sindhoor) are put on the dried paste. It is believed that Goddess Ankamma is having 1000 eyes (Sahasra Nayani)and each red dot of kumkum indicates one eye of Goddess Ankamma. ANKA may also be indicating AANK which means EYE. Mother Goddess is worshipped through out India in different names indicating her beautiful eyes. Meenaakshi, Kaamaakshi, Nayana Devi, etc are some of the names which we can come across. The devotees of Ankamma believe that Mother Goddess keeps on watching her beloved devotees through her one thousand eyes and protects them without fail where ever they may go.

Goddess Ankamma is also known as Ankali, Ankalamma and Mahankalamma. There is no difference between Ankali and Kali as far as shakti cult goes. While the name of Ankamma, Ankalamma & Mahankalamma is more popular in South India, the same Shakti worshipped in the form of Kali, Mahankali, Kankali,etc in the North India. Ujjain is one of the powerful Shakti peeth for Mahankali in North India.

Some of the communities who worship Ankamma other than Mudiraj are Vaddera and Mala. The people of Mudiraj, Vaddera, Mala, Vysya and Reddy give the name of Goddess Ankamma to their children. This name is given to male children also. Ankamma, Ankalamma, Ankammarao,Ankalarao, Ankaiah, Ankanna, Ankireddy, Angamma, Angalamma, etc., are some of the common names used by some people who are devoted to Goddess Ankamma. Ankamma is known as Angalamma, Angalamman, Angamma, Angamman, Angali, Ankala Parameswari, Angala Parameswari in Tamilnadu and Karnataka.

Ankamma => Angamma => Angamman
Ankalamma => Angalamma => Angalamman
Ankalamma => Angala Parameswari = Angala Parameswari
Ankali => Angali => Angali Amman

Angalamman temple of Kaveripattinam is one among many holy places in Krishnagiri District of Tamilnadu which were built during Chola and Vijaya Nagar periods.

Some people believe that Cholas of Sangam age were more orginal tamils but they spread and settled in entire eastern front and again they established their empire in later part of 7th century. Chola title claimed different castes at different times. The earlier cholas emperor karikal cholan belonged to vellala from Uraiyur and later cholas were pallars. It is a well established fact that Mutharayars are Vellalas and the Royal kalabhra kings were also vellalas. Later cholas married kodumbalur vellala sons and daughters. Kodumbalur Vellalas are believed to be either Mutharayars or a branch of Mutharayars. Pallars are one of the most down trodden community and today they are considered as untouchbles.


Ankamma => Ankalamma => Mahankalamma
Ankamma => Ankali => Mahankali => Kali

At the festival of Ankamma, the people dance "as if possessed by demons," and the pujari (priest), dressed in women's clothes, bites the jugular vein of a sheep and drinks the blood, and rides to the shrine in procession amidst writh- ing live animals impaled on takes. The unfortunate animals symbolize an overthrown enemy, and the political undertones of the festivals are expressed by the accom-panying legends. One legend tells of a king who boasted to a Sakti that he would not worship her even if he were to be impaled on a stick-to which she replied that he had named his own fate. It was no coincidence that in 1901, at the festival of a Sakti, everyone suspected of connection with the government was killed. It is apparent that in village worship, politics is intertwined with religion, and for this reason a particularly gruesome form of blood propitiation is required. We may assume that before the Goddess was overthrown, her worship was less horrific.

Ankamma also means Parvathi, the consort of Shiva. In Telugu language "Ankamu" means "Lap". Hence Ankamma means the devine consort of Shiva who sits on the lap of Shiva. Ankamma ib some places known as Goddess who cures Cholera.

Ankamu = Lap
Ankamma = One who sits on lap (of Shiva)

Photo : Wall Painting of Goddess Ankamma as worshipped by Mudiraj at Addanki Town, in Coastal Andhra.

The articles of worship includes the swords. This clearly indicates the warrior character of Mudiraj or Mutharacha people in general. The box containing articles of worship are sealed in a box made of bamboos and and hanged from roof top of DEVARILLU (House of Goddess). It is brought down on the occassions of Ankamaa Kolupu( Ankamma Puja).

Devarillu => Devara + Illu => Goddess's + House => House of Goddess

Photo : Hanging Box from roof top - Contains Articles of worship - Includes Swords dead warriors.

Potharaju : He is believed to be the brother of Mother Goddess Ankamma or Mahankalamma. He is pretty fiercesome looking character. Some devotees dress like Potharaju as a tribute to the Goddess Kali... walk about whipping themselves generally scaring the beejees out of spectators. Potharaju is an act that is performed during the festivals of Pochamma Thalli, Ellamma Thalli, Mahankali amma.

He always dances before the Palaharam Bandi, taken on to the streets, also the initiator of the festivities and is considered the protector of the community. Potharaju, a masculine power, is believed to weed out all evils.

He carries a whip and lashes it against his body to the sound of the drum (dappu) beats. He is followed by the tranced female dancers (under spell of the Mother Goddess, called shigam) to the temple and emerald neem leaves(margosa) tied around their waists, adding color to the roaring trumpets and pulsating percussion, and led by drum beaters. A man well-built, bare-bodied, turmeric-smeared on entire body, vermilion on the forehead, clad in a small tightly draped red dhoti, bells tied to the ankle and dancing to the sound of reverberating beats of drums (dappu) is fondly known as Potharaju. Sometimes he goes into a trance and predicts the future of the community.

Poleramma is said to be the elder sister of Ankamma in the region of Addanki in Prakasham ( Ongole ) district of Andhra Pradesh. Here also, Pothuraju or Potharaju is said to the brother of Ankamma and Poleramma.

Bonalu is also celebrated for goddess Gangamma thalli and her brother PothulaRaju in Balijapalli, Rajampet, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh. The word "Bonalu" is derived from "Bhojanalu" meaning food, which is offered to the Goddess. Bonalu is a festival of the farming and lower classes and is certainly not brahminical. So the timing of the celebrations are not so rigorous. The annual 'Bonalu festival', a festival of offerings and fulfilling of vows, is celebrated in the months of June-July nearly for 15 to 20 days in the Telugu month of Ashadham. The Mahakali Jatra i.e the fair attracts the people of all ages, castes and places.

Bhojanalu => Bhonalu => Bonalu
Bonalu = Naivedyam or food offered to Goddess Mahankali

Bonalu involves the worship of Kali and her various forms. She destroys disease and keeps pestilence at arms length. On the first day of Bonalu, ‘phalaru bandulu’, a buffalo cart, laden with fruits is taken around ( phalaru means fruits and bandlu, cart.). A bonalu procession is taken around the area on an elephant with the image of goddess Mahankali

Phala = fruit
Phalaru = fruits
Bandi = cart
Bandlu = carts

Three deities — Maisamma, Pochamma and Elamma, are worshipped. Earlier, they used to sacrifice a he-buffalo. Now, goats or chickens are sacrificed to ward off the ‘evil spirit’. During Bonalu, colourful brass pots, smeared with haldi and kumkum, and decorated with neem leaves are offered to the goddess. The pots usually contain a mixture of raw rice, jaggery, and milk. Sometimes, curd is also used.

Bonalu is celebrated in various parts of the city on different days, all Sundays. On the first Sunday of ‘aashaada’, celebrations are held at the temple at Golconda fort. On the second Sunday, at Ujjain Mahankali in Secunderabad, and the third Sunday, at the Matheswari temple of Lal Darwaza in Old City.

Hyderabad Ujjain Mahankali : The story has it that in 1813, Suriti Appaiah, a ‘doli’ bearer in a military battalion, was transferred to Ujjain. In 1813, an epidemic broke out in Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh. The villagers believed that Mahankali or Mother Goddess was angry with the people and that had led to outbreak of the epidemic. Appaiah, who was serving in the army there, prayed to Mahankali and promised that if he survived the plague, he would build a Mahankali temple in Hyderabad. He did survive and on their return, they installed a wooden idol of the goddess in Secunderabad in July 1815. Another story goes that Goddess appeared in a dream and wished a temple to be built for her from where she could safegaurd the people and fulfill all their wishes. This was replaced with a stone statue in 1964.

During Ankamma Kolupu ( worship ) singers recite ballads based on local stories about warrior ancestors (Ravaddevaraju in Telugu, Veeran in Tamil). Madan's principal role is being a protector and a hero (Veeran). He is the divinity of the dispossessed. Madan is usually considered to be the caste deity of the Konar, Thevar, Paraiyar, Nadar and other castes found in the extreme south of Tamil Nadu. This deity is very popular in the Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari districts. And he is said to have been born in Seevalaperi, Tirunelveli District.

Large Madan temples are rare. Madan shrines usually consist of simple stone platforms with stone pillars. They are usually located at the outskirts of the villages. Sometimes Madan is painted on the pillar and sometimes he is represented in sculpture form, but frequently those pillars are only white, daubed with red marks. When Madan is represented iconographically, he is usually standing in a threatening position, carrying weapons (club, sword, cleaver, whip) in both hands.

Owing to the non-Vedic origin of this deity, rituals in most Madan temples are officiated by non-Brahmin priests.

Madan is considered to be the elder brother or protector of Isakki, so that in Madan shrines, the pillars representing Madan are usually taller than those of the female goddess. Esakkiyamman shrines or pillars representing her are common in Madan temples. Goddess Isakki is worshipped for good causes, such as for child birth, for good character in children, for a better society, etc.

In an effort to incorporate Madan into the wider Hindu pantheon, he is considered to be the son of Sivan and Parvati. Madan is also related with Harichandran and is thus revered by all communities for his proverbial honesty and his adherence to only the truth at all stages of his life. Harichandran is also worshipped as Masanamuthu in the Thiruchendur and Thirunelveli districts of Southern Tamil Nadu. Maasanamuthu is one of the names of Madan. Another name is Mundan. Katterum Perumal, the son of Harichandran, revives after regaining his life from his own funeral pyre. Katterum Perumal is worshipped as in the Kanyakumari and Thirunelveli districts.

The Thevars who worship Angamma or Ankamma are also known as Mukkulathor, a group name that represents Marvar, Kallar and Agamudayars ( Udayars ) . Ambalakarar is one of the surnames of Tamil Mutharayars and they are a component of both Marvars and Kallars. The Agamudayars are practically the Mudaliyars who are a variant of Muthariyars.

go TOP


This is one of the two versions known to the webmaster. In this version the hero is Kommaraju with Kalchuri background from Palnadu and having relation to Kalyana Chalukyas. For inscription proof, please refer to one inscription mentioned under the heading Ankalamma and subtitle Ankamma & Various forms

The following is the brief account of Goddess Ankamma, who is believed to be the incarnate of Goddess Parvathi, who came down to earth to spread the cult of Shakti puja.

Once upon a time there was a kingdom by name Kalyana. The kings of the kingdom were staunch Shiva Bhaktas (Devotees) and there was no place for the worship of both Hari (Vishnu) and Shakti (Parvathi) in the kingdom of Kalyana. Narada Mahamuni, who once happened to go to Kalyana kingdom, was insulted for being the devotee of Hari.

This episode of senseless insult to Narada Mahamuni in the kingdom of Kalyana reached the ears of Parvathi. She inquired Shiva about the same for confirmation and more details. Shiva told Parvathi that Narada was insulted by the kings of Kalyana for being a devotee of Hari and further told that they were staunch Shiva devotees and there was no place for either Hari or Shakti in their kingdom.

Parvathi became furious on hearing this from her beloved Lord Shiva. She terribly got annoyed and raged with an emotion of anger that spread like a wild fire throughout her body. Her body got completely drenched with drops sweat due to the heat of anger that engulfed her entire body.

From the drops of sweat that fell in the Naglok (World of Nagas), there came into existence of about 9 crore Siddhas and 101 Shaktis. These destructive forces were lead by fearful Goddess Ankamma and her brother Potharaju. Their eyes were glowing like red diamonds, their bodies were full of hair and they roared like dangerous thunder bolts. They appeared to be the perfect reflections of terribly annoyed and angered Goddess Parvathi.

Goddess Parvathi ordered her incarnations - Goddess Ankamma and Pothuraju to move to the kingdom of Kalyana along with the army of 9 crore Siddhas and 101 commanding shaktis. Goddess Parvathi ordered Goddess Ankalamma to teach a lesson to the kings of Kalyana and establish Shakti puja in their country where Narada was insulted. Goddess Parvathi instructed them to accept sacrifices offered by the people of Kalyana kingdom and in turn look after their welfare.

The angry Goddess Ankamma, the incarnate of Goddess Parvathi, entered the kingdom of Kalyana along with her leftinent brother Pothuraju, 101 commanding Shaktis and an army of 9 crore Siddhas. Shakti incarnate Goddess Ankalamma slaughtered the king of Kalyana and yadavas who dared to stop her entry into the kingdom.

Goddess Ankamma, who later became pacified, took pity on all those whom she killed in fit of anger and brought them all back to life. There after she proceded to nearby Mahendragiri along with her brother Potharaju and other followers.

Goddess Ankamma frequently used to enter the capital city of Kalyana kingdom in the disguise of fruit selling woman ( fruit vender) and terrified the citizens by revealing her Shakti Swaroop ( fearful face of Shakti). When the people of city attacked her, she retreated back to Mahendragiri. After waiting for appropriate time, she attacked and imprisoned the seven kings of the Kalyana kingdom. She tortured them for mistreating her devotees in their kingdom. She created all kinds of diseases, draughts and calamities in the kingdom of Kalyana putting the citizens to great suffering.

One day Goddess Ankamma went to the kingdom of Kalyana in the disguise of Erukalasaani (future teller) and met the queens of seven kings whom she imprisoned once at Mahendragiri. Erukalasaani told the queens to invite the Goddess Ankamma from Mahendragiri with great fanfare and sacrifice a lamb to please her so that the kingdom would be freed from all kinds of problems. The queens showed their initial interest in the suggestion of Erukalasaani but they told that their kings would never agree for doing any such Shakti puja and offer of lamb sacrifice.

Goddess Ankamma in the disguise of Erukalasani told the queens to follow a simple ritual of sacrificing a goat made of jowar flour with a sword made of jowar flour. This suggestion was readily accepted by the queens and also by the seven kings. They appointed their only son Kommaraju to conduct the whole ritual. When Kommaraju moved to offer the sacrifice of a goat made of jowar flour with a sword made of jowar flour, both the goat and sword became the real ones and the blood flowed like floods.

The dumb stuck kings immediately prayed Shiva to come down on to the earth and stop the killing and bloodshed. Shiva immediately appeared there and moved away the seven kings to Mount Kailasha with the help of his trident (Trishoola). Goddess Ankalamma threw her killer weapons against trident to prevent the moving of seven kings to Kailasha. Then Kommaraja requested Goddess Ankamma not to stop the seven kings from going to Kailasha. Kommaraja promised to install and worship Goddess Ankamma daily. He then took away Goddess by carrying her on his shoulders and installed her while taking the name of Govinda Hari.


Here, the story of Ankamma (version no.1 ) has certain names which are studied in detail to know the origins of those sections of Mudiraj community who are worshipping Goddess Ankamma / Ankalamma. The following analysis proves that the hero Kommaraju in story was a Kalchuri prince and these Mudiraj people are the descendants of Kalchuris. Since Kommaraju seems to belong to Kalyani Kalachuris and Kalchuris were Lunar race (soma vamsi / chandravamsi)kings, these descendants of Kommaraju could be from lunar race kings. The popular family diet of these sections of Mudiraj is Ankamma. They name their children with names such as Ankamma, Ankammarao, Ankarao, Pothuraju, Kommaraju, etc.

(1) KOMMA RAJU : Komma and Kommaraju are two surnames among Telugu people belonging to different castes and communities in Andhrapradesh today. Komma surname is prevelent among people of Mudiraj, Kshatriya Rajulu, Reddy and may be some other caste groups.

Mudiraj people are descendants of Kalchuris : There is a reference to one Kalachuri whose name was Kommaraja ( Komma Raja ) of Kalyani in the battele of Palnadu. The hero in the story narrated by ballads during Ankamma Kolupu is also Kommaraju / Kommaraja and one of the ancestors of some sections of Mudiraj people. This once again proves the connection between Mudiraj and Kalchuris through the story narrated by ballads during Ankamma Kolupu..

Palanati Kalchuri rulers (1176-1182) : The battle of Palnadu (Pallavanadu) is narrated in the Palnati Vira Charita of Srinatha. It was a battle between two factions of the Kalachuris (Haihaya).

Nalagama Raju was the son of Alugu Bhupathi Raju of the Palanati Kalachuris. His step brother was Malideva Raju, who was married to a princess of the Kalyani branch of Kalachuris. Dodda Naidu and Brahma Naidu were vassals of the Velanti Chodas (Vassals of the Chola-Chalukyas and responsible for the administration of their Andhra territories) and tried to usher in a new era in which caste distinctions would be abolished. Nalagama Raju was against this and tried to check their progress. Nalagama was supported by Nagamma, a female statesperson who became his chief adviser. The differences in ideology led to Brahma Naidu leaving with his supporters, including Nalagama's half brother Malideva and set up an independent court in Macherla.

Mutual suspicion and rivalry reached a high pitch between the two courts and Nagamma, under the pretext of Malideva's defeat in a cock-fight, exiled them for 7 years from Palnadu. After 7 years Brahma Naidu sent Alaraja, the son of Kalachuri Kommaraja of Kalyani, and the brother-in-law of Malideva to claim Malideva's share. The demand was turned down and Alaraja was poisoned to death under the orders of Nagamma. The enraged Kalyani Kalachuris and Brahma Naidu declared war on Gurujala. The fierce battle was fought in Karempudi on the banks of the river Naguleru. The Kakatiyas, Kota Vamsa, Parichedas and Hoysalas supported Nalagama and the Vengi Kalachuris. The Velanti Chodas and Malideva were supported by the Kalyani Kalachuris.

Nalagama was victorious. The civil war shook the Velanadu kingdom to its foundation. A whole generation of the greatest warriors of Andhra perished. The tragedy hastened the end of the Chalukyan rule in Vengi. It exposed their weaknesses and allowed the Hoysalas, Kalachuris, Eastern Gangas, and the Kakatiyas to eventually overrun them.

Telugu Raju Rulers : Historians have deciphered writings on the walls of temples describing the names and gotrams (family groupings) of some ancient Raju rulers and the contributions made by them to the temples and towns. Many of the Kshatriya Rajus are most probably the descendants of Kalchuris.

(2) KALYANA KINGDOM : The Kalyana referred in the story of Ankamma narrated by ballads points the connection of some sections of Mudiraj people to Chalkyan dynasty. Chalukyans are believed to be the kshatriyas of Maratha - Kannada origin. Chalukyans are also closely related to Kalchuris and Rastrakutas. The reference made to seven kings ruling Kalyana might be the chieftains of Chalukyan dynasty and ancestors of some sections of warrior Mudiraj / Mutharacha caste.

According to a Western Chalukya inscription of Vikramaditya VI, the Chalukyas originally hailed from Ayodhya where fifty-nine kings, and later sixteen more, of this family ruled from Dakshinapatha (South India) where they had migrated. Ayodhya Rama was one of the Suryavansi kings down the lane after Suryavansi koli Mandhata. The seven chieftains who were staunch shaivites and opposed to worship shakti could be suryavansi kolis. It is a well known fact that the Mudiraj in North India are known as kolis.

Kingdom of Kalyana & Chalukyas : Kalyana was the capital of the Chalukya kingdom.Taila (973-997 AD), a descendent of Early Chalukyas was the founder of the second Chalukya dynasty commonly referred as Western Chalukyas. His capital was located at the Manyakhet or Malkhed in modern Maharashtra state. His grandson Jayasimha II Jagadekamalla repelled invasion by Rajendra Chola in 1018 AD from South India and also defended his kingdom from northern invasion.

He later transferred his capital from Malkhed to Kalyana or Basavakalyana in modern Karnataka state. Jayasimha was an able ruler and was follwed by his equally brave son, Someshwara I (1043-68) who took a title of Trailokyamalla. Rajadhiraja Chola mounted an expedition against Chalukyas in 1045 AD and later captured their capital Kalyana. Someshwara retaliated and expelled Rajadhiraja. Eventually, by the end of 12th century AD, the sovereignty of entire south India was shared between Vikramaditya VI of Chalukya dynasty and Rajendra Chola (III) Kulottunga I.

Eleven kings ruled after Tailapa. They were Satyashraya Iriva Bedanga (997-1008 CE) VikramadityaV (1008-1015 CE), Jayasimha II (1015-1044 CE), Someshwara I (1044-1068) and Someshwara II(1068-1076 CE), Vikramaditya VI (1076-127 CE), Someshwara III (1127-1139 CE), Jagadekamalla (1139-49 CE), Tailapa III (1149-1162 CE) and finally Someshwara IV (1158-98 CE). Kalachuris, Hoysalas and Sevunas who were all biding their time were just waiting for a weakling to become a successor to Chalukyan throne. Kalachuris won, but then, Chalukyan Empire had disintegrated enough for all aspirants to have independent kingdoms.

Someshwara's son Vikramaditya VI (1076-1127 AD) was a famous king of Chalukyan dynasty. He started a new era replacing old `Shaka' era. His reign is landmark in history of Hindu Law. The great jurist Vijnaneshwara was patronised by him. Celebrated author Bilhana who wrote Vikramadeva-Charita was also in his court. He also known to have patronised numerous poets. His son and successor Someshvara III (1126-1138 AD) was also a writer of repute. After death of Someshwara III the Chalukyan empire started it's decline. After two centuries of rule, in 1190 AD this dynasty disintegrated and their territory was divided among three separate Kingdoms. Hoysalas of Dorasamudra, Kakatiyas of Warangal and Yadavas of Devgiri. Hoysalas occupied all of Karnataka region, Kakatiyas occupied Andhra pradesh while Yadavas occupied Maharashtra.

Symbol of Boar on Coins issued by Chalukyas : Boar is an important animal in the lives of some people belonging to Mudiraj - almikis and Muthuraj - Kannappa kula subcastes. The Chalukyas and Kalchuris matrimonially related and belong to one royal block.

The gold punch-marked coins were first introduced in south India in seventh century AD by Eastern Chalukya rulers. These punch-marked gold coins of ~3.5 to 4 gms were reintroduced by Jayasimha II Jagadekamalla, a ruler of Western Chalukya dynasty.

This is an uniface gold coin with seven punches, four of which are prominent while three are partly struck at the border of the coin. The two prominent punch marks create two Shri alphabates in Telugu-Kanerese which depicts lord Vishnu. The third punch mark corresponding to a triangular motif, represents spearhead. The fourth punch mark represents Telugu-Kanarese inscription which reads Bhairava. Two marks at the lower corners represent lions (stylized) while the seventh punch mark at the lower left corner perhaps represents sun and moon.

Some of the coins of similar type bear legend Sri Venga Vadi Gonda, the conquorer of Vengi. The obverse shows a large caprisoned boar or Varaha (represents one of the incarnaion of Lord Vishnu) which was Lanchhana or royal emblem of this dynasty. Above the boar is a pellet and crescent, representing sun and moon.

The faith of Shaivism : The Mudiraj people were staunch Shiva devotees at one time. This could be true as Kalchuris strongly supported Shaivism and jainism in their countries. Even Mutharayars too built Shiva temples in Tamilnadu.

The northern part of Karnataka is one of the richest areas of India in monuments of great artistic value. It was subjected to the rule of several royal families, Calukyas of Kalyana, Kalacuris and Seunas in the 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th centuries A.D. which has been a period of great cultural refinement. It was the time of the greatest expansion of the Kalamukha-Lakulasaiva movements, and of the rise of Virasaivism. The temple of Muktesvara at Caudadanapura (Dharwar District) is a beautiful representative of the style and the high culture of that time. Its history is known to us thanks to a set of seven long inscriptions, composed in literary medieval Kannada, engraved with great care on large steles. They provide informations on the local rulers, kings of Guttala who claimed a Gupta ascendancy, on some constructions in the temple complex, on diverse donations to the deity, and very interesting details on a few prominent religious leaders. It introduces to us Muktajiyar, a Lakulasaiva saint, and Sivadeva, a Virasaiva saint, who entered the place on the 19th of August 1225 and led there a long life of renunciation, asceticism and spiritual elevation. The legacy of this age of intense Saivite faith is a jewel of architecture and sculpture. It is a single cella temple in what is popularly known as Jakkanacari style, sometimes called Kalyana-Calukyan style, which is not appropriate, as many temples of the same style have also been built under the patronage of Kalacuri or Seuna dynasties.

For more details about Kalyana Kingdom, please refer to web page "KINGDOMS" in this website.

Pothuraju is one of avatar of Vishnu. He is considered as guardian angel in some parts of India. Potharaju is a village diety who kills the evil powers. POTHARAJU is considered to be the brother of mother goddess, who always dances before the Palaharam Bandi (cart carrying bonalu) taken on to the streets of Ashadam. Thousands of these Potharajus literally dance their way to the temple followed by thousands of cheering people. `Potharajus' dance to the tunes of drumbeat. Pothurajus are priest who worship Lord Pothuraju. The Potharajus, apart from acting as priests in the Jogini system also participate in the `Ooru Panduga', the village festival, where they are forced to slit the throat of tender lamb with their teeth. It is said the Potharajus grow their hair and never cut it in their lifetime claiming that all the divine powers are in their hair.

The Potharaju system is one striking social feature in Telangana area where they perform the village festivals called `Oora Panduga' and rituals to appease the Gods and Goddesses besides initiating young girls belonging to the SC community into the Jogini system. The Potharajus generally belong to the SC community and their most humiliating experience is during the village festival, when they are forced to "slit the throat of live lamb" (gavu) and offer it to the village God or Goddesses.

Yet another social barrier was broken on Saturday, when 200 Potharajus (non-brahmin priests), denounced their age-old profession of initiating young Dalit girls into the Jogini system and uncivilised system of `Gavu' (slitting the throat of live lamb) in village festivals and joined the mainstream of the society.

Bonalu : Strictly speaking, 'Bonalu' is a ritual in honour of the Mother goddesses; but, in practice, it has developed ritual dances ancillary to it. It is close, in a way, to garagalu, the only difference being its affinity to temple-based rituals, during which time alone they are performed. The word "Bonalu" is a shortened form of "Bhojanalu" which means "Food"; but in the context of the Festival of the Goddess it is an offering of food made to the goddess by all the women of the community, who later share it among their families.

In some places the job of Potharaju is also hereditary. Potharaju enthuses the people's involvement by dancing to the rhythms of the dappus. Others join the dance. It becomes a community dance, only by the male members of the community, while the women carry 'bonalu' in decorated vessels, with flames burning on them. Potharaju's dress is awe-inspiring.

Potharaju, who is believed to be the protector of the village, accompanies the women folk. A bare-bodied, well-built man, he wears a turmeric-coloured dhoti and a dhatti around his waist Attired in dhoti, the Potharaju is a well-built man with turmeric smeared all over his body, a garland around his neck, vermilion on his forehead and bells tied to his ankle. He carries a whip and lashes it against his body to the sound of the drum (dappu) beats. Sometimes he goes into a trance and predicts the future of the community.

Bonalu is a plural word used for Bonam. Bonam is one of the surnames of telugu Mudiraj caste people in India.

Pothana was the great author of Telugu Bhagavatham. Pothan's actual name was Potharaju. Pothana began composing his magnum opus with the feeling that everything he was doing was by the will of Sri Rama. So, when you think of Bhagavatham, you are reminded of Pothana. By his great work he has installed himself in the hearts of the devout. Poet Srinatha in the kingdom of Chalukyas and was relative of Pothana. Potharaju and Ankamma dieties seems to be worshipped during the times of Pothana even during Chalukya times.

The names of Rava Deva Raju and Komma Raju, which are mentioned in the story narrated by ballads during Ankamma Kolupu sound similar to that of Potharaju. Since Komma Raju is proved to be a Kalchuri clan and Potharaju is worshiped by Mudiraj along with Ankamma, the worship of Ankamma and Potharaju appears to be originated from these Kalchuri clans belonging to Mudiraj .

(3) MAHENDRAGIRI : There is a reference to one Mahendragiri hill in the story narrated by ballads during Ankamma Kolupu. There are hills by name Mahendragiri in Northern Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Near Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu, Himalayas and Bijapur in Karnataka.

The Jain pilgrim centre at Mahendragiri near Bijapur in Karnataka houses the 1008 hoods Parshwanatha idol. The city of Kalyana of Western Chalukyas was also located in Karnataka. There was a reference to Kalyana kingdom and Mahendragiri in the story narrated by ballads during Ankalamma Kolupu. So, the Mahendragiri hill which was refered in the story narrated by ballads durin Ankamma Kolupu could be the one located near Bijapur in Karnataka.

Other Mahendragiri hills : The highest peak in northern Andhra, Mahendragiri rises 1500m above sea level. The climate is generally hot and humid. Mahendragiri Hill, 5,000 feet above sea level, is a place one can visit on way to Berhampur in Orissa. In Tamilnadu - Rama along with crores of Vanara army reached the Mahendragiri, the highest hill on the southern tip of India, close to sea. Atlas confirms Mahendragiri (8.23 N 77.30 E) as the tallest hill (1654 m) ideal to watch the coast, though 60 km away from seacoast (Kanyakumariin the State of Tamilnadu). Himalayas - Mahendragiri Mountain of the Himalayas at a height of 22,000 feet.

Kokolu Anka Rao
Date :01/01/2007

go TOP


This is a second version with some difference with hero as Ravadevaraju.

During the worship singers recite historical stories. In those stories, there is a reference to one Dharma Choda Chari and his six brothers belonging Devagiri City. Devagiri was a capital city of Yadava kings in Maharastra.

Chodachari& brothers belonged to solar race : The Mudiraj brothers were initially Shiva worshippers with vibhoothi (ash) on their foreheads. Shiva was basically the God of Tribal Dravidian Indians. THese brothers were also known as Maaraacha Rajas. They were said to belong to solar race kings. A large section of kolis belong to solar race (surya vamsham). The hero of this story (version no.2 ) narrated by ballads during Ankamma Kolupu could be from a different section belonging to solar race kings under Chalukya kingdom in Maharastra / Karnataka. The Chalukyas are believed to belong to solar race kings of Ayodhya who migrated to South and established Chalukya kingdom.

Maaraacha => Maharacha => Maharaja = Maharaya => Maharayars

The story narrated by ballads indicate that the Mudiraj brothers were initially professional docoits like Valmiky. They fed up with their profession and wated to become rich before saying good bye to their profession. One day they went out to loot the treasury of the neighbouring king of Ujjala. When they broke open the huge metal box, which they brought out into a jungle, they became greatly disappointed to see the article of worship of Mother Goddess in stead of gold & silver in it. It is said that they became blind when they wanted to desert the box and go away leaving the box in the forest. Then all the seven brothers heard the voice of goddess Ankamma. The eldest brother Dharma Choda Chari agreed to take the box containing article of Mother's worship to Devagiri and worship her as their family deity.

With the worship of Mother Goddess Ankamma, the seven brothers became reformed and also rich with their good hard work. They became rich and honourable citizens of Devagiri. They soon became proud and egoistic and slowly neglected the worship of Mother Goddess Ankamma. They became the worshippers of Shiva Linga (Lingayaths ?). They also owed not to worship a woman in the rest of their life.

Goddess Ankamma became angry and decided to bring them into her worship by teaching a bitter lesson to these maaraacha brothers. Goddess Ankamma created such situation where all the seven brothers were put under captivation in a known kingdom

The wife of Dharma Choda Chari was a pregnat woman when the brothers were kept under captivation. Choda chari's wife gave birth to a warrior son who was named Rava Ddeva Raju.

Rava Ddeva Raju => Rava Deva Raju

Rava ddeva Raju who grow up and came to know the plight of his father and six uncles pledged to his mother to get all them released from captivity. Rava Ddeva Raju became a stounch worshipper of Goddess Ankamma. Rava ddeva raju with his heroic activity got released his father and all his uncles. Later Rava Ddeva Raju and his father Dharma Choda Chari joined the court of Palnati Brahma Naidu.

One day when Goddess Ankamma entered the court of Brahma Naidu as a worshipper of Shiva, Brahma Naidu bowed to Ankamma. Seeing such a great king bowing to Shiva Yogini, the Mudiraj warriors Dharma Chari and his son Rava Deva Raju too bowed to her. The Shiva Yogini suddenly grew into huge figure to show her real avatar of Ankamma. She reminded Dharma Choda Chari about his owe that he would never worship a woman. Dharma Choda Chari accepted his mistake and agreed to worship mother Goddess Ankamma. The king Brahma Naidu requested Goddess Ankamma to remain in his kingdom at Karamchedu town and accept the worship from him and his citizens.

Deva Raja => Deva Raya

The name of Rava Deva Raju sounds similar to Krishna Deva Raya and Kampila Deva Raya. " Deva Raya" was a common name in the names of many kings of Bellary region.

Kolis are a caste or tribe of Western India. They are known as fishing community in West India and also as an agricultural laborer. They form the main part of the inferior agricultural population of Gujarat, where they were supposedly formerly notorious as robbers, but they also extend into the Konkan and the Deccan. A variant of kolis are known as Naiks.

This too indicate the connection of Mudiraj to Maharastra.

go TOP


According to the legend, Devayana was the daughter of Sukracharya, the priest of daityas ( demons and giants), one day went to a well with Charmanishta, the daughter of daitya king. There arose a querrel between two of them, and Charmishta pushed Devayana into a dry well. Then she was luckly rescued by king Yayathi.

Sukracharya complained to Daitya king, who made his daughter become a servant to Yayathi’s wife. By her marriage, Devayana bore two sons to Yayathi. Subsequently Yayathi became enamoured of Charmanishta, by whom he had an illegitimate son puru. Hearing this Sukracharya cursed Yayathi that he should be subject to old age and infirmity.

Yayathi then asked his children to take on this curse on themselves, but all refused except his illegitimate child Puru. Yayathi accordingly cursed his legitimate sons born to Devayana that they should only rule barren land overrun by kiratas. One of the cursed sons, Durvasa by name, had seven children who were specially favoured by Goddess Ankamma.

After a time, however, they were persuaded to worship Maheswara instead of Ankamma. This made the Goddess Ankamma angry, and she caused all flower gardens to disappear except her own. Flowers being necessary for the purpose of worship, the perverts stole them from Ankamma’s garden, and were caught in the act by the Goddess Ankamma. As a punishment for their sin, they had to lose their lives by killing themselves on a stake.

One of the seven sons had a child named Ravadeviraju, which was thrown into a well as soon as it was born. The Naga Kannikas of nether regions rescued the infant , and tended it with a great care. One day while Ankamma was traversing the Nagalokam ( world of Nagas ), she heard a child crying, and sent her vehicle, a jackal ( Nakka) to bring the child, which however, would not allow the animal to take it. The Goddess accordingly carried off.

The child grew up under care, and eventually had three sons named Karnam Raju, Gangi Raju, and Bhuapathi Raju, from whom Mutharasas are descended. In return for the Goddess for protecting and bringing up the child, she is regarded as a special tutelary diety of the people of Mutharacha caste.

For more details about the origins of Mudiraj from Yayathi - Puru - Ravadeviraju, readers arequested to see web page "ORIGINS" in ths website MUDIRAJA.

A slightly different Version that adds more information to Mudiraj origins and meaning :

Yayati got two sons from Devyani – 1. Yadu and 2. Turvasu.
Yayati also got three sons from Sharmishtha – 1. Druhyu 2. Anu and 3. Puru.

When Devyani came to know about the relationship of Yayati and Sharmishtha and their three sons she felt shocked and betrayed. Devyani went away to her father's house. Shukracharya was displeased with the king, and cursed that he would lose his youth and become an old man immediately. As soon as Shukracharya uttered his curse Yayati became an old man. Shukracharya also said that his curse once uttered could not be taken back and added that the only concession he could give was that if Yayati wanted he could give his old age to someone and take their youth from them. Yayati was relieved at the reprieve he was given and confident that his sons would willingly exchange their youth with him. Yayati went back to his kingdom. Yayati requested all his five sons one by one to give their youth to him to enjoy the worldly happiness. All the sons except Puru rejected his demand. So Yayati took the youth of Puru and enjoyed all the subjects. Puru became the successor of king Yayati.

All people used to call thier king Puru as modi raja, (Mudisali raja or Mudi raja) because he became old at his young age, Like this he ruled his kingdom rest of his life as Mudiraja (Old king) all his children (santati) called as Mudirajas. That's what our caste name came.

( There seems to be some fact in this story as Sukracharya was a Daitya guru and he was well known in the story of Balichakravarty. Bali Chakravarty is said to be a Banarasa or Vanarasa, A lot of Bana kings who ruled Pudukottai region are said to assue the title of Muttarasa. Videlvidugu Kadupatti Muttarasar is said to be a Bana king who assuemed the title of Muttarasa. )

Ravideva : A Singhalese chief. He fought with the Colas against Vijayabāhu I., but, later, appears to have joined Vijayabahu.

The Chola forces stationed at various places in the close vicinity all gathered immediately at Polonnaruwa and had a great battle with Sinhala forces. Vijayabahu's two great warriors Ravideva and Cala who joined the Chola forces earlier against him, now re-joined Vijayabahu and fought with determination to exterminate the Cholas, and ending up with the victory to Sinhala forces. Vijayabahu to commemorate his victory over Cholas in Sri Lanka, assumed the title "Satru Rajachola Kula-anthaha'.

go TOP


Photo : Ankala Parameshwari, Chennai.


If God represents male form of devine energy, Goddess represents the female form of the same devine energy. Goddess is worshipped in different forms and names since the day man became intelligent enough to question the truth behind the existence of the visible universe. The saints see the visible universe as devine mother and worship her in the female human form. For saints devine father is invisible and it worshipped in male human form.It is understood that Ankamma is worshipped in North India in the name of Sitaladevi.

The All Encompassing Mother. Mother Angali envelops the entire universe in Her all encompassing compassion.

She's our beloved Mother - She's the Mother of all.
She's the Mother of the Ashram, the Mother of the Sathguru and the Ashramites.
But She's not just the Mother of the Ashram - She's the Mother of the entire world.
But She's not just the Mother of the world - She's the Mother of the entire universe.
She's the Creator, Protector and Destroyer.
She's Everything - She's the blessor of even Brahma, Narayana and Siva.
She's arul kadal - the Ocean of Grace - Dayaa Saagari
She's karunaiyin ellai - the very limit of compassion, grace and mercy.

Daily Prayer to Mother Goddess
( Written by Kokolu Anka Rao )

Rajeswari - Rajarajeswari
Sarveswari - Jagadeeswari
Parameswari - Maheswari
Eeswari - Chandi - Chamudeswari
Kali - Mahankali - Bhadrakali
Ambe - Kanaka Durgambe - Gnana Prasoonambe
Ranjani - Shiva Ranjani
Shankari - Shiva Shankari
Shambhavi - Sharvari
Bhavani - Bhagavathi
Renuke - Praphulle
Madhura (Madhurai) Meenakshi
Kanchi Kamakshi
Kaashi Vishalakshi
Karuna Katakshi
Paravathi Parashakti
Ammaa ! Aadi Shakti !!
Ankala Devatha ! Ankamma !!
Namaskaaramamma !
(O ! Mother Namaste to you)
Neeku Namaskaaramul Thallee !!
(Many Many Namaste to you O ! Mother )

Sarvam Omkaaram !
Sarvam Shakthimayam !
Sarvam Poojaneeyam !
Sharanam Sharanam nee paada padmam !!
(nee paada padmam = your lotus feet)
Sharanam Sharanam Shaktimaye Sharanam !!
(Sharanam = surrendering to you)

Ankamma Festival, Andhra Pradesh : Ankamma festival is celebrated for five days in the month of Ashadha. The deity is placed in a palanquin and taken in a procession early in the morning. The floor is decorated with rangavali. A heap of cooked rice is offered and a ram is sacrificed on the evening of the following day. Ankamma on a tiger - shaped vehicle and her sister Mahalakshmamma on a jackal - shaped vehicle are taken to a four- shelled cart, along with a basket. The villagers drop neem leaves and cooked rice into the basket. A lizard, a pig, a goat, a fowl and a human form made of flour are impaled on the spikes of the cart. The procession goes to the temple accompanied by the music and dance. On the fourth day devotees observe a fast and fulfill their vows. Balls of rice flour and jaggery are offered to Ankamma, Mahalakshmamma, poleramma and poturaj carts with vessels of cooked rice and bengal gram are taken around the temple and offered to the deity. A ram and a goat are sacrificed to Ankamma, Mahalakshmamma respectively. On the fifth day, Ankamma and Mahalakshmamma go hunting towards the north of the village on the respective vehicles. There a ram's ear is cut and the ram is driven to the temple. All things necessary for a feast to Ankamma and her relatives are provided in the temple and its doors are closed for three days. It is believed that if anyone opens the door within these three days, his head would break into pieces.

Karemchedu, Andhrapradesh: Goddess Ankamma of Karamchedu is known as VEERLA ANKAMMA.

Doddavaram, Andhra Pradesh :Ankamma thirunaala (Annual gathering) is the most famous celebration of Doddavram, Andhra Pradesh with thousands of devotees coming from all the nearby villages. It's held in year by year, generally in the last week of March.

Penuganchiprolu, Andhra Pradesh : Sri Tirupthamba is worshipped in the Penuganchiprolu Temple as "shakthi" who took the path of SATI on demise of her husband. There is also a temple for Ankamma along with Thirupathamma. Tirupathamma preached virtuous qualities of life to her devotees and made her Abode at Penuganchiprolu. Mudiraj Papamamba was her principal devotee. All the pujaris in these temple complex belong to Mudiraj community.

Marasapu Ankamma : The Madigas known as Bavinidu or Baindla narrate the ballads of Parsuram and worship Ellamma and Renuka while the Malas known as Pambala sing the ballads of Ankamma and worship her as ‘Marasapu Ankamma’. Along with Jamukus or Jamidika or Pamba, they also play the wind instrument Titti.

Marasapu Ankamma = Ankamma belonging to Marasa community

Marasa => Maracha => Maaraacha => Mutharacha
Marasa => Maharasa => Maharacha => Maharaja = Muthuraja
Maha = Muthu = Great
Rasa = Racha = Raja = Raya = Raibr

The mudiraj / Mutharacha people are also known as Marasa (Maaraasa) or Maracha (Maaraacha) warriors.

Karempudi, Palnadu : A typical setting for a performance of the Palnadu epic is the yearly festival of the heroes in Karempudi, the site of the twelfth-century epic attle. The epic may also be performed at smaller temples related to the cult and performances are often given at marriage and death events. Whatever the immediate setting, performance of the epic is always associated with ritual. It is preceded by worship to the goddess Ankamma and to the instruments and weapons carried by the performers. Particular episodes are associated with specific rituals, such as an animal sacrifice or spirit possession.

The main singer is most often from the untouchable Mala caste, although he may also be form an agricultural or artisan caste. he carries sword and a shield of brass during the epic performance. He is accompanied by three relatives or fellow caste members who play a goatskin bagpipe, a set of double-ended brass drums, and finger cymbals. The audience, like the cult, consists of all castes except the Madiga, the other dominant Telugu untouchable caste.

Although the epic of Palnadu is identified by its singers as a thirty-night story, it is never sung continuously for thirty nights. When sung as part of a festival, episodes are chosen for their association with particular rituals. Outside this context, episodes are chosen to suit the desires of the patron or audience. Even when asked by Western scholars to sing the epic from beginning to end, the singers began with whatever they consider to be the most important episode, only later summarizing the events leading up to that episode. What follows here is thus a narrative rather than performative summary of the epic story of the heroes of Palnadu.

The main singer is most often from the untouchable Mala caste, although he may also be form an agricultural or artisan caste. he carries sword and a shield of brass during the epic performance. He is accompanied by three relatives or fellow caste members who play a goatskin bagpipe, a set of double-ended brass drums, and finger cymbals. The audience, like the cult, consists of all castes except the Madiga, the other dominant Telugu untouchable caste.

The Mudiraj, Kapu, Velama & Kamma people were involved the war of Palnadu. The Mudiraj people were related to one Kommaraju as per the story narrated by ballads and Kommaraju was a king of Kalyani Kalchuris who were ruling parts of Maharastra, Andhra & karnataka.

The Daggubati Family in karamchedu migrated from Daggubadu Village from neighbouring area. They have originated from Hisorical Military Clans of Palnadu and make religious offerings at Macherla Temple and Ankamma Devara.

Ministrels from Mala and Madigas caste while playing the instruments sing the ballad. The Madigas known as Bavinidu or Baindla narrate the ballads of Parsuram and worship Ellamma and Renuka while the Malas known as Pambala sing the ballads of Ankamma and worship her as Marasapu Ankamma. Along with Jamukus or Jamidika or Pamba, they also play the wind instrument Titti.

Jamukula Katha is a ballad narrated with the help of an instrument called as Pamba, a stringed but percussion one. Being in a pair, the smaller one sounds like Ektara or Kinnera nd the bigger one like the thunder. The chief narrator plays on the bigger one while the assistants play on the smaller instruments. The strings used in the instruments are of animal guts fixed into hallow drums covered with skin on one side and kept open on the other side. In the smaller instrument the gut is permanently fixed to a wooden rod running over the outer cover of the drum forming a triangle. On play, it produces sweet notes of Sruti.

Ankamma name in Bidar : Bhai SAHIB SINGH was one of the Panj Piare or the Five Beloved of revered memory in the Sikh tradition, was born the son of Bhai Guru Narayana, a barber of Bidar in Karnataka, and his wife Ankamma. Bidar had been visited by Guru Nanak early in the sixteenth century and a Sikh shrine had been established there in his honour. Sahib Chand, as Sahib Singh was called before he underwent the rites of the Khalsa, travelled to Anandpur at the young age of 16, and attached himself permanently to Guru Gobind Singh.

Ankamma worship by Kapewars: The Kapewars are Hindus and their family diety is Ankamma. Their kul diety is called pochamma. The major piligimage centers of kapewars are Markhand Deo of Chicholi and and Mahankali of Chandrapur. They worship Goddess Ankamma before marriage in their families by sacrifising a male goat. The kapewars are mostly cultivators and some of them are engaged as labourers in the forestery or agriculture. There is a regional association of Kapewars and Beldars in Chandrapur called "Bhatakya Jamati Samaj Sangh".

Kapewars are a Telugu caste of cultivators like Kunbis. They are also skilled stone masons and Major Lucie Smith's conjecture is that they may have been previously employed in building the Candrapur walls and took to cultivation later. They have some peculiar marriage customs. On the 4th night of the ceremony, the bridegroom, bearing portions of a plough, followed by the bride, carrying cooked food in a cloth, walks to the edge of the marriage booth and drills five furrows with an ox goad in which he sows mixed cotton-seed and jowar. The cooked food is then eaten by the pair who share it with all prescnt and the seed is watered by the company washing their hands over it.

Kapewar is simply the plural form of Kapu and Munurwar. Munurwar could be the Munnuru Kapu of Andhra Pradesh. There are four sub-divisions of the kapewar namely - Munner Kapewar, Reddy Kapewar, Gurudi Kapewar, and Pantedlawar. This may be one one of the reasons why we come across the names of Ankamma among Telugu Reddys also. They do not exchange daughters in marriage with each other but exchane bread.

Some sections of "Munnuru Kapu " caste people in Telangana region claim to belong to Mudraj (Mudiraj) subcaste and vise versa.


Ankalamma is another name for Goddess Ankamma and this name is popular as we move towards South Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamilnadu. Ankalamma is Guardian Goddess of Hindu-Dravidians race of entire India.

Ankalamma Temple in Salem district Tamilnadu : There is one inscription on slab set up in front of the Ankalamma temple at Adhamankottai, Dharmapuri taluk, Salem district.

This incomplete record is dated Saka 1452, Vikriti, Bhadrapada, su. 5, corresponding to A.D. 1530 August 27, Saturday or 28 Sunday (not verifiable), in the reign of Immadi Achyutadevaraya-Maharaya. It records a gift of the toll-revenue raised in the fair held in the presence of the god Bhairavadeva, for the service of the same god by Kamiyappa-Nayaka, son of Bommiyappa-Nayaka, by reviving the fair.

Nayaks / Nayakars are people belonging to subcaste of Muthuraja (Mudiraj) of Tamilnadu. Veerapandya Kattabommana belonged to Nayakars community. Madhurai was ruled by Telugu Nayakkars.

Ankalamman Kovil, Erattupetta : Tamil Vellalas Built Ankalamman Temples at Erattupetta. Aanakulangara Bhagavathy temple in Arunapuram,Palai is one of the oldest temples in Kerala. The idol is said to be that of "Kannaki" of Chilappathikaram fame. It was already explained that belonged to Araiyar / Valaiyar sucaste of Muthuraja community in Tamilnadu. For more details refer to "SAINTS PAGE" under this website.

Vellalas from Kumbhakonam got settled at Erattupetta and Poonjar. They built the "Ankalamman Kovil"of Erattupetta. During the attack of Tippu Sulthan many of the Vellalas ran off from these areas and many were converted to Islam .In Puliyannoor, Ezhacherry, Arunapuram, Panthathala, Mevada, Meenachil and Poovarani (all in Meenachil Taluk) 39 Vellala families migrated from Kaveripoompattanam of Tamilnadu. They came via Kozhikodu and settled around Puliyanoor in Arunapuram, Panthathala, Velliyepally, Ezhacherry, Mevada and Poovarany. They built the temples at Puliyannoor, Thidanadu ( Narasimha moorthy), Aanakulangara (Kannaki Devi at Arunapuramin in Thualam of ME 900 ), Thattarakathu, Kondoor, Chotty, Kanjirappally (Ganapathiyar Kovil and Valiyakunnel Meenachil.

Vellalas and Mutharaiyars are believed to the same people and they are the descendants of Kalabhra kings of South India.

Paspinayakanahalli, Hospet Taluk, Bellary District, Ankalamma Temple : There is one inscription On a pillar in the mandapa of the Ankalamma temple.

Inscription No. 99. (A. R. No. 744 of 1922.) - Achyuta, 1532 A.D.
This is dated Saka 1454, Nandana, Sravana ba. 30, Thursday, corresponding to 1532 A.D., August 1, ’14.

Seems to refer to a sale deed pertaining to a land at Nidugula alias Apinayakanapuram, a sarvamanya-agrahara for the amritapadi services of the goddess Arugondala Ankalamma by the sons of Talari Timmi-nayaka.

The people having TALARI surname belong to Mudiraj and as well as Kapu / Balijas.

Ankalamma Temple, Karampudi : There is an inscription on a slab set up in the temple of Ankalamma, Karempudi, same Taluk and District.

Inscription No. 156. (A. R. No. 553 of 1909.) S. [1]086 (Tarana.)
It id damaged and unintelligible. It refers to some Haihaya chief.

This can be refered as a proof that Mudiraj people are related to Kalchuris as the Kalchuris and Haihayas are one and the same people. Kommaru who is referred in one of the above ballads was a kalchuri Haihaya king.

Webmaster - Kokolu Ankarao, 19/05/2007, Nagpur.

Ankalamma,Gudur : This is the place where Ankalamma swamy temple is located. It is a great holy place for the devoties all over the district. The temple lies on the Pulivenlda - Simhadripuram main road 14 km from Pulivendla. The Ankalamma Tirunala will take place every year. Ankalamma devoties visit the temple every Thursday and Sunday on big numbers.

Srisailam : Goddess Ankalamma is the presiding Goddess for Sri Sailam or we can say as the Guarding Goddess of the Area. Earlier this temple was captured by a Aswatha Tree and in the recent times, this particular temple was rebuilt. It is hardly 150 yards from the Main Temple Gate.

Ankalamman Temple-Panchamadevi Village : It is a quiet hamlet located in Karur District, Tamil Nadu. Green sugar and paddy fields are the main point of interest of the village. The village got its name from the temples of five goddesses - Kaliamman, Mariamman, Kamakshi Amman, Ankalamman and Sellandi Amman. Amaravathi River flows through this village. Sri Kamakshi Amman Temple, dedicated to Kamakshi Amman, is situated here.

A good example of a regional hepated is mentioned by Meyer, who says Ankalamman and Mariyamman are often thought to be two of seven goddesses, the other five of which are identified variously by different informants (Ankalaparmecuvari , 52; also Shulman, Tamil Temple Myths , 153).

Ankalamma Temples : There are Ankalamma Temples at Kamalapur, Dowlaiswaram(A.P), Anka1amma Gudi Sacred Grove (nearest settlement Rangampetta, Anka1amma Konda Sacred Grove, (nearest settlement Peleru), Ankalamma gudi Sacred Grove,nandimandalam, Srisailam (A.P), Ankalamma temple on Mydukur-Porumamilla road in Mydukur mandal, Kurnool(A.P).


Ankamma is known as Ankala Parameswari In Tamilnadu. Parameswari is non other than Parvathi, the divine consort of Parameswar (Shiva).

Melmaiyanur village,near chenji (Gingee) , in Villupuram District. tamilnadu :The village is famous for Ankala Parameshwari amman Temple.

Ghost chasing is a common practice at Amman temples(Goddess temples. In Tamilnadu, India. People particularly women are affected by some psycho Problems are said to be of ghosts or devils. The victims behave indifferently And could not be cured by any system of medicine. At last, people come and worship their traditional rural deities which are capable of chasing ghosts and evil spirits. The chasing rituals are being done by the rural priests along with drums etc. Such rituals take place at Melmalaiyanur near Thiruvannamalai.

Photo : Ankala Parameshwari, Melmaiyanur village.

The temple of Angala Parameswari is 32 km from Gingee, the special deity of the Sembadavars. Here festival occurs in February-March. A special feature of this festival is the Simimasana kollai. The people who attend the festival cook large quantities of grain of various kinds and set them out in the burning ground and offer them to goddess who is brought there. Every Ammavasai (New Moon day) there will be the laks of devotees throng here. situated here. In the inner sanctum there is a snake pit which is being worshipped. There is a congregation of devotees on every new moon day.

Here there is an Urn to which in [[1968]] young people from 124 nations came together and placed a contains a hand-full of soil from their home countries symbolizing international friendship and birth of a new unified world.

There are Ankalaparameswari temples in South and North Arcot districts of Tamil Nadu.


Pondicherry : Kaliattam is a folk dance from the Union Territory of Pondicherry. 'Attam' in Tamil means dance. Kaliattam is a dance of Goddess Kali. Shakthi in the avatar of Kali kills Rakshasas in this dance, which is performed during the month of March to celebrate the annual festival of the presiding detity of Angala Parameshwari. It is also known as 'Mayana Kolaivizha' (Graveyard festival). This dance is performed with an accompaniment of percussion instruments such as Thappattai, Pambai and Udukkai.

Royapuram (Rayapuram ) : There is one Angala Parameshwari Kovil Kulam (tank) at Angala Parameshwari Temple in Royapuram. But the tank has no water. For more detail please visit the site at : http://www.agasthiar.org/AUMzine/0015-angali.htm

To learn how to worship Mother Angali, you should consult one who has had Her darshan and received Her Grace. Such a one is the Sathguru, Guru Mangala Gandharva Venkataraman. As mentioned elsewhere, the Sathguru used to meet his sathguru at the Mother Angali temple in Royapuram. He used to circle the Mother's sanctum 1008 times before before meeting with his teacher. The result of such prayer and guru bhakti was Mother Angali's darshan and Her blessings. Thus it is ideal to learn the Mother Angali worship procedure from the Sathguru, Her true devotee, one who has seen Her. The Sathguru has said," That's true surrender to Mother Angali; when She becomes Everything in a devotee's life and one sees nothing but Mother Angali in Everything, then the devotee has indeed surrendered to the Mother. So refer to the Mother lovingly as Angalamma or Mother Angali, just like the Sathguru, Her true devotee, does. he full name of the Nameless Mother is Sri Angala Parameswari. We know this from the Sathguru. While disciples and aspirants refer to Him as Sathguru and Guru Mangala Gandharva, he has referred to himself for decades as Sri Angala Parameswari Adimai (the loving slave of Mother Angali), the name given to him by his Sathguru when the latter commanded him to take on the mantle of Maha Guru Agasthiar's lineage of Sathgurus.

Choolai (Cholai), chennai : There is one Angala Parameshwari Kovil Kulam (tank) at Angala Parameshwari Amman Temple at choolai. The quality of the water is poor. It is green in colour due to algal growth on the surface.

Thirukuvalai village : This village is about 50 km from Thanjavur. There is a temple for Angala Parameshwari, the family deity of small Isai Vellallars community of dancers and nadaswaram players to which Tamilnadu Chief Minister Karunanidhi belongs. A strict adherent of the Dravidian atheistic ideology, Karunanidhi himself had never entered the temple. But his family members offered prayers at the temple often.

Angala Parameshwari temple, Kudige,Virajpet : : Pious devotees of Kudige and its vicinity pulled florally decorated chariot of Sri Udbhava Subramanya temple at Kudige. Shasthi was also observed at Sri Angala Parameshwari ( Angalamma) temple, Audhumbara Kshetra, Virajpet. We have already seen the Mudduraja people who ruled Kodagu with Madikeri as capital are Mudiraj of Karnataka. So Angalamma or Ankalamma is Goddess of Mudiraj.

Angala Parameshwari Mandir, Covalam : The small Vigrahas of Ganapati and Karthikeya kept uncovered on either side of this Mandir’s entrance are INTACT. And Angala Parameshwari continues to look at the Sea with all Her dazzling radiance. The Mandir stands in all its glory while the adjacent- Concrete structure, which was constructed by the TN Government as a place for fishermen to dry their nets found its compound walls extensively damaged due to fury of Tsunami. The Amman possessed one woman and during that moment of "Divine Visit". She confirmed that all the men are safe at the sea and are under Her protection. The men returned late that night to a ravaged and deserted fishing village.

Angala Parameswariamman Koil, Mylapore, Chennai : There is one Angala Parameswariamman Koil at Mylapore M.K. Amman Koil Street. The temple is located right in the middle of a huge cremating ground. When asked on the origin of such a gruesome surroundings for the Mother Goddess, the priests and devotees have a fascinating tale to tel. "She is the very form of extreme passion." says the high priest at Mel Malayanur " Her graces and boons are instant and long-lasting". "Angala" originally derives from "ahankara" or "anger". The most defied of the village goddesses or Kaalis Angala Parameswari is anger personified. A famous temple has been dedicated to her at MelMalayanur, a hamlet near Senji township in South India. For more information please see the site at :

Angala Parameshwari Temple, Bangalore : There is one Angala Parameshwari Temple near Mysore Deviation Road.

Angala Parameshwari, sundakkamuthur village, Coimbatore : Only the temple priest of angala parameswari, the community's deity, was allowed to do pooja in the burial ground, with coconuts and bananas. The community leaders said the customary pooja at angala parameswarai temple in sundakkamuthur village would normally be preceded by the ritual of digging up of the graves and chewing of bones. The ritual mayana kollai, which was in vogue for the past several decades, is being practised to ward off the possibility of the community members dying on shivarathri day, they said. The bizarre ritual came to light when the private tamil satellite channels extensively covered the event last year. Police had made elaborate security arrangements to prevent the practice as it had invited severe criticism from all quarters. Now police this year prevented the age-old custom of chewing the bones of dead at burial grounds, being practised by a particular community--kolayar 24th manai Telegu chettiars--on mahashivarathri day in this district. A three-member spear-wielding group of the community, who danced their way to a burial ground at sundakkamuthur, about 20 km from here on tuesday night, to chew the calcified remains, were in for a shock when the police prevented them from entering the graveyard.

The Pioneer from New Delhi carried a chilling front page story by R Revathi about well-organised religious groups in a Tamil Nadu village in Coimbatore district marching into the local graveyard with axes and shovels, digging up the graves while chanting mantras and chewing up the available bones!

The ritual took place on Shivratri day at Sundakkamttur village. Local officials and the police took no action though grave desecration was a crime. Three chosen incarnations of the local goddess, Angala Amman, went into a frenzy, fished out bones from the graves and chewed them up. This act was supposed to appease the goddess and protect the village. The ritual was practised by the Manai Telugu Chettiar community.

Angala Parameswari temple in Kanchipuram : An ancient crown and other articles were recovered while digging a ground near Angala Parameswari temple in Kanchipuram for a construction purpose.

'Prashanthi, a housing settlement project for tsunami victims of Kanathur Angalamman Kuppam in Kancheepuram district was completed. The community of Angalamman Kuppam in Cheiyur Thaluk, Kanchipuram District organized a prayer meeting with a Hindu priest who performed rites to remember the dead. The community took an oath not to fish on the 26th day of every month to remember those who have died.

26 houses were given to the tsunami-affected fishermen of Angalamman Koil Street in Pudupattinam Village of Kancheepuram district.

It is a quite and serene fishermen hamlet in Kancheepuram Dist. Eighty seven families were living peacefully in this village before tsunami hit in Dec.2004. As a part of rehabilitation work, Udavum Karangal has adopted this village for constructing permanent houses for the villagers. An area of 3 acres was ear marked for this, which is 100 metres away from the present village. Most of we know that a large population of Mudiraj / Muthuraj are still fishermem

There is one Sri Angalamman Teacher Training Institute, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu.

There is one Angala Parameswari Mahal, TPK Road, Ãnaikkulam village in Tiruchuzhi, Madhurai

Angalamman temple of Kaveripattinam is one among many holy places in Krishnagiri District of Tamilnadu which were built during Chola and Vijaya Nagar periods. Angalamman festival, which lasts for two days, is celebrated in Kaveripatnam in the month of February. 'Krishna' refers to 'black' and 'giri' refers to 'hill'. This district is gifted with black granite hillocks and named as "krishnagiri". The region came under the rule of Krishna Deva Raya and hence it might have been named after this king. Krishnagiri district is bounded by Vellore and Thiruvannamalai districts in the East, Karnataka state in the west, State of Andhra Pradesh in the North Dharmapuri District in the south. Three languages namely Tamil, Telugu and Kannada are predominantly spoken in this district. People of Krishnagiri District belong to various racial groups. People from Kashmir, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andra have settled in this District.

Angalamman Temple, Ettikudi : There are three temples in Ettukudi – Murugan(Son of Lord Shiva), Thirukovalai - “Kula deivam – Angalamman “ (Kula deivam is family deity) and Mohanoor – Mariamman. Ettikudi is one of the important sites of erstwhile Mutharayar kings.

Shri Angalamman College of Engineering & Technology, Trichi : This engineering college was founded by A.D.S Educational Trust, A-5,Salai Road,Trichi-620018.

Angalamman Temple, Cuddalore : There is one Angalamman temple in Angalamman Koil Street,Manjakuppam, Cuddalore.

Thirukkuvalai : Thirukkuvalai or Tiruvarur lies at a distance of around 27 Kilometers from the downtown Nagapattinam. This too is considered one of the Saptha Vaidanga Thallams. Two of the most well known temples in Tiruvarur are Thyagaraja Swamy and Angalamman temple.

Tiruppattur, Tiruppattur Taluk, Ramanathapuram District : There is one inscription on a slab lying in the Angalamman temple. No. 16 (A. R. No. 138 of 1908.)

This record also comes from Tiruppattur and is dated in some year, which was probably [4], and 4985th day of king Maranjadaiyan’s reign. It registers that Manomayan-Maran, the kavadi of Ilavenbaikkalattirukkai, presented 150 sheep for the maintenance of a perpetual lamp to the god Jalasayanattu-Bhatarar at Tirupputtur, a brahmadeya in Koluvur-kurram. This image must have been one of Vishnu in his recumbent form, but no traces of it are seen now. The term Kavadi signifies a ‘revenue officer’ and is found applied to even petty officials in the Chola country at this period. As in No. 9 above, the corporate body called the ‘Ayirattelunurruvar’ were to be in charge of this charity also.

Criketer Murali's grandma's name was Angamma : (By U.J.Jezeem - Kandy Sports Correspondent) - Muthiah Muralitharan's paternal grand mother Sinnasamy Angamma just lived long enough to see her little grandson "Murali" sett up a new record for the most number of wickets in the history of test cricket and become the greatest bowler in the history of test cricket before she breathed her last at the age of 94 at Kundasale on Sunday night. Her funeral took place before a very large crowd at the General Cemetery, Mahiyawa in Kandy last evening.

Sinnasamy Angamma hails from Tiruchhi in India before her son Sinnasamy Muthiah (Murali-tharn's father) made his fortune in Nattarampotha in Kandy as a confectioner. She was born on 27th June, 1910 and she died exactly on her 94th birthday. She had the good fortune to see her grandson Murali set up a new world record in bowling on the television.


Kovelakuntla, Andhra Pradesh : According to one ancient inscription of Vijayanagar kings, they gave grant of income to puruventa festivals of Goddess Mahankal Amma. Ancient Inscriptions of Vijayanagar Dynasty ruled during Sadasiva as given below :

No. 129. (A.R. No. 690 of 1917.) Kovelakuntla, Koilkuntla Taluk, Kurnool District. On a slab set up in front of the Ankalamma temple. Sadasiva, 1543 A.D. Th is is dated Saka 1465, Sobhakrit, Nija-Sravana ba. 10., corresponding to 1543 A.D., August 25 (Saturday.

It registers the grant of income derived from svamyatas in his nayankara territory of Kovila Kuntlasima for the Cherapu (Sirappu) and Paruventa festivals of the goddess Mahankal Amma by Maha Mandalesvara Nandyala Avubhalesvara Deva Maharaju, son of Singa Raju Deva Maharaju and the grandson of Narasingayya Deva Maharaju of the lunar race.


Ankali Mutt, Chitradurga, Karnataka : You find at an elevated spot across Chandravalli lake an ancient monastery, the famous Ankali Mutt also called Paradeshappana Guhe. There are many caves underneath the Kallu Mantapa (stone sanctum) of this Mutt. Long ago monks and mendicants possibly lived in these caves for their undisturbed penances and prayers.

Beside Ankali mutt is Panchalingeshwara cave temple located under massive boulders. The Pancha Lingeshwara cave temple has five Shiva Lingas believed to have been consecrated by Pandavas. The forest department maintains parks and plant nurseries covering about 30 acres of forest area near Ankali Mutt.

Archaelogical discoveries made in the Ankali Mutha are found in Chandravalli. Chandravalli is an ancient Historical site situated in the western part of the Chinmuladri hills. A motorable road to the left on Chitradurga - Holalkere high way leads us to Chandravalli Valley. The sites of Historical excavation, Tiger boulder, Siddeshwara temple, Ankli Mutha, Panchalingeswara Cave Temple, Dhavalappanagudda and the Chandravalli Lake are the worth seeing place here.

Ankamma is also known as Ankali in some parts of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharastra. It appears that the name Ankali is a modification of Mahankali.

Mahankali => Mah(Ankali) => Ankali

Ankali Towns and Villages in India : (1) Ankali, Sangli-Kolhapur Road, Post Ankali, Dist. Sangli-416 415, Maharasta, This village is located on Krishna river where a bridge connects Ankali village with Manjari village, (2) There one Ankali Town in CHIKODI block, Belgaum district, KARNATAKA. It is 16Kms away from Chikkodi and there is Raghavendra Swamiji Math close to Ankali, (3) Ankali, Block: Devgad Bariya, District: DOHAD, State: GUJARAT, (4) Ankali village in Devgadh Baria.


While Mudiraj people are known to worship Ankamma in Andhra Pradesh, the counter part koli people of Maharastra worship Mumba Devi = Maha Amba Devi).

Maha + Amba + Devi = Mahambadevi => Mumbadevi


Kakati Devi is said to be the family diety of Kakatiya kings. The name "KAKATIYA" is derived from the highly revered goddess of power : KAKATI DEVI (Durga Matha). The name of Kakati is a local appelation of the Goddess Durga or Bhadra Kali. Kali, Ankali, Bhadrakali, Durga, etc are different names for the same Goddess. Kakati Devi was the goddess mother for the founding fathers of Kakatiya dynasty. A temple dedicated to godess Kakatamma exists in Waranga. Yellaramma (Yellamma ) is said to be companion Goddess of Kakatamma (Kakati), the famous goddess of Kaktiya monarch. Yellamma and Poleramma are one and the same Goddess and Poleramma is said to be the elder sister to Goddess Ankamma. Hence Goddess Kakati could possibly be Ankamma and for more details see Yellamma in this page.

Kakatiya dynasty's name comes either from its association with a town known as Kakatipura (since the kings bore the title "Kakatipuravallabha") or from their worship of a goddess called Kakati. So Kakatipura could be another name for Warangal itself.

The Kakatiya dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 to 1323. It was one of the great Telugu kingdoms that lasted for centuries. Inscriptional evidence points out that the Kakatiyas were Sudras and that they were members of the Durjaya family.

Some Chod / kapu/ Balija chieftains too belonged to Durjaya family. Telugu Chodas of Velanadu (Velanati Choda) were one of the Telugu Choda families which claimed their descent from the illustrious Cholas of South India. Velanadu is located in the modern Guntur district. The chieftains who ruled over Velanadu came to be known as the Velanati Chodas. One of them, Rajendra Choda II had even assumed the title Durjayakulaprakara.

These Velanati chiefs were the subordinate allies of the Chalukya Cholas of the south. They were entrusted with the responsibility of the governance of the Andhra region, which formed a part of the Chola kingdom in the twelfth century.

Ranadurjaya, a member of the Durjaya family, ruled Pistapuram or Pithapuram as a vassal of Vikramendravarma in recognition of his services to the State. The chieftains who ruled over Velanadu came to be known as the Velanati Chodas. They belonged to the Durjaya family, a Sudra clan. One of them, Rajendra Choda II had even assumed the title Durjayakulaprakara.

It is already explained that Cholas amd Mudiraj worshipped Ankamma and they were one and the same people professionally (fishermen) and racially (bhil - kolis). A branch of cholas came to be known as chodas and now they are mostly the kapus or balijas. There are a lot of surnames which are common in both Mudiraj and Kapu communities. This once again proves that Kakatiyas who worsipped Kakati and the Mudiraj who worship Ankamma belonged to the same caste and community block. As per the ballad's story of Ankamma, a large population of Mudiraj of Palnadu, Telangana and Maharastra are solar race (suryavamsam) people and Kakatiyas too belonged to Solar Race. Even Cholas to claim their descendancy from solar race clans.

Ancient Inscription that reveals Kakatiyas as Solar Race Kshatriyas - No. 395. (A. R. No. 94 of 1917.) On the huge Nandi pillar lying near the ruined temple in Malkapuram, Guntur Taluk, Guntur District. (Published in the Journal of the Andhra Historical Research Society, Vol. IV, pp. 147-64.) S. 1183. (Durmati)

The Kakatiya line seems to have been in existence even earlier to the middle of 7th century A.D as because the famous chinese piligrim Hieun - Tsang mentions the name of the kingdom of "Danakakatiya" in the South India. The Kakatiya dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 to 1323. It was one of the great Telugu kingdoms that lasted for centuries. Some historians say that the Kakatiyas were fishermen ( Mudiraj - Koli ). Some believe that they were the scions of a nomadic tribe,"Yerukalas" (bhils) , found in most parts of South India. In either case, Kakatiyas seems to be related to koli - Mudiraj community. This point can also be supported due to close relation of Kakatiyas to the founders of Vijayanagar kingdom, who were mostly Bunts. Every one knows that the Telugu bants (Bunts) are now known as Mudirajus.


In southern parts of India, Goddess Yellamma is known for her abundance strength. She is also known as Jogamma, Holiyyamma, Renuka and by other such names. Her temples are located at Soudathi in Belgaum district, Chandraguthi in Shimoga district and Hulgi in Bellary district of Karnataka State. In neighboring states like Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh there are innumerable devotees of this Goddess.

There are many stories about the origin of the Yellamma cult. The most prevalent one says that Renuka was the daughter of a Brahmin, married to sage Jamadagni and was the mother of five sons. She used to bring water from the river Malaprabha for the sage's worship and rituals. One day while she was at the river, she saw a group of youths engaged themselves in water sports and forgot to return home in time which made Jamadagni to suspect her chastity. He ordered his sons one by one to punish their mother but four of them refused on one pretext or the other. The sage cursed them to become eunuchs and got her beheaded by his fifth son, Parashuram. To everybody's astonishment, Renuka's head multiplied by tens and hundreds and moved to different regions. This miracle made her four eunuch sons and others to become her followers, and worship her head.

The multi-headed occult goddess Yellamma, worshipped primarily by the poor & illiterate, sometimes assumes the appearance of a young neem tree. During festivals to her honor, young maidens are made Yellamma's slaves, & clad themselves all over in neem branches so that they too look like Yellamma. Castrated priests also dress up as women & decorate themselves in neem leaves. This Neem-goddess is the central divinity in a nondescript little village with a small population, the village Saundatti or Soudathi in southern India. It can boast of little more than its 11th Century Yellamma fort-temple, but that's enough.

Every year in the Hindu month of Magh (January-February) more than half a million people gather around the tiny temple of the goddess Yellamma in Saundatti. Saundatti is a nondescript, backwater town of some 25,000 inhabitants. moon day known as the 'Bharat Hunnime.' On this occasion, the goddess Yellamma is worshipped in the manner of 'Shakti Puja,' complete with all its attendant rituals.The Yellamma Temple stands on a barren, rocky hill on the outskirts, known as Yellamma Hill. The festival takes place at the time of the full moon, but pilgrims flock to the town several days earlier. They come from all over Central and Southern India, though mainly from Karnataka and the adjoining state of Maharashtra.

Goddess Kali or Parvathi or Sakthi is commonly known as Renuka, Yellamma, Jambulamma, Sankulamma, Poleramma, Maremma, etc., in the districts of Rayalaseema and Coastal Andhra and as Nalla Pochamma, Katta Mysamma, Pochamma, Mysamma, Muthyalamma, Peddamma in the districts of Telangana. Yellamma is known as Mariamma in Tamilnadu.

Poleramma is a village Goddess and known to protect village boundary (polemara) and Yellamma also means the Goddess who protects village boundary (polemara).

Polemara = (village) Boundary
Yella = (village ) Bounday
Polemara = Yella = (village) Boundary.
Polemara + Amma = Polemeramma => Pole(ma)ramma => Poleramma.
Yella + Amma = Yellamma
Yellamma = Poleramma
It is said that Ankamma is Poleramma's sister and Kakati is companion goddess of Yellama. This means that Kakati can be equated to Ankamma.

Poleramma = Yellamma
Ankamma = Kakati

It is known that a buffalo is sacrifised to Poleramma and a goat (ram) is sacrifised to Ankamma. Further Ploeramma is said be an elder sister to Goddess Ankamma. This prompts us to think that Kakati, who is said to be a companion Goddess (sister) to Yellamma could possibly be Ankamma.

Animal Sacrifice had been the social custom of the people since time immemorial. Buffalo (or Devara Dunnapothu as it is called in Telugu) is known to be offered to propitiate Goddess Yellamma. This is corroborated by the sculptural representations of a buffalo and Goddess Yellamma (Boddu Devara as local people call it) on the walls of this Erra Buruzu in Karnool, A.P. This is the most striking specimen of architecture to casual visitor or a student of History and Archaeology.

At the foot of Erra Buruzu, there are two ancient temples for Goddess Yellamma - One is Pedda Yellamma temple (on the South-eastern side) and the other one is chinna Yellamma temple (on the North-eastern side). According to a tradition, the Madigas (a sect of the Harijans) used to offer prayers at Pedda Yellamma temple and the Malas (another sect of Harijans) at Chinna Yellama temple. Pedda Yellamma seems to be Poleramma and Chinna Yellamma seems to be Ankamma. In Telugu language "Pedda" means "Big" and "Chinna" means "small".

Chinna = small or little
Pedda = big
Pedda Yellamma = Poleramma
Chnna Yellamma = Ankamma

The famous Yellamma jatara was celebrated with fervour and traditional gaiety at Polepally village, Andhra Pradesh. Thousand of devotees from Solapur, Pune, Bhiwandi in Maharashtra and Gulbarga, Sedam and Bidar in Karnataka and from other districts of Andhra Pradesh thronged the temple premises to have the glimpse of goddess Yellamma.

Yellamma worshipped by kings :
Badami There is one 11th century Yellamma Temple at Badami built by Later Chalukyaa, located at the west end of the tank, is notable for its tower, whose crimpled and layered roof describes a shape halfway between the curved shikharas of North India and the pancake pyramids of the south.

Vijayanagar Yellamma also Known as Pattanada Yellamma, this temple is dedicated to the guardian deity of the Vijayanagara city. The temple is still in active worship as it has been during the days of the Vijayanagara capital. The fearsome character of this goddess is obvious from the arms and the costumes carved on to the idol. This four-armed deity in the sitting position holds arms like sword and a trident (a three pointed spear) in two hands; a tiny drum and a skull bowl in the other two hands; a garland made of skulls. It's believed that the Vijayanagara kings belonged to the ancient Kuruba (means warrior) community. And this clan worshiped goddess Yellamma. Even in the present days, the priests at this temple are of this community. Though a tiny shrine, this temple would have enjoyed patronage from the Vijayanagara kings. This is indicated by the proximity of such a humble shrine to the core of the otherwise opulent royal neighborhood. The narrow track that runs in the northeast direction from the Hazara Rama Temple can lead you the Yellamma Temple. At about 200 meters from the Hazara Rama Temple is the tree-laden courtyard of the temple.


Goddess Jakkamma is worshipped by Kambalathu Nayakkars. These ayakkars are a subcaste of Muthuraja community in Tamilnau today. Kambalathu Nayakkars were once the natives of Bellary in Andhra Predesh, which later became a part of Karnataka. It was ruled by the Muslim kings then. It is said that the Kambalathu Nayakkar's women were forced to marry the men from the Muslim kings' family. Two women were married against their wishes and when they came to ask for a third one, the Nayakkars had no option but to accede to their demand. Later Nayakkars ran away from the place. River Cauvery was overflowing its banks. The Nayakkars prayed to Chakka Devi to help them in their crisis as the Muslim army was behind them. They prayed to Chakka Devi that the trees on the other side of the bank should bend towards them and vice versa. By Chakka Devi's grace, it so happened and the Nayakkars crossed the river. The trees returned to their original position and the Muslim army, which had arrived by then, were unable to cross the flooded river.

It is already recoreded in this website that Veerapandya Kattabommana who belonged to palayakarar subcaste of Muthuraja community in Tamilnadu had Telugu origins. It is known that Sri Devi Jakkammal is hereditary goddess of Kattabomman and a temple of Goddess is located near the fort where Veerapandiya Katta Bommana was brutally hanged by British Kattabomman.The name of his wife was also Jakkamma. The hereditary Goddess of Kattabomman was Sri Devi Jakkammal. A temple dedicated to Sri Devi Jakkammal is located near the fort.

Goddess Jakkamma of Kattu Nayakars and Goddess Chakka Devi of Kambalathu Nayakkars was one and the same. Both the Nayakars belonged to the same Telugu Mudiraj Warrior blood from Bellary districts and most probably belonged to the same vanara race of Kishkinda kingdom which was once located in the region of present Bellary districts of Karnataka.

Chakka Devi => Jakka Devi => Jakkamma

The name of Katta Bommana seems to be directly related to the name of his trib KATTU and his tribes diety Jakkamma who is also known as Bommakka. KATTA may be a modified word for KATTU and similarly BOMMANA could be a modified word for BOMMAKKA. The people of this tribe give the name of their Goddess to their children. Jakkamma, Jakkadevi, Jakkayya, Jakkanna, Jakkappa, Bommana, Bommakka, Bommadevi, kalimma, Kaliamma, Kaliappan, etc are some of such names.

Kattu => Katta
Bommakka => Bomma + Akka = Sister Bomma

If this name of Goddess Bommakka is given to a male person, it can get modified to Bommanna and it means brother Bomma. Here in Telugu Akka means sister and Anna means Brother.

Akka = Sister
Anna = Brother
Bomma + Anna => Bommanna => Bommana = Bomman
Bommanna = Brother Bomma

The Kattu-Nayakars practice necromancy and the rituals are shrouded in mystery. The rituals take place in the cremation grounds during the moonless night of Amavasai. Nothing is more disturbing, more disquieting, sometimes more alarming than a Kattu-Nayakar shrouded in a black blanket in the dead of night; thus he has inherited additional names that are descriptive : Jamakottangi and Kamabalathu-Nayakar.

Kattu-Naykars worship Goddess Jakkamma and Mallaiyar, the Lord of the mountains. The temple to Mallaiyar is in Padiyur, on the road to Dindukkal and Karur. The main temple of Jakamma is on the west side of the village Kadallur. Believed to be the source of all power, her image is kept under a banyan tree surrounded by thorns of illanthai (zizyphus sp.). The ritual of providing an umbrella to the goddess is celebrated with great festivity. Jakkamma is also known as Kalimma and Bommakka.

Kalimma means Kaliamma and this name stands for Kali. A close scrutiny of the name KALI reveals the link between Jakkamma and Ankamma. They both represent the same Shakti cult. Both the people who worship Ankamma and Jakkamma sacrifise a Ram during their puja in the midnight.

Jakkamma = Kaliamma = Kali
Kali => Ankali = Ankalamma => Ankamma
Jakkamma = Ankamma


Kankali is another name to kali / Ankali. She is alpervading Shakti in the universe and known as consort of Shiva. She represents female form of universal energy which takes all types of material and energy forms. Worship of Kankali devi can be noticed in North and East India.

Kankali Devi Mandir, Madhupuri : Kankali is considered to a corrupt form of Kamsakali Legends say that she was born to Yasoda and predicted early death of Kamsa when he tried to kill her on this spot, forming tile jail, where Devaki and Vasudev were imprisoned. This place is deemed very sacred and auspicious for worship. The story goes that there was a Jain temple and Bouddha Vihar in the dim past and later was converted into a temple by Hindus.

It is named Kankali Tila after building a temple for Kankali devi. Due to ravages of time the temple went out of existence. And the ruined site was bought by a pandit called Tularam from Raja Sate Lakshmi Das. As he could not renovate by himself, he thought of raising a gaden and started digging operations.

recently three idols identified as Kankali, Maha Durga and Simhasardul were found and they only are now venerated with great devotion. As they are fulfilling the desires of the votaries, their mahima captured the fancy and roused devotional instincts of people living far also. Prototype of tile images of this Kankali Mata are worship in many paces like Lucknow, Calcutta and London too.

Kankali Devi Temple , Madhya Pradesh : There is a temple of Kankali Devi shrine at Tigowa, which has more elaborate pillars, provided with the overflowing vase, or the vase-and-foliage (ghata-pallava), capital that became the basic north Indian order. This seems to belong to Gupta period. It has a square sanctum, or cella, but instead of a flat roof there is a pyramidal superstructure (sikhara).

Kankali Mata, Temple, Chitorgarh : D.R. Bhandarkar discovered 18 terracottas or moulded bricks at Nagari, 8 miles north of Chitorgarh. They come from the shrine of Kankali Mata and the Mahadeva temple, and depict non-religious subjects. The terracottas are not pre-Greek, as thought by Bhandarkar; they probably belong to the Gupta period, when moulded brick temples decorated with terracottas were in vogue.

Kankali Temple, Raipur, Chattisgarh : Kankali Talab is a sacred pond, situated in Rajim of Chhattisgarh. It is believed that many incurable diseases get cured after taking a holy dip in the Kankali Talab. There is a small temple dedicated to Lord Shiv which has been constructed right in the middle of a pond. Kankali temple was constructed under a huge banyan tree. According to folklore there is a underground tunnell going from Buddha talab to Kankali talab, used by the king's soldiers for escaping and for their defence during war. The Kankali Talab near the Kankali Temple goes all the way back to the 1660s and was constructed under the supervision of Mahant Kripalgiri. This one of the oldest places in raipur. It is math of dasnami sanyasi(goswami sampraday). Mahanti gadi is running by giri pariwar.famous kankali temple & kankali talab was construted by naga mahant kripal giri.

Kankali temple, Darbhanga Town, Mithila : It is two km north west of Darbhanga Railway station in the premises of Qila of Darbhanga Mahraj. This temple is of utmost importance for Shakti people. The town is noted for its trade in fish, mango and makhana.

Kankali Mandir, Bhopal : There is Mata Kankali Mandir (Shaktipeeth) near Bhopal. The temple is in Bilkhiriya. The way to temple is on Bhopal-Raisen road. This old temple has very beautiful statue of Mata Kankali. Pilgrims from Bhopal and nearby villages go Darshan and pooja in the month of Shardey Navratri and chaitra navratri. In the temple "Maa Kali" is in its "rudra roop". This place is most known for "tantrik" activities. This is a temple where Pandavas visited & worshipped Mata Kankali. Idol of Mata is as described in Durga Saptsati.

There is a Kankali Mata Mandir in Tonk City, Rajastan. Kankali Ghat, Shanti Niketan, Kalkota : Rabinadranath Tagore's Santiniketan attract tourists from both India and abroad. About 9 kms from Shantiniketan is Kankali tala. The name derives from the Temple and burning ghat of Kankali by the Kopai River.

Kankali Tila, Mathura : It is the site of the ancient Jaina stupa, an impres- sive tank-complex of baked bricks showing at least two structural phases. A significant find obtained from this tank was an inscription of the fifth regnal year of Kanishka. referring to a gift by one Vishakhamitra. A few fragmentary sculptures of the Jain Tirthankaras of the Saka-Kushan period and a stone plaque depicting Mahishasuramardini were also found in the tank.

At Kankali Tila in Mathura a deity of Muni-Suvrat Swami whose insignia is tortoise, was discovered. One of the nude statues in Mohan-Jodaro (Indus Valley ) has the tortoise insignia, which indicates that it must be of Muni-Suvrat Swami. In Vedic history there are descriptions of a Muni in the Puran, connected to the tortoise, which throws light on Muni Suvrat. In the Rigved (23, 27, 32) a sage with tortoise insignia has been mentioned which is none other than Tirthankar Muni-Suvrat Swami. It connection with the tortoise the Puran (40, 27, 41) writes that Vishnu appeared in the form of tortoise in Rishabh race ( First Tirthankar).
,br> The excavations were undertaken at three localities - Kankali Tila, Katra. Keshavdev and Govindnagar. At Kankali Tila; some new structural features of the tank complex of the Saka-Kushan Period, exposed in the previous seasons, came to light. In the northern extension of the Katra Keshavdev mound, within the inner mud fortification, were exposed remains of mud platforms of Kushan and Gupta period, besides some ovens and a heap of roof-tiles.

In religion, besides worshipping their ancestors, Solankis worship goddesses who are now identified with the Hindu goddess Devi but who are known in the caste by different names. Chauhans worship Amba, Ponwars worship Marai Mata, and Solankis Kali or Kalanka. Pardhi tribe people are are related solankis or Chalukyas and both worship Kalanka. Ankamma, Goddess of Mudiraj and Cholas seems to be related to Kalanka. The name of Goddess Ankamma could be a modification of Kalanka.

Kalanka => Kala+ Anka
Kala = Kale = Kali = Black
Anka = Aank = Eye
Kalanka = Ankala = Ankali = Black Eye
Kalanka => Ankala => Ankalamma => Ankamma = Angamma
Ankala => Ankali => Kali = Goddess with Black Eyes.

The Takankars of Maharastra are Hindus and their community Goddess id Kalanka Devi. They have sacred specialists in their own community called Bhagat who worships the community Goddess Kalanka Devi. Kalanka Devi’s worship is called Maakhanda which is done twice a year and the first time a male goat and the second time a male sheep are purchased through contribution, sacrificed and consumed by all the members. They sing devotional songs in praise of the Goddess Kalanka Devi continuously for one month on the occasion of Navaratri

Takankar = Pardhi

Takankar is the name of a small occupational offshoot of the Pardhis in Berar, who travel from village to village to sharpen house hold grinding stones. Takankar is also known as Patharkat in North India. The Patharkat make grinding stones and hawk various goods around the villages. These groups never build huts but camp under a tree and stay for a few days, especially at harvest time.

The Pardhi or the Takankar used to mend the stone grinding mills by hammering the surface to roughen it when it was worn smooth. He was not found in all localities. These Takankar pardhis of Maharastra are also known as Kunchbandhias because of their trade of making brushes ( kunch ) of the roots.These people in North India are known as Sankat or Patharkat, because they make and sharpen the house hold grinding stones. These people seems to represent the vaddera community of Andhra Pradesh. Vadderas worship Goddess Ankamma. Vadderas are also known as valmikis in some parts of Andhra Pradesh.

Takankar = Kunchbadhia = Sankat = Patharkat
Patharkat = Stone cutter = Stone Grinder
Takankar = Patharkat = Vaddera

The worship of Ankamma by Mudiraju community people is known as Ankamma (Devara) Kolupu. A male goat / ram is sacrificed on the final day of worship and consumed by all community members who attend the kolupu.

There is one Mount Kalanka, in India's Garhwal Himalaya range.

go TOP

Our Caste Names & Subcastes : Mudiraj Muthuraj mudhiraj Mudiraja mudhiraja Muthuraja mudduraja muddhuraja mudduraju muddhuraju Mutharacha Mutharasu Mutharasi Mutrasi Mutharayar Mutharaiyar bunt bant bantulu bantlu Aryar Arayar Araiyar Aryan Arayan Araiyan valavan valayar valaiyar Ambalakkarar gounder koli koliyan kolian raju rajulu Bedar Ramoshi Valmiki Tenugu Tenugolu Tenugollu Tenigolu Tenigollu